Recording of births and deaths begun in Boston.
General Court of Massachusetts Bay Colony enacts maritime quarantine statute. Repealed following year.
During a smallpox epidemic, Reverend Thomas Thacher of Boston published broadsheet about the care of the smallpox victim, possibly the first medical publication in the English colonies.
Reverend Cotton Mather promoted small pox inoculation, which was begun by Dr. Zabdiel Boylston in Massachusetts. This was the first large scale smallpox inoculation in the English speaking world.
New England experiences major diphtheria epidemic.
Edward Jenner speculated that protection from the smallpox disease could be obtained through inoculation with a related virus, cowpox. He tested his theory by inoculating eight-year-old James Phipps with cowpox pustule liquid recovered from the hand of a milkmaid, Sarah Nelmes.
Law passed in Massachusetts authorizing local boards of Health.
Edward Jenner published his work on the development of a vaccination that would protect against smallpox.
Boston Board of Health established with Paul Revere as President.
Dr. Benjamin Waterhouse introduced the use of “Cowpox Vaccine” in Massachusetts and became the first doctor in Boston to obtain vaccine material.
Massachusetts became the first U.S. state to encourage the use of vaccination against smallpox. Dr. Waterhouse convinced Boston’s Board of Health to sponsor a public test of vaccination. Nineteen volunteers were successfully vaccinated.
Milton, Massachusetts began giving all inhabitants free smallpox inoculation. Other communities soon followed this example.
Law passed in Massachusetts requiring appointment of Public Vaccinators. (This law was repealed in 1837.)
Doctors in Massachusetts required to report dangerous diseases.
First Vital Statistics reported for Massachusetts.
Commission appointed to report to the Legislature about a plan for sanitary survey in Massachusetts.
A Report of the Sanitary Commission of Massachusetts, authored by Lemuel Shattuck, outlined many elements of modern public health infrastructure including recommendation for establishment of state and local health boards.
Massachusetts became the first U.S. state to require vaccination for schoolchildren. Very soon other states and localities began to pass similar regulations. At that time, only smallpox vaccine was available.
Law enacted creating a State Board of Health in Massachusetts. Dr. Henry I. Bowditch named chairman.
First Annual Report of the Boston City Health Department issued.
Louis Pasteur created the first live attenuated bacterial vaccine (chicken cholera).
Louis Pasteur and George Miller Sternberg almost simultaneously isolated and grew the pneumococcus organism.
Smallpox is made a reportable disease to the Board of Health in Massachusetts.
Diphtheria is made a reportable disease to the Board of Health in Massachusetts.
Friedrich Loeffler becomes first person to cultivate Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
Louis Pasteur first used rabies vaccine in humans.
Émile Roux (1853-1933) and Alexandre Yersin (1863-1943) showed that a substance produced by C. diphtheriae caused symptoms of diphtheria in animals.
The Massachusetts Board of Health recommends the establishment of a State Vaccine Laboratory.
Antitoxin and Serum Therapy discovered. Shibasaburo Kitasato and Emil von Behring immunized guinea pigs with heat-treated diphtheria toxin. They showed that the blood products of the guinea pigs contained a substance that prevented the harmful effects of C. diphtheriae and its toxin when the guinea pigs were re-exposed to lethal doses of the bacteria and toxin. Next, they showed that they could cure diphtheria in an animal by injecting it with the serum of an immunized animal. They called the substance antitoxin and their treatment serum therapy. They realized that they needed to immunize large animals, such as horses and sheep, to produce enough antitoxin to protect humans.
- 1894 Joseph L. Goodale, M.D. first made Diphtheria Antitoxin in Massachusetts.
Massachusetts Board of Health undertook production and free distribution of diphtheria antitoxin. Diphtheria antitoxin produced in horses at the stable and main building of Harvard’s Bussey Institute in Forest Hills under the ad hoc direction of Joseph L. Goodale, M.D.
Establishment of the Massachusetts State Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory. The State Board of Health Established the laboratory at Harvard’s Bussey Institute in Jamaica Plain to make diphtheria antitoxin.
Theobald Smith – First Director of Massachusetts State Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory. Concurrently, he was Professor of Comparative Pathology at Harvard Medical School. Bacteriologic Laboratory services were also begun in 1895 by Smith at the Antitoxin Laboratory
Bacteriological laboratory, later known as the Diagnostic Laboratory, established under the direction of Smith at the Bussey Institution.
Cholera and Typhoid vaccine first developed.
Diagnostic Laboratory service facilities transferred to State House.
Paul Ehrlich developed standardized unit of measure for diphtheria antitoxin.
Thirteen children in St. Louis died from contaminated diphtheria antitoxin. This incident, along with a tetanus outbreak in Camden, NJ initiated federal regulation of biological products, including the Biologics Control Act.
Last Smallpox epidemic in Massachusetts.
- July 1, 1902
The U.S. Congress passed the Biologics Control Act, “An act to regulate the sale of viruses, serums, toxins, and analogous products.” This was the first modern federal legislation to control the quality of drugs. The Act created the Hygienic Laboratory of the U.S. Public Health Service to oversee manufacture of biological drugs. The Hygienic Laboratory eventually became the National Institute of Health in 1930.
Vaccine lymph production and distribution from the Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory authorized by the Massachusetts State Legislature.
New two story brick stable and laboratory building completed for the Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory. Manufacturing of smallpox vaccine (bovine) and silver nitrate begun in new building
- February 20, 1905
The U.S. Supreme Court addressed mandated vaccination in the case of Jacobson v. Massachusetts. The case dealt with a resident of the city of Cambridge, MA who refused to be vaccinated for smallpox, believing the law violated his right to care for his own body in the way he thought best. The Court rejected Jacobson’s challenge. The ruling upheld the constitutionality of mandatory smallpox vaccination programs and served as the foundation for state actions to limit individual liberties in order to protect the public’s health.
Clemens Pirquet and Bela Schick described serum sickness in children receiving large quantities of horse derived antitoxin.
School Health Law passed by Massachusetts legislature, first in the nation.
Report of Polio in Massachusetts issued.
Emil von Behring published a paper showing that a mixture of diphtheria toxin and antitoxin, carefully balanced, produced safe and lasing immunity to diphtheria.
Silver nitrate furnished to newborns in Massachusetts for the prevention of blindness.
Development and manufacture of Typhoid Vaccine begun at Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory.
The Schick Test is developed. Bela Schick developed a test to determine if a person had some immunity to diphtheria. He reasoned that the injection of a very small amount of diphtheria toxin under the skin would produce a reddening and slight swelling at the site. If such a reaction occurred, it indicated that the patient had not previously been exposed to diphtheria. A lack of reddening of the injection area indicated that the patient had previously been exposed to diphtheria and therefore had immunity to it. Having already developed immunity eliminated the need for treatment, saving precious antitoxin for those without immunity.
William H. Park adjusted the ratio in the diphtheria toxin-antitoxin mixture. In this way he increased lasting immunity and decreased the number of negative reactions to the mixture. Parks’ formula for the mixture was used until it was replaced by toxoid immunization.
The Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory introduced Diphtheria vaccine into general use in Massachusetts.
With a reorganization of departments and services in Massachusetts, the State Department of Health supersedes State Board of Health. The Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory is placed in the newly named Division of Biological Laboratories. Bacteriological Diagnostic services are separated from the Laboratory services and place in the newly created Division of Communicable Diseases.
Milton Joseph Rosenau named Director of the Division of Biological Laboratories and the Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory.
State Wassermann Laboratory opened under the Division of Biologic Laboratories. Free syphilis serology testing begun by William A. Hinton, M.D., chief of the Wassermann Laboratory.
Development and manufacture of Schick test for diphtheria immunity begun at Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory begun.
The Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory granted Federal License No. 64, authorizing manufacture and interstate sale of biological products.
Development and manufacture of Anti-pneumococcus serum Types I and II at Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory begun.
First Diphtheria toxin-antitoxin for active immunization made at the Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratories. It is produced in a newly extended wing of the Laboratories.
Benjamin White – Director (first full time director).
Massachusetts Legislature authorizes the sale of surplus products by the Biologic Laboratories.
First scheduled course, Applied Immunology, given at the Laboratory in conjunction with Harvard School of Public Health.
Gaston Ramon and Alexander Thomas Glenny both independently developed diphtheria toxoid.Ramon treated diphtheria toxin with heat and formalin which inactivated the toxin molecule so that it could no longer attach to cells and cause toxicity. In humans this toxoid was still able to induce antibodies that blocked natural toxin from attaching to cells, thus preventing diphtheria in a person if exposed.
Development and manufacture of Scarlet Fever antitoxin begun at Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory. Additionally, production of antiserums for measles, influenza bacillus, and other agents begun.
Various Product Labels. 1923.
Production of influenza bacillus anti-serum begun at Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory.
Development and production of new serum for the treatment of meningitis begun.
The state wide Pneumonia Control Study begun, lasting until 1935.
Diphtheria toxoid produced at Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory, gradually replacing toxin-antitoxin for active immunization.
Development and production of new anti-typhus serum begun.
Convalescent serums of human origin obtained and distributed for treatment of poliomyelitis and scarlet fever in Massachusetts.
Elliot S. Robinson – Director of Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory.
Placental extract, the precursor of immune serum globulin, prepared in collaboration with Dr. Charles F. McKhann, Harvard Medical School, and distributed for prevention and modification of measles.
Development and manufacture of the Toxin for the Schick test begun at Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory
Edwin Cohn of Harvard develops plasma fractionation with the production of albumin and gamma globulin for therapeutic use.
Development and manufacture of tetanus vaccine begun.
Production and distribution of normal human serum albumin begun as part of war research. Blood products program within the Division of Biologic Laboratories initiated.
Production of immune serum globulin begun as war research, manufactured by the Cohn cold-ethanol process developed by Dr. Edwin Cohn at Harvard. The Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory served as Dr. Cohn’s pilot laboratory for this process, which later became the standard process used throughout the world for the manufacture of Albumin and all Immune Globulins.
Geoffrey Edsall, M.D. – Director Division of the Biologic Laboratories of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health. In 1942 Dr. Robinson entered the Army and Geoffrey Edsall, M.D. became Acting Director until 1947, and Director from 1947-1949.
Immune Serum globulin made generally available.
Wassermann Laboratory separated administratively from the Division of Biologic Laboratories. It is placed in the Division of Communicable Diseases.
Massachusetts Blood and Blood Derivative Program begun. First civilian program of its kind in the nation.
Blood fractionation begun in new Biologics building as part of collaborative program with Massachusetts hospitals
The Diagnostic Laboratory and the Wassermann Laboratory were relocated and united in the Bussey Building, from which the Diagnostic Laboratory had moved 50 years earlier.
Tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, and pertussis vaccine with modern levels of purity and potency developed.
James McComb – Director of Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory.
Production begun at Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory of Diptheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine, the first combination vaccine.
All laboratory activities including the Division of Diagnostic Laboratories and Division of Biologic Laboratories are consolidated administratively into the Institute of Laboratories with Johannes Ipsen, M.D. as Superintendent.
Harvard School of Public Health course Advanced Laboratory Work in Applied Immunology started in conjunction with the Biologic Laboratories.
Massachusetts Biologic Laboratories pioneered and became the first state laboratory to produce and distribute Tetanus Immune Globulin made from human blood plasma.
Morton Madoff – Director Massachusetts Biologic Laboratories.
Massachusetts Biologic Laboratories pioneered special immune globulin – Rh Immune Globulin for the prevention of Rh hemolytic disease of newborns.
George F. Grady – Director Massachusetts Biologic Laboratories.
Massachusetts Biologic Laboratories pioneered special immune globulin – Hepatitis B Immune Globulin.
- October 11, 1974
Dedication ceremony for the first new building of the State Laboratory Institute.
Last reported cases of naturally occurring smallpox in the world.
George Wright – Director Massachusetts Biologic Laboratories.
Massachusetts Biologic Laboratories pioneered special immune globulin – Varicella Zoster Immune Globulin.
George R. Siber – Director Massachusetts Biologic Laboratories.
Massachusetts has the first in the nation law requiring immunizations of college students.
Massachusetts Biologic Laboratories pioneered special immune globulin – Cytomegalovirus Immune Globulin (CytoGam).
Massachusetts Biologic Laboratories celebrates 100 years.
Massachusetts Biologic Laboratories pioneered special immune globulin – Respiratory Syncytial Virus Immune Globulin (RespiGam).
The State Legislature transferred oversight of MassBiologics from the Department of Public Health to the University of Massachusetts.
Donna Ambrosino – Executive Director MassBiologics.
Work begun with the National Institutes of Health to discover protective Monoclonal Antibody against SARS.
New Facility open, with aseptic filling operation to fill vials of vaccine and other therapeutics manufactured at MassBiologics. Also housed monoclonal antibody manufacturing operation. A second facility next door opened shortly after. All functions of MassBiologics moved to new buildings by 2013.
- 2012 –
Mark Klempner – Executive Director MassBiologics.
MassBiologics donates over one million doses of tetanus and diphtheria vaccine to Project HOPE, helping tens of thousands of people in Dominican Republic, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan.