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Society needs more than wonder to respect science

news@nature - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 3:21pm

Researchers are well placed to explain concepts, but journalists will bring the critical scrutiny needed to integrate science in society, says Susan Watts.

Nature 508 151 doi: 10.1038/508151a

Seven days: 4–10 April 2014

news@nature - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 2:21pm

The week in science: Chile hit by magnitude-8.2 quake; US unveils most accurate atomic clock; and European Parliament votes for clinical-trial transparency.

Nature 508 154 doi: 10.1038/508154a

The genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector

eScholarship@UMMS - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 2:08pm

Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors approximately 100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector-human and vector-parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi.

The Drosophila IMD pathway in the activation of the humoral immune response

eScholarship@UMMS - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 2:08pm

The IMD pathway signaling plays a pivotal role in the Drosophila defense against bacteria. During the last two decades, significant progress has been made in identifying the components and deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathway, including the means of bacterial sensing and signal transduction. While these findings have contributed to the understanding of the immune signaling in insects, they have also provided new insights in studying the mammalian NF-kappaB signaling pathways. Here, we summarize the current view of the IMD pathway focusing on how it regulates the humoral immune response of Drosophila.

RNA and beta-hemolysin of Group B streptococcus induce IL-1beta by activating NLRP3 inflammasomes in mouse macrophages

eScholarship@UMMS - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 2:08pm

The inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta is critical for host responses against many human pathogens. Here, we define Group B streptococcus (GBS)-mediated activation of the Nod-like Receptor-P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in macrophages. NLRP3 activation requires GBS expression of the cytolytic toxin, beta-hemolysin, lysosomal acidification, and leakage. These processes allow the interaction of GBS RNA with cytosolic NLRP3. The present study supports a model in which GBS RNA, along with lysosomal components including cathepsins, leaks out of lysosomes and interacts with NLRP3 to induce IL-1beta production.

2-Drug Combo Beats Leading HCV Variant

Headlines from MedPage Today® - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 2:01pm
LONDON (MedPage Today) -- A two-drug combination successfully targets the most prevalent global variant of hepatitis C virus, a researcher said here.

2-Drug Combo Beats Leading HCV Variant

Headlines from MedPage Today® - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 2:01pm
LONDON (MedPage Today) -- A two-drug combination successfully targets the most prevalent global variant of hepatitis C virus, a researcher said here.

Two HCV Drugs Stronger Than One

Headlines from MedPage Today® - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 1:10pm
LONDON (MedPage Today) -- A combination of the two newest drugs approved for hepatitis C virus suggests that a strength of one overcomes a weakness of the other, a researcher reported.

Two HCV Drugs Stronger Than One

Headlines from MedPage Today® - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 1:10pm
LONDON (MedPage Today) -- A combination of the two newest drugs approved for hepatitis C virus suggests that a strength of one overcomes a weakness of the other, a researcher reported.

% of Type 2 Diabetes Left Undiagnosed Declines

Headlines from MedPage Today® - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 1:03pm
(MedPage Today) -- A lower percentage of type 2 diabetes cases is going undiagnosed than was the case in the past couple of decades, researchers found.

% of Type 2 Diabetes Left Undiagnosed Declines

Headlines from MedPage Today® - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 1:03pm
(MedPage Today) -- A lower percentage of type 2 diabetes cases is going undiagnosed than was the case in the past couple of decades, researchers found.

Metabolic quirks yield tumour hope

news@nature - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 12:21pm

Early clinical-trial results show promise for targeting cancer-related biochemical pathways.

Nature 508 158 doi: 10.1038/508158a

Hot Topics: MS Symptoms Under the Radar

Headlines from MedPage Today® - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 12:09pm
(MedPage Today) -- What are the most under-recognized and undertreated aspects of multiple sclerosis? Three prominent MS specialists shared their thoughts, spanning sleep disruption, bladder problems, and cognitive impairment.

Hot Topics: MS Symptoms Under the Radar

Headlines from MedPage Today® - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 12:09pm
(MedPage Today) -- What are the most under-recognized and undertreated aspects of multiple sclerosis? Three prominent MS specialists shared their thoughts, spanning sleep disruption, bladder problems, and cognitive impairment.

Chinese Herb Proves Effective in RA (CME/CE)

Headlines from MedPage Today® - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 11:47am
(MedPage Today) -- A plant extract used in traditional Chinese medicine was as effective as methotrexate for the short-term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and was superior when the two were given in combination, a randomized trial showed.

Chinese Herb Proves Effective in RA (CME/CE)

Headlines from MedPage Today® - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 11:47am
(MedPage Today) -- A plant extract used in traditional Chinese medicine was as effective as methotrexate for the short-term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and was superior when the two were given in combination, a randomized trial showed.

Funders punish open-access dodgers

news@nature - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 11:21am

Agencies withhold grant money from researchers who do not make publications openly available.

Nature 508 161 doi: 10.1038/508161a

Floods: Holding back the tide

news@nature - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 11:21am

With the Ganges–Brahmaputra delta sinking, the race is on to protect millions of people from future flooding.

Nature 508 164 doi: 10.1038/508164a

UK funder explains clamp-down on open access

news@nature - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 10:21am

Wellcome Trust's Robert Kiley discusses sanctions to ensure that grants lead to freely available papers.

Nature News doi: 10.1038/nature.2014.14999

Morning Break: Miserable Docs, Eager Lawyers

Headlines from MedPage Today® - Tue, 04/15/2014 - 10:02am
(MedPage Today) -- Health news and commentary from around the Web, gathered by the MedPage Today staff.
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