INTRODUCTION: Susceptibility to cigarette smoking, defined as the lack of a firm decision against smoking, is a strong predictor of regular smoking and addiction. Several modifiable risk factors have been identified among never cigarette smokers, and one potential factor of interest is waterpipe use. The purpose of this study is to determine the association of waterpipe use with susceptibility to cigarette smoking among never-smoking youth.
METHODS: In a pooled analysis of 17 Arab nations with nationally representative Global Youth Tobacco Surveys conducted during 2002-2011, tobacco-related information was obtained from 30,711 never-smoking adolescents representing 4,962,872 youth. Study outcome was susceptibility to cigarette smoking, and primary exposure was waterpipe use. Data were analyzed in 2014 using weighted logistic regression models, including stratified models by gender, to determine the odds of susceptibility to cigarette smoking with waterpipe use, adjusting for confounders.
RESULTS: Overall, 20% of never-smoking youth were susceptible to cigarette smoking, ranging from 13.1% in Oman to 32.6% in Somalia; 5.2% currently used waterpipe, ranging from 0.3% in Morocco to 23.5% in Kuwait. The estimated odds of susceptibility to cigarette smoking were 2.5 (95% CI=1.9, 3.4) times higher for adolescents who used waterpipe in the past month compared with those who did not, controlling for confounders. Estimates were similar when stratified by gender.
CONCLUSIONS: Waterpipe use is associated with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Study findings identify a novel risk factor for never smokers to initiate smoking and will help the public health community develop and implement policies around waterpipe use prevention.
The lack of research dollars dedicated to understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders is a barrier not only to making signiﬁcant medical advances for our patients but also to developing the physician–scientist workforce to fuel those advances.
An Elective in College Mental Health for Training Adult Psychiatry Residents in Young Adult Psychiatry
In this report, we describe a college mental health elective for senior adult psychiatry residents.
Caring for ED patients with suicidal thoughts and behaviors is challenging, given time pressures, boarding of patients waiting for psychiatric beds, and the inherent difficulty in predicting imminent self-harm. However, providers—like patients—should not lose hope: most suicidal crises are short-lived and repeated attempts are not inevitable. Not every ED patient with suicidal thoughts needs inpatient admission or even a mental health consultation, and ED providers should take pride in their skills in caring for this at-risk population.
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have demonstrated the influence of parental (both mother and father) cigarette smoking on adolescents' cigarette smoking. Little is known, however, about how parental tobacco use is related to waterpipe and dual waterpipe/cigarette use, which is increasing dramatically in the Arab countries.
METHODS: Study data (n = 34 788, N = 6 109 572) were obtained from nationally representative Global Youth Tobacco Surveys in 17 Arab countries. Study outcome was adolescents' tobacco use categorized into none, cigarette smoking only, waterpipe smoking (WPS) only, and dual use. Primary exposure included parental tobacco use categorized into 10 groups-maternal (mother) cigarette smoking only, maternal WPS only, maternal dual use, paternal (father) cigarette smoking only, paternal WPS only, paternal dual use, parental (both mother and father) cigarette smoking only, parental WPS only, parental dual use, and none. Weighted multinomial regression models were conducted to assess the relationships.
RESULTS: Adolescents reported smoking WPS only (5.7%), cigarettes only (2.9%), and dual use (3.5%). Compared to adolescent with no exposure to parental tobacco use, adolescent exposure to parental dual use was associated with significant increase in WPS only (OR = 6.08, 95% CI = 2.38-15.51) and dual use (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 1.43-10.43). Effect modification of the relationship by adolescents' sex was observed.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine adolescent cigarette, waterpipe, and dual use with parental tobacco use. Study findings may help development of cessation interventions targeting parental tobacco use to prevent the rising waterpipe and dual use strain of the global tobacco epidemic.
IMPLICATIONS: (1) Influence of parents' cigarette smoking on adolescents' smoking has been demonstrated in earlier studies, however, little is known about how tobacco use behaviors of mother and father influences an adolescent's cigarette, waterpipe and dual cigarette/waterpipe use. (2) Associations of parental (both mother and father) tobacco use with adolescents' tobacco use differed significantly if the adolescent is a waterpipe smoker or dual user compared to an adolescent cigarette smoker. (3) Adolescents' exposed to their mothers' WPS or dual use were more likely to be a waterpipe smoker or dual user. High likelihood of adolescents' cigarette, waterpipe and dual use is found in homes where parental tobacco use is rampant with both parents smoking either cigarette, waterpipe or both.
The burden of depression in men is high. Current diagnostic criteria may not fully capture men's experience with depression. Descriptions of the heterogeneity in depression among men are lacking. The purpose of the study was to characterize latent subtypes of major depression and changes in these subtypes among men receiving citalopram in Level 1 of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial. Latent transition analysis was applied to data from 387 men who completed baseline and Week 12 study visits in Level 1 of STAR*D. Items from the self-report version of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used as indicators of latent depression subtypes. Four statuses were identified at baseline and Week 12. Baseline statuses were Mild (10% of men), Moderate (53%), Severe with Psychomotor Slowing (20%), and Severe with Psychomotor Agitation (17%). At Week 12, the statuses were Symptom Resolution (41%), Mild (36%), Moderate (18%), and Severe with Psychomotor Slowing (5%). Men in the Mild status were most likely to transition to Symptom Resolution (probability = 69%). Men in the Severe with Agitation status were least likely to transition to Symptom Resolution (probability = 0%). This work highlights the need to not focus solely on summary rating scores but to also consider patterns of symptoms when treating depression.
Interaction of a dengue virus NS1-derived peptide with the inhibitory receptor KIR3DL1 on natural killer cells
Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) interact with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I ligands and play a key role in the regulation and activation of NK cells. The functional importance of KIR-HLA interactions has been demonstrated for a number of chronic viral infections, but to date only a few studies have been performed in the context of acute self-limited viral infections. During our investigation of CD8(+) T cell responses to a conserved HLA-B57-restricted epitope derived from dengue virus (DENV) non-structural protein-1 (NS1), we observed substantial binding of the tetrameric complex to non-T/non-B lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a long-standing clinical cohort in Thailand. We confirmed binding of the NS1 tetramer to CD56(dim) NK cells, which are known to express KIRs. Using depletion studies and KIR-transfected cell lines, we demonstrated further that the NS1 tetramer bound the inhibitory receptor KIR3DL1. Phenotypical analysis of PBMC from HLA-B57(+) subjects with acute DENV infection revealed marked activation of NS1 tetramer-binding natural killer (NK) cells around the time of defervescence in subjects with severe dengue disease. Collectively, our findings indicate that subsets of NK cells are activated relatively late in the course of acute DENV illness and reveal a possible role for specific KIR-HLA interactions in the modulation of disease outcomes.
Google receives more than 3.5 billion Internet searches daily, and the advertisements on their results pages may provide a unique opportunity to transmit targeted public health information to a large audience. Skin cancer is more common than all other cancers combined, and indoor tanning is a preventable risk factor that accounts for more than 450 000 new malignant neoplasms each year. Tanning bed use remains common, with 1 in 5 adolescents and more than half of college students exposed. Awareness of the dangers of tanning beds is one of the factors that can lead to behavior change. The goals of this study were to examine the volume of tanning bed–related searches on Google and pilot the use of Google’s advertising service for dissemination of skin cancer prevention messages to users entering searches related to tanning beds.
Clinical impact of leukoaraiosis burden and chronological age on neurological deficit recovery and 90-day outcome after minor ischemic stroke
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ischemic stroke remains a leading cause of disability, particularly among the elderly, but this association has not been consistently noted among patients with minor stroke. We sought to determine the association of chronological age and leukoaraiosis, which is considered a marker of biological age, with the degree of neurological deficit recovery and 90-day disability after minor ischemic stroke.
METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 185 patients with a minor ischemic stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score < /=5). Leukoaraiosis severity was graded according to the van Swieten scale. NIHSS was assessed at baseline, discharge, and 90-days. Multivariable linear and ordinal logistic regression analyses were constructed to identify independent predictors of the degree of NIHSS-improvement (DeltaNIHSS) and 90-day outcome as assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS).
RESULTS: Patients with severe leukoaraiosis had attenuated DeltaNIHSS at 90days as compared to patients with none-to-mild leukoaraiosis (p=0.028). After adjustment, leukoaraiosis severity (p < 0.001) but not chronological age (p=0.771) was independently associated with the DeltaNIHSS by day 90. Severe leukoaraiosis (p=0.003, OR 3.1, 95%-CI 1.5-6.4), older age (p=0.001, OR 1.0 95%-CI 1.0-1.1), and admission NIHSS (p < 0.001, OR 1.5, 95%-CI 1.2-1.8) were independent predictors of the 90-day mRS.
CONCLUSION: Leukoaraiosis is a more sensitive predictor for neurological deficit recovery after ischemic stroke than chronological age. Further study is required to establish the specific contribution of leukoaraiosis to functional outcome after minor ischemic stroke beyond its impact on recovery mechanisms.
Detecting Heart Failure Decompensation by Measuring Transthoracic Bioimpedance in the Outpatient Setting: Rationale and Design of the SENTINEL-HF Study
BACKGROUND: Recurrent hospital admissions are common among patients admitted for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), but identification of patients at risk for rehospitalization remains challenging. Contemporary heart failure (HF) management programs have shown modest ability to reduce readmissions, partly because they monitor signs or symptoms of HF worsening that appear late during decompensation. Detecting early stages of HF decompensation might allow for immediate application of effective HF therapies, thereby potentially reducing HF readmissions. One of the earliest indicators of HF decompensation is intrathoracic fluid accumulation, which can be assessed using transthoracic bioimpedance.
OBJECTIVE: The SENTINEL-HF study is a prospective observational study designed to test a novel, wearable HF monitoring system as a predictor of HF decompensation among patients discharged after hospitalization for ADHF.
METHODS: SENTINEL-HF tests the hypothesis that a decline in transthoracic bioimpedance, as assessed daily with the Philips fluid accumulation vest (FAV) and transmitted using a mobile phone, is associated with HF worsening and rehospitalization. According to pre-specified power calculations, 180 patients admitted with ADHF are enrolled. Participants transmit daily self-assessments using the FAV-mobile phone dyad for 45 days post-discharge. The primary predictor is the deviation of transthoracic bioimpedance for 3 consecutive days from a patient-specific normal variability range. The ADHF detection algorithm is evaluated in relation with a composite outcome of HF readmission, diuretic up-titration, and self-reported HF worsening (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire) during a 90-day follow-up period. Here, we provide the details and rationale of SENTINEL-HF.
RESULTS: Enrollment in the SENTINEL-HF study is complete and the 90-days follow-up is currently under way. Once data collection is complete, the study dataset will be used to evaluate our ADHF detection algorithm and the results submitted for publication.
CONCLUSION: SENTINEL-HF emerged from our long-term vision that advanced home monitoring technology can improve the management of chronic HF by extending clinical care into patients' homes. Monitoring transthoracic bioimpedance with the FAV may identify patients at risk of recurrent HF decompensation and enable timely preventive measures.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01877369: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01877369 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6bDYl0dGy).
Weight loss outcomes in lifestyle interventions for obesity are primarily a function of sustained adherence to a reduced-energy diet, and most lapses in diet adherence are precipitated by temptation from palatable food. The high nonresponse and relapse rates of lifestyle interventions suggest that current temptation management approaches may be insufficient for most participants. In this conceptual review, we discuss three neurobehavioral processes (attentional bias, temporal discounting, and the cold-hot empathy gap) that emerge during temptation and contribute to lapses in diet adherence. Characterizing the neurobehavioral profile of temptation highlights an important distinction between temptation resistance strategies aimed at overcoming temptation while it is experienced, and temptation prevention strategies that seek to avoid or minimize exposure to tempting stimuli. Many temptation resistance and temptation prevention strategies heavily rely on executive functions mediated by prefrontal systems that are prone to disruption by common occurrences such as stress, insufficient sleep, and even exposure to tempting stimuli. In contrast, commitment strategies are a set of devices that enable individuals to manage temptation by constraining their future choices, without placing heavy demands on executive functions. These concepts are synthesized in a conceptual model that categorizes temptation management approaches based on their intended effects on reward processing and degree of reliance on executive functions. We conclude by discussing the implications of our model for strengthening temptation management approaches in future lifestyle interventions, tailoring these approaches based on key individual difference variables, and suggesting high-priority topics for future research.
Remodeling of bone is a continuous process that occurs throughout life. Under normal physiologic conditions, bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts are tightly coupled and regulated to ensure proper balance, such that there is no net change in bone mass. However, inflammation perturbs normal bone homeostasis. The impact of inflammation on bone is dependent upon the anatomic site affected, cell types, factors and cytokines present in the local microenvironment, and local mechanical forces. Cytokines are central to the pathogenesis of inflammation-induced bone loss and contribute to the uncoupling of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated bone formation, thereby disrupting normal remodeling. In this review, we will discuss the effects of cytokines on bone in two settings, rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis, a disease category that includes ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and juvenile onset spondyloarthropathy. The outcome for bone in these disease settings is quite different, and an understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms leading to the net impact on bone has been essential in developing new therapeutic approaches to bone health in these diseases.
Establishing the cut-off score for remission and severity-ranges on the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS)
BACKGROUND: The Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS) is a rating scale dedicated to the measurement of severity in psychotic depression (PD). The aim of this study was to establish the PDAS cut-off for remission of PD as well as PDAS score-ranges for mild, moderate, and severe PD. The secondary aim was to test how remission, as defined by the PDAS, would perform as outcome measure when applied to the data from a large randomized controlled trial (RCT) in PD.
METHODS: The study was based on data from the Study of Pharmacotherapy in Psychotic Depression (STOP-PD). The cut-off for remission on the PDAS and the severity-ranges for mild, moderate, and severe PD were defined using the Clinical Global Impression - Severity scale (CGI-S) as reference by means of pair-wise receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Subsequently, it was tested whether remission on the PDAS could separate the effects of Olanzapine+Sertraline vs. Olanzapine+Placebo through an intention-to-treat, mixed-effects logistic regression of the data from STOP-PD.
RESULTS: According to the ROC analyses, the ideal cut-off for remission of PD was a PDAS total score < 8, while the severity-ranges for mild, moderate and severe PD were 8-15, 16-23, and > 23 respectively. When applying the PDAS total score < 8 (remission) as outcome on the STOP-PD data, treatment with Olanzapine+Sertraline performed significantly better than Olanzapine+Placebo (p < 0.001).
LIMITATIONS: The STOP-PD was not designed specifically to answer the research questions of the present study.
CONCLUSIONS: According to this study, a total score < 8 on the PDAS corresponds to remission of PD.
Functional Impairment and Changes in Depression Subtypes for Women in STAR*D: A Latent Transition Analysis
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the association between functional impairment and major depression subtypes at baseline and to characterize changes in subtypes by functional impairment level in women receiving citalopram in level 1 of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression trial.
METHOD: Women who completed baseline and week 12 study visits were included. Items from the self-reported Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used to define the latent depression subtypes. The Work and Social Adjustment Scale was used to classify baseline functional impairment. A latent transition analysis model provided estimates of the prevalence of subtype membership and transition probabilities by functional impairment level.
RESULTS: Of the 755 women included, 69% had major functional impairment at baseline. Regardless of functional impairment level, the subtypes were differentiated by depression severity, appetite changes, psychomotor disturbances, and insomnia. Sixty-seven percent of women with normal/significant functional impairment and 60% of women with major impairment were likely to transition to a symptom resolution subtype at week 12. Women with baseline major impairment who were in the severe with psychomotor agitation subtype at the beginning of the study were least likely to transition to the symptom resolution subtype (4% chance).
CONCLUSIONS: Functional impairment level was related to both the baseline depression subtype and the likelihood of moving to a different subtype. These results underscore the need to incorporate not only depression symptoms but also functioning in the assessment and treatment of depression.
Training in the Conduct of Population-Based Multi-Site and Multi-Disciplinary Studies: the Cancer Research Network's Scholars Program
Expanding research capacity of large research networks within health care delivery systems requires strategically training both embedded and external investigators in necessary skills for this purpose. Researchers new to these settings frequently lack the skills and specialized knowledge conducive to multi-site and multi-disciplinary research set in delivery systems. This report describes the goals and components of the Cancer Research Network (CRN) Scholars Program, a 26-month training program developed to increase the capacity for cancer research conducted within the network's participating sites, its progression from training embedded investigators to a mix of internal and external investigators, and the content evolution of the training program. The CRN Scholars program was launched in 2007 to assist junior investigators from member sites develop independent and sustainable research programs within the CRN. Resulting from CRN's increased emphasis on promoting external collaborations, the 2013 Scholars program began recruiting junior investigators from external institutions committed to conducting delivery system science. Based on involvement of this broader population and feedback from prior Scholar cohorts, the program has honed its focus on specific opportunities and issues encountered in conducting cancer research within health care delivery systems. Efficiency and effectiveness of working within networks is accelerated by strategic and mentored navigation of these networks. Investing in training programs specific to these settings provides the opportunity to improve multi-disciplinary and multi-institutional collaboration, particularly for early-stage investigators. Aspects of the CRN Scholars Program may help inform others considering developing similar programs to expand delivery system research or within large, multi-disciplinary research networks.
Magnitude, treatment, and impact of diabetes mellitus in patients hospitalized with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction: A community-based study
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To examine differences in the characteristics, treatment practices and in-hospital outcomes of patients with and without previously diagnosed diabetes hospitalized for non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.
KEY METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 3916 patients diagnosed with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction at all 11 central MA medical centres between 1999 and 2009, of whom 1475 (38%) had been previously diagnosed with diabetes. MAIN
RESULTS: Diabetic patients were more likely to have received treatment with effective cardiac medications, and to have undergone coronary bypass surgery, but were less likely to have received a percutaneous coronary intervention, than non-diabetic patients. Patients with a history of diabetes were more likely to have developed cardiogenic shock, heart failure and died during their index hospitalization than non-diabetic patients.
MAIN CONCLUSION: Diabetic patients presenting with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction remain at high risk of developing significant clinical complications during hospitalization.
Disorganized Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses: Time to Systematize the Conduct and Publication of These Study Overviews
The number of meta-analyses published annually has increased more than 20-fold between 1994 (n = 386) and 2014 (n = 8203). In examining how much of this increase in meta-analysis publication has genuinely represented novel contributions to clinical medicine and public health, it became clear that there was an abundance of redundant and disorganized meta-analyses, creating confusion and generating considerable debate. Ironically, meta-analyses, which should prevent redundant research, have become a victim of it. Recently, 17 meta-analyses were published based on the results of only 3 randomized controlled trials that studied the role of transcatheter closure of patent foramen ovale for prevention of cryptogenic stroke. In our search of the published literature, we identified at least 10 topics that were the subject of 10 meta-analyses. In the context of overlapping meta-analyses, one questions what needs to be done to put this "runaway train" back on track. In this review we examine the practice of redundant meta-analyses and the reasons for its disturbing "popularity." The registration of systematic reviews should be mandatory in prospective registries, such as PROSPERO, and the PRISMA checklist should be updated to incorporate new evidence and mandate the reference of previously published reviews and rationale for any new study.
BACKGROUND: We examined Veterans Affairs (VA) health care experiences among contemporary women veteran patients receiving care at a VA medical center. Specifically, we examined women veteran patients' satisfaction with VA care along dimensions in line with patient-centered medical home (patient-aligned care teams [PACT] in VA) priorities, and pathways through which women initially accessed VA care.
METHODS: We used a mixed methods research design. First, 249 racially diverse women (ages 22-64) who were past-year users of primary care at a VA medical center completed interviewer-administered surveys in 2012 assessing ratings of satisfaction with care in the past year. We then conducted in-depth qualitative interviews of a subset of women surveyed (n = 25) to gain a deeper understanding of perspectives and experiences that shaped satisfaction with care and to explore women's initial pathways to VA care.
RESULTS: Ratings of satisfaction with VA care were generally high, with some variation by demographic characteristics. Qualitative interviews revealed perceptions of care centered on the following themes: 1) barriers to care delay needed medical care, while innovative care models facilitate access, 2) women value communication and coordination of care, and 3) personalized context of VA care, including gender sensitive care shapes women's perceptions. Pathways to VA care were characterized by initial delays, often attributable to lack of knowledge or negative perceptions of VA care. Informal social networks were instrumental in helping women to overcome barriers.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight convergence of women's preferences with PACT priorities of timely access to care, provider communication, and coordination of care, and suggest areas for improvement. Outreach is needed to address gaps in knowledge and negative perceptions. Initiatives to enhance women veterans' social networks may provide an information-sharing resource.
BACKGROUND: Lithium is a benchmark treatment for bipolar disorder in adults. Definitive studies of lithium in pediatric bipolar I disorder (BP-I) are lacking.
METHODS: This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of pediatric participants (ages 7-17 years) with BP-I/manic or mixed episodes compared lithium (n = 53) versus placebo (n = 28) for up to 8 weeks. The a priori primary efficacy measure was change from baseline to the end of study (week 8/ET) in the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score, based on last-observation-carried-forward analysis.
RESULTS: The change in YMRS score was significantly larger in lithium-treated participants (5.51 [95% confidence interval: 0.51 to 10.50]) after adjustment for baseline YMRS score, age group, weight group, gender, and study site (P = .03). Overall Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scores favored lithium (n = 25; 47% very much/much improved) compared with placebo (n = 6; 21% very much/much improved) at week 8/ET (P = .03). A statistically significant increase in thyrotropin concentration was seen with lithium (3.0 +/- 3.1 mIU/L) compared with placebo (-0.1 +/- 0.9 mIU/L; P < .001). There was no statistically significant between-group difference with respect to weight gain.
CONCLUSIONS: Lithium was superior to placebo in reducing manic symptoms in pediatric patients treated for BP-I in this clinical trial. Lithium was generally well tolerated in this patient population and was not associated with weight gain, distinguishing it from other agents commonly used to treat youth with bipolar disorder.
INTRODUCTION: It is unknown how the timing between doses might affect nicotine's impact on neural activity. Our objective was to examine how the interdose interval affects nicotine's impact on resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered nicotine daily (0.4 mg/kg) over 6 days while control animals received saline vehicle. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure rsFC before and after a challenge dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg) delivered for the first time and 3, 6, 12, or 24hr after the previous dose.
RESULTS: As the interval between nicotine doses increased from 3 to 24hr, the strength of rsFC increased in some circuits, particularly the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal circuits, and decreased in others, namely the interpeduncular nucleus, hippocampus, caudoputamen, retrosplenial cortex, ventral tegmental, and the insular circuits.
CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that the effect that nicotine has on the brain is affected by the amount of time that has passed since the previous dose. The effect on rsFC of cumulative doses is not additive. This may have important implications for the study of nicotine addiction as it implies that the same dose of nicotine might have a different impact on the brain depending on the time elapsed from the previous exposure.