Importance. Indoor tanning is widespread among young adults in the United States despite evidence establishing it as a risk factor for skin cancer. The availability of tanning salons on or near college campuses has not been formally evaluated.
Objective. To evaluate the availability of indoor tanning facilities on US college and university campuses (colleges) and in off-campus housing surrounding but not owned by the college.
Design, Setting, and Participants. This observational study sampled the top 125 US colleges and universities listed in US News and World Report. Investigators searched websites of the colleges and nearby housing and contacted them by telephone inquiring about tanning services.
Main Outcomes and Measures. Frequency of indoor tanning facilities on college campus and in off-campus housing facilities, as well as payment options for tanning.
Results. Of the 125 colleges, 48.0% had indoor tanning facilities either on campus or in off-campus housing, and 14.4% of colleges allow campus cash cards to be used to pay for tanning. Indoor tanning was available on campus in 12.0% of colleges and in off-campus housing in 42.4% of colleges. Most off-campus housing facilities with indoor tanning (96%) provide it free to tenants. Midwestern colleges had the highest prevalence of indoor tanning on campus (26.9%), whereas Southern colleges had the highest prevalence of indoor tanning in off-campus housing facilities (67.7%). Presence of on-campus tanning facilities was significantly associated with enrollment (P = .01), region (P = .02), and presence of a school of public health (P = .01) but not private vs public status (P = .18) or presence of a tobacco policy (P = .16). Presence of tanning facilities in off-campus housing was significantly associated with region (P = .002) and private vs public status (P = .01) but not enrollment (P = .38), tobacco policy (P = .80), or presence of a school of public health (P = .69).
Conclusions and Relevance. Reducing the availability of indoor tanning on and around college campuses is an important public health target.
Doing the best with what we have: we need better: informing obstetric policy with administrative data
In this issue of Medical Care, Backes Kozhimannil and colleagues present data from the National Inpatient Sample on differences between rural and urban obstetric care. We applaud their efforts in examining this issue and agree that all women should be afforded safe deliveries, and ideally each woman’s experience would not be different. That being said, there are some practical considerations that must be applied to their analyses and recommendations. We would like to take this opportunity to capitalize on their efforts and speak to 2 other highly related implications for policy and practice.
Attitudes of women in their forties toward the 2009 USPSTF mammogram guidelines: a randomized trial on the effects of media exposure
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess women's attitudes toward 2009 US Preventive Services Task Force mammography screening guideline changes and evaluate the role of media in shaping opinions.
STUDY DESIGN: Two hundred forty-nine women, aged 39-49 years, presenting for annual examinations randomized to read 1 of 2 articles, and survey completion comprised the design of the study.
RESULTS: Eighty-eight percent overestimated the lifetime breast cancer (BrCa) risk. Eighty-nine percent want yearly mammograms in their 40s. Eighty-six percent felt the changes were unsafe, and even if the changes were doctor recommended, 84% would not delay screening until age 50 years. Those with a friend/relative with BrCa were more likely to want annual mammography in their forties (92% vs 77%, P = .001), and feel changes unsafe (91% vs 69%, P ≤ .0001). Participants with previous false-positive mammograms were less likely to accept doctor-recommended screening delay until age 50 years (8% vs 21%, P = .01).
CONCLUSION: Women overestimate BrCa risk. Skepticism of new mammogram guidelines exists, and is increased by exposure to negative media. Those with prior false-positive mammograms are less likely to accept changes.
Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the percentage of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants (g) and infant deaths attributable to multiple births in the general population and in women aged 35+.
STUDY DESIGN: The year 2000 Massachusetts birth certificate database with linked births-deaths was examined. Etiologic fractions (EF) for VLBW and infant mortality attributable to multiples were calculated for the general population and the 35+ age group. The percentages of multiples occurring in the 35+ age group were calculated. Infant deaths due to congenital anomalies and "perinatal conditions" were calculated.
RESULTS: There were 81,582 resident births in Massachusetts in 2000. Of them 4.3% were multiples. Of the 1090 VLBW infants, 26.1% (95% CI: 23.5-28.8) were in twins and 7.7% (95% CI: 6.2-9.5) in higher-order multiples, yielding an EF of 30.8% for multiples in VLBW. In the 35+ age group, the multiple birth ratio was 6.6% (95% CI: 6.3-7.0). The EF for multiples and VLBW in this age group was 33.7%. The 35+ age group accounted for 32.4% (95% CI: 30.8-34.0) of twins and 45.5% (95% CI: 39.1-52.0) of higher-order multiples born in 2000. Of the 392 infant deaths, 57 (14.6%; 95% CI: 11.2-18.4) were attributed to congenital anomalies, and 236 (60.2%; 95% CI: 55.2-65.0) to "perinatal conditions." Multiples were responsible for 8 (14%; 95% CI: 6.3-25.8) of deaths due to anomalies, and 73 (30.9%; 95% CI: 25.1-37.3) due to "perinatal conditions."
CONCLUSION: Over 30% of VLBW infants, nearly 20% of infant mortality and >30% of infant mortality due to perinatal conditions could be attributed to multiples. Multiple pregnancy is a significant public health problem.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of smoking on low birth weight (LBW).
STUDY DESIGN: From Massachusetts for 1998, 79,904 birth certificates were reviewed. Birth weight, gestational age, plurality and maternal race were analyzed in relation to the mother's smoking status during the pregnancy. The etiologic fraction (EF) was calculated for smoking and LBW for the group as a whole as well as for various subgroups.
RESULTS: A total of 11.7% of women acknowledged smoking during pregnancy. The overall LBW rate was 6.83%. The relative risk (RR) of LBW among smokers was 1.58. For all births the EF for smoking was 6.4% (95% CI: 5.4-7.3). For singleton pregnancies it was 10.9% (95% CI: 9.6-12.1) (14% for singleton whites and 7.2 for singleton blacks). At term, the EF of smoking on LBW was 13.4% (95% CI: 11.5-15.3), with an EF of 16.7% (95% CI: 14.5-18.7) for term singletons (21.4% among whites and 14.6% among blacks). Among very LBW infants, smoking accounted for 1.7% (95% CI:--0.5-3.8) of the outcome (5.8% among singletons). When stratifying for the effect of smoking, the rate of LBW was 6.38% among nonsmokers, 9.5% (RR 1.48, 1.38-1.61) among light smokers, 11.67% (RR 1.82, 1.63-2.05) among moderate smokers and 11.72% (RR 1.84, 1.33-2.54) among heavy smokers. Sixty percent of the overall population effect of smoking on LBW was in the category of light smokers.
CONCLUSION: The amount of LBW attributable to smoking was 6.4% in this sample. Among those who smoked, LBW was 58% more likely than among nonsmokers, and 60% of the overall population effect of smoking on LBW was noted among light smokers.
Recent studies have suggested a causal and pathogenetic relationship between holoprosencephaly and anencephaly. In support of the proposed relationship we report a sibship that includes anencephalic male twins and a female infant with a severe form of alobar holoprosencephaly, radial aplasia, and oligodactyly. The upper limb and brain malformations are considered to represent aprosencephaly syndrome. The coexistence of anencephaly and aprosencephaly within a sibship suggests that XK aprosencephaly syndrome may be an autosomal recessive disorder.
BACKGROUND: Community samples suggest that approximately 1 in 20 children and adults exhibit clinically significant anger, hostility, and aggression. Individuals with dysregulated emotional control have a greater lifetime burden of psychiatric morbidity, severe impairment in role functioning, and premature mortality due to cardiovascular disease.
METHODS: With publically available data secured from dbGaP, we conducted a genome-wide association study of proneness to anger using the Spielberger State-Trait Anger Scale in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (n = 8,747).
RESULTS: Subjects were, on average, 54 (range 45-64) years old at baseline enrollment, 47% (n = 4,117) were male, and all were of European descent by self-report. The mean Angry Temperament and Angry Reaction scores were 5.8 +/- 1.8 and 7.6 +/- 2.2. We observed a nominally significant finding (p = 2.9E-08, lambda = 1.027 - corrected pgc = 2.2E-07, lambda = 1.0015) on chromosome 6q21 in the gene coding for the non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinase, Fyn.
CONCLUSIONS: Fyn interacts with NDMA receptors and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-gated channels to regulate calcium influx and intracellular release in the post-synaptic density. These results suggest that signaling pathways regulating intracellular calcium homeostasis, which are relevant to memory, learning, and neuronal survival, may in part underlie the expression of Angry Temperament.
Sex differences in clinical characteristics, hospital management practices, and in-hospital outcomes in patients hospitalized in a vietnamese hospital with a first acute myocardial infarction
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Vietnam. We conducted a pilot study of Hanoi residents hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) at the Vietnam National Heart Institute in Hanoi. The objectives of this observational study were to examine sex differences in clinical characteristics, hospital management, in-hospital clinical complications, and mortality in patients hospitalized with an initial AMI.
METHODS: The study population consisted of 302 Hanoi residents hospitalized with a first AMI at the largest tertiary care medical center in Hanoi in 2010.
RESULTS: The average age of study patients was 66 years and one third were women. Women were older (70 vs. 64 years) and were more likely than men to have had hyperlipidemia previously diagnosed (10% vs. 2%). During hospitalization, women were less likely to have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared with men (57% vs. 74%), and women were more likely to have developed heart failure compared with men (19% vs. 10%). Women experienced higher in-hospital case-fatality rates (CFRs) than men (13% vs. 4%) and these differences were attenuated after adjustment for age and history of hyperlipidemia (OR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.01, 6.89), and receipt of PCI during hospitalization (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 0.77, 5.09).
CONCLUSIONS: Our pilot data suggest that among patients hospitalized with a first AMI in Hanoi, women experienced higher in-hospital CFRs than men. Full-scale surveillance of all Hanoi residents hospitalized with AMI at all Hanoi medical centers is needed to confirm these findings. More targeted and timely educational and treatment approaches for women appear warranted.
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) involves substantial electrophysiological, structural and contractile remodeling. We hypothesize that characterizing gene expression might uncover important pathways related to AF.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed genome-wide whole blood transcriptomic profiling (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Array) of 2446 participants (mean age 66 +/- 9 years, 55% women) from the Offspring cohort of Framingham Heart Study. The study included 177 participants with prevalent AF, 143 with incident AF during up to 7 years follow up, and 2126 participants with no AF. We identified seven genes statistically significantly up-regulated with prevalent AF. The most significant gene, PBX1 (P = 2.8 x 10(-7)), plays an important role in cardiovascular development. We integrated differential gene expression with gene-gene interaction information to identify several signaling pathways possibly involved in AF-related transcriptional regulation. We did not detect any statistically significant transcriptomic associations with incident AF.
CONCLUSION: We examined associations of gene expression with AF in a large community-based cohort. Our study revealed several genes and signaling pathways that are potentially involved in AF-related transcriptional regulation.
OBJECTIVE: To develop, pilot, and evaluate a curriculum for teaching clinical risk communication skills to medical students.
METHODS: A new experience-based curriculum, "Risk Talk," was developed and piloted over a 1-year period among students at Tufts University School of Medicine. An experimental study of 2nd-year students exposed vs. unexposed to the curriculum was conducted to evaluate the curriculum's efficacy. Primary outcome measures were students' objective (observed) and subjective (self-reported) risk communication competence; the latter was assessed using an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) employing new measures.
RESULTS: Twenty-eight 2nd-year students completed the curriculum, and exhibited significantly greater (p < .001) objective and subjective risk communication competence than a convenience sample of 24 unexposed students. New observational measures of objective competence in risk communication showed promising evidence of reliability and validity. The curriculum was resource-intensive.
CONCLUSION: The new experience-based clinical risk communication curriculum was efficacious, although resource-intensive. More work is needed to develop the feasibility of curriculum delivery, and to improve the measurement of competence in clinical risk communication.
PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Risk communication is an important advanced communication skill, and the Risk Talk curriculum provides a model educational intervention and new assessment tools to guide future efforts to teach and evaluate this skill.
Patients with prior stroke are susceptible to venous thromboembolism (VTE). We studied patients with stroke in the Worcester VTE study of 2488 consecutive patients hospitalized with VTE. In all, 288 (11.6%) had a clinical history of stroke and 2200 (88.4%) did not. Patients with stroke were more likely to die inhospital (9.2% vs 4%) and within 30 days of VTE diagnosis (16.7% vs 6.9%) compared with patients without stroke (all P < .001). Recent immobilization (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-4.09) and inferior vena cava (IVC) filter insertion (adjusted OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.15-3.83) were associated with a doubling of inhospital death. Recent immobilization (adjusted OR 1.84; 95% CI 1.19-2.83) and IVC filter insertion (adjusted OR 1.94; 95% CI 1.2-3.14) were associated with an increased risk of death within 30 days of VTE. In conclusion, patients with VTE and prior stroke were more than twice as likely to die while hospitalized and within 30 days of VTE diagnosis.
Guideline concordance of testing for hyperkalemia and kidney dysfunction during initiation of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist therapy in patients with heart failure
BACKGROUND: Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) reduce morbidity and mortality in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction but can cause hyperkalemia and acute kidney injury. Guidelines recommend measurement of serum potassium (K) and creatinine (Cr) before and serially after MRA initiation, but the extent to which this occurs is unknown.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Using electronic data from 3 health systems 2005 to 2008, we performed a retrospective review of laboratory monitoring among 490 patients hospitalized for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction who were subsequently initiated on MRA therapy. Median age at time of MRA initiation was 73 years, and 37.1% were women. Spironolactone accounted for 99.4% of MRA use. Initial ambulatory MRA dispensing occurred at hospital discharge in 70.0% of cases. In the 30 days before MRA initiation, 94.3% of patients had a K or Cr measurement. Preinitiation K was >5.0 mmol/L in 1.4% and Cr>2.5 mg/dL in 1.7%. In the 7 days after MRA initiation among patients who remained alive and out of the hospital, 46.5% had no evidence of K measurement; by 30 days, 13.6% remained untested. Patient factors explained a small portion of postinitiation K testing (c-statistic, 0.67).
CONCLUSIONS: Although laboratory monitoring before MRA initiation for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is common, laboratory monitoring after MRA initiation frequently does not meet guideline recommendations, even in patients at higher risk for complications. Quality improvement efforts that encourage the use of MRA should also include mechanisms to address recommended monitoring.
OBJECTIVES: This study examined the demographics, comorbidities, clinical characteristics, and treatments of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with metformin and sulfonylurea as well as an elderly subgroup. Achievement of predefined quality measure goals (glycated hemoglobin [A1C], blood pressure [BP], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], body mass index [BMI]) and their association with diabetes-related healthcare costs were assessed.
STUDY DESIGN: The study applied a retrospective longitudinal cohort design.
METHODS: Health insurance claims and electronic medical records from 14,532 adults with T2DM (2007- 2011) were used to identify a sample receiving metformin and sulfonylurea (MET+SU) concomitantly. The index date was the first dispensing of MET+SU after 6 months of eligibility. Clinical characteristics were assessed during baseline. Quality measure attainment (A1C < 8%, BP < 140/90 mm Hg, LDL-C level < 100 mg/dL, BMI < 30 kg/m(2)), was evaluated during the 12 months following the index date. Association between attainment and diabetes-related costs was evaluated using non-parametric bootstrap methods adjusting for imbalance in baseline characteristics between cohorts.
RESULTS: Among 2044 patients, including 1283 patients 65 years and older, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease were the most common baseline comorbidities. Quality measure goal attainment was 63.9% for A1C, 33.1% for BP, 68.2% for LDL-C level, and 34.4% for BMI, and was associated with significantly lower diabetes-related costs per patient per year compared with nonattainment (adjusted mean cost differences: -$1445 for A1C; -$1218 for BMI; -$2029 for A1C and BMI; -$2073 for A1C, BMI, and BP; all P < .05).
CONCLUSION: This study highlights the high incidence of comorbidities and potential financial implications of attaining T2DM quality outcomes.
Effect of pegloticase on renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease: a post hoc subgroup analysis of 2 randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 clinical trials
BACKGROUND: Pegloticase is approved in the US for treatment of refractory chronic gout. Since chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common in these patients, we conducted a post-hoc analysis of 2 replicate phase 3 trials and the subsequent open-label extension study to determine the effects of pegloticase on renal function in patients with CKD stages 3 and 4, as well as the effects of renal dysfunction on pegloticase efficacy and safety.
FINDINGS: Patients with renal insufficiency were randomized to pegloticase 8 mg every 2 weeks (n = 42), pegloticase 8 mg every 4 weeks (n = 41), or placebo (n = 20) for 6 months as defined by the study protocols. Renal function was assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). All patients completing the randomized trials could participate in an open-label extension study for a further 2.5 years. Uric acid response, the primary end point in the trials, was plasma uric acid < 6.0 mg/dl for 80% of months 3 and 6.Mean eGFR in both pegloticase dosing cohorts remained constant over the randomized treatment phase and long-term open-label extension study. The number of patients achieving uric acid response was similar across CKD stages (32% stage 1, 23% stage 2, 35% stage 3, and 39% stage 4, respectively, P = 0.3). There was no difference in the pegloticase safety profile based on CKD stage.
CONCLUSIONS: Pegloticase treatment does not impact eGFR in CKD patients and response to pegloticase is independent of CKD stage.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial identifier: NCT00325195.
Effects of a modified Hospital Elder Life Program on frailty in individuals undergoing major elective abdominal surgery
OBJECTIVES: To test the effects of a modified Hospital Elder Life Program (mHELP) on frailty.
DESIGN: Matched and unmatched analyses of data from a before-and-after study.
SETTING: Hospital, inpatient.
PARTICIPANTS: Participants aged 65 and older (n = 189) undergoing major elective abdominal surgery at a medical center in Taiwan.
INTERVENTION: The mHELP included three nursing interventions: early mobilization, oral and nutritional assistance, and orienting communication.
MEASUREMENTS: Frailty rate and transitions between frailty states from hospital discharge to 3 months after discharge using Fried's phenotype criteria categorized as nonfrail (0 or 1 criteria present), prefrail (2 or 3 criteria present), and frail (4 or 5 criteria present).
RESULTS: In matched pairs, participants who received the mHELP interventions were significantly less likely to be frail at discharge (19.2%) than matched controls (65.4%) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.02-0.39). Transitions to states of greater frailty during hospitalization were more common for participants in the control group. Three months after discharge, participants who received the mHELP intervention during hospitalization were less likely to be frail (17.3%) than matched controls (23.1%) (AOR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.21-2.56), although this difference did not achieve statistical significance.
CONCLUSION: The mHELP intervention is effective in reducing frailty by hospital discharge, but the benefit is diminished by 3 months after discharge. Thus, the mHELP provides a useful approach to manage in-hospital frailty for older adults undergoing major abdominal surgery. Geriatrics Society.
BACKGROUND: The relationship between psychiatric consultation and antipsychotic prescribing in nursing homes (NH) is unknown.
OBJECTIVE: To identify the association between psychiatric consultant groups and NH-level antipsychotic prescribing after adjustment for resident case-mix and facility characteristics.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Nested cross-sectional study of 60 NHs in a cluster randomized trial. We linked facility leadership surveys to October 2009-September 2010 Minimum Data Set, Nursing Home Compare, the US Census, and pharmacy dispensing data.
MEASURES: The main exposure is the psychiatric consultant group and the main outcome is NH-level prevalence of atypical antipsychotic use. We calculated annual means and interquartile ranges of NH-level antipsychotic use for each consultant group and arrayed consultant groups from lowest to highest prevalence. Generalized linear models were used to predict antipsychotic prescribing adjusting for resident case-mix and facility characteristics. Observed versus predicted antipsychotic prescribing levels were compared for each consultant group.
RESULTS: Seven psychiatric consultant groups served a range of 3-27 study facilities. Overall mean facility-level antipsychotic prescribing was 19.2%. Mean prevalence of antipsychotic prescribing ranged from 12.2% (SD, 5.8) in the lowest consultant group to 26.4% (SD, 3.6) in the highest group. All facilities served by the highest-ranked consultant group had observed antipsychotic levels exceeding the overall study mean with half exceeding predictions for on-label indications, whereas most facilities served by the lowest-ranked consultant group had observed levels below the overall study and predicted means.
CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary evidence suggests that psychiatric consultant groups affect NH antipsychotic prescribing independent of resident case-mix and facility characteristics.
OBJECTIVES: To compare chart- and interview-based methods for identification of delirium.
DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.
SETTING: Two academic medical centers.
PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 70 and older undergoing major elective surgery (N = 300) (majority orthopedic surgery).
MEASUREMENTS: Participants were interviewed daily during hospitalization for delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM; interview-based method), and their medical charts were reviewed for delirium using a validated chart-review method (chart-based method). Rate of agreement of the two methods and characteristics of those identified using each approach were examined. Predictive validity for clinical outcomes (length of stay, postoperative complications, discharge disposition) was compared. In the absence of a criterion standard, predictive value could not be calculated.
RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of delirium was 23% (n = 68) according to the interview-based method, 12% (n = 35) according to the chart-based method, and 27% (n = 82) according to the combined approach. Overall agreement was 80%; kappa was 0.30. The methods differed in detection of psychomotor features and time of onset. The chart-based method missed delirium in individuals that the CAM identified who were lacking features of psychomotor agitation or inappropriate behavior. The CAM-based method missed chart-identified cases occurring during the night shift. The combined method had high predictive validity for all clinical outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: Interview- and chart-based methods have specific strengths for identification of delirium. A combined approach captures the largest number and broadest range of delirium cases. Geriatrics Society.