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Developing Three New Pathophysiologically Based Measures of Nicotine Dependence: A Dissertation

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 3:51pm

BACKGROUND: Of the 22 known measures of nicotine dependence (ND), none capture the overall disease severity of physical dependence alone. Instead, they capture constructs related to dependence, such as perceived risk, psychological addiction, smoker motivations, or smoking related behaviors, but none of the measures include only physical withdrawal symptoms to capture physical dependence on nicotine.

AIM: To develop a range of nicotine dependence measures that capture physical dependence on nicotine.

METHODS: The final measures were developed in a cross-sectional study conducted in three phases: 1) candidate item development through literature review and cognitive interviews, 2) developing and pre-testing the survey, and 3) survey administration and psychometric evaluation to validate three distinct measures. The final survey was conducted at four health clinics and three high schools. Psychometric tests used to select the final measure items included inter-item correlations, sensitivity analyses done by subgroup, item-total correlations, convergent validity tests, and confirmatory factor analysis. The final measures were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), internal reliability, total score distributions, and convergent validity correlations. Relative validity analyses were also conducted using a ratio of F-Statistics to compare the ability of each new measure to differentiate dependent smokers as compared previous measures.

RESULTS: The final sample included 275 smokers ranging from 14 to 76 years old (mean=30.9, SD=16.2), who smoked an average of 11.5 cigarettes per day (range=0-50, SD=9.4). The sample was 86.5% white and 57.5% male. The three new measures developed included: 1) the 4-item Withdrawal-Induced Craving Scale (WICS) used to capture severity of craving, the most common physical withdrawal symptom; 2) the 12- item Nicotine Withdrawal Symptom Checklist (NWSC), which measures both overall disease severity and the severity of a comprehensive list of individual physical withdrawal symptoms including withdrawal-induced craving, anger, anxiety, depression, headache, insomnia, loss of focus, restlessness, and stress; and 3) the 6-item brief NWSC (NWSC-b), a short measure which only captures overall disease severity. All of the new measures exhibited a unidimensional factor structure loading highly on a single factor (thought to be physical dependence). They also correlated highly (over 0.6) and significantly (p<0.001) to a battery of convergent validity indices including four widely used nicotine dependence measures: Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC), the Autonomy Over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS), the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), and self-rated addiction.

CONCLUSION: The WICS, NWSC, and NWSC-b provide three distinct validated tools that can be used by researchers, clinicians, and educators to track the progression of physical dependence on nicotine across a range of smoking behaviors and histories.

Complex Roles of Macrophages in Lipid Metabolism and Metabolic Disease: A Dissertation

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 3:51pm

The worldwide prevalence of obesity and metabolic disease is increasing at an exponential rate and current projections provide no indication of relief. This growing burden of obesity-related metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), highlights the importance of identifying how lifestyle choices, genetics and physiology play a role in metabolic disease and place obese individuals at a greater risk for obesity-related complications including insulin resistance (IR). This increased risk of IR, which is characterized by a decreased response to insulin in peripheral tissues including adipose tissue (AT) and liver, is associated with a chronic, low grade inflammatory state; however, the causative connections between obesity and inflammation remains in question. Experimental evidence suggests that adipocytes and macrophages can profoundly influence obesity-induced IR because adipocyte dysfunction leads to ectopic lipid deposition in peripheral insulin sensitive tissues, and obese AT is characterized by increased local inflammation and macrophage and other immune cell populations. Attempts to delineate the individual roles of macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), have demonstrated causative roles in impaired systemic insulin sensitivity, adipocyte function and hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism in obese animal models. Thus, the attenuation of macrophage-derived inflammation is an evolving area of interest to provide insight into the underlying mechanism(s) leading to obesity-induced IR.

Thus, in the first chapter of this thesis, I describe experiments to refine the current paradigm of obesity-induced AT inflammation by combining gene expression profiling with computational analysis of two anatomically distinct AT depots, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) to address whether the inflammatory signature of AT is influenced by diet-induced obesity (DIO). Microarray and qRT-PCR analysis data revealed that DIO mouse SAT is resistant to high fat diet (HFD)-induced inflammation and macrophage infiltration, and our data support the current model of obesity-induced visceral adipose tissue macrophage (VATM) enrichment. Our data demonstrated robust increases in VAT pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, which are consistent with the significant increases in macrophage-specific gene expression and consistent with previous reports in which VAT inflammation is enhanced and attributed to classically activated (M1) macrophage infiltration. However, these data are only observed relative to the expression of invariant housekeeping gene expression. When M1-specific genes are expressed relative to macrophage-specific standards like F4/80 expression, these inflammatory makers are unchanged. These data indicate that the changes in the overall inflammatory profile of DIO mouse VAT is because of quantitative changes in adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) number and not qualitative changes in activation state. These observations are consistent with the idea that infiltrating ATMs may have roles other than the previously described role in mediating inflammation in obese adipose tissue.

Hepatic IR occurs partly as a consequence of adipocyte dysfunction because the liver becomes a reservoir for AT-derived fatty acids (FAs), which leads to obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In the second part of my thesis, I used clodronate liposome-mediated macrophage depletion to define the role of macrophages in hepatic lipid metabolism regulation. We discovered that i.p. administration of clodronate liposomes depletes Kupffer cells (KCs) in ob/ob mice without affecting VATM content, whereas clodronate liposomes depletes both KCs and VATMs in DIO mice. To this end, we established that clodronate liposome-mediated KC depletion, regardless of VATM content in obese mice, abrogated hepatic steatosis by reducing hepatic de novo lipogenic gene expression. The observed reductions in hepatic inflammation in macrophage-depleted obese mice led to the hypothesis that IL-1β may be responsible for obesity-induced increased hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. We determined that IL-1β treatment increases fatty acid synthase (Fas) protein expression and TG accumulation in primary mouse hepatocytes. Pharmacological inhibition of interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling by interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) administration recapitulated these results by reducing hepatic TG accumulation and lipogenic gene expression in DIO mice. Thus, these data highlight the importance of the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in obesity-driven hepatic steatosis and suggests that liver inflammation controls hepatic lipogenesis in obesity.

To this end, the studies described herein provide new insight and appreciation to the multi-functional nature of macrophages and clinical implications for anti-inflammatory therapy in obesity and NAFLD treatment. We demonstrate the complexities of macrophage-mediated functions in insulin sensitive tissues and a role for obesity-induced inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in hepatic lipid metabolism modulation, which is reversed via IL-1Ra intervention. The use of anti-inflammatory therapy to ameliorate obesity-associated NAFLD was perhaps the most important contribution to this body of work and is full of promise for future clinical application. It is likely that the future of therapeutics will be multi-faceted and combine therapeutic approaches to enhance glucose tolerance and overall health in obese, IR and T2DM patients.

Investigating Tumor Suppressors in the DNA Damage Response: Caretakers of the Genome and Biomarkers to Predict Therapeutic Response: A Dissertation

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 3:51pm

Our genome is constantly challenged by sources that cause DNA damage. To repair DNA damage and maintain genomic stability eukaryotes have evolved a complex network of pathways termed the DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR consists of signal transduction pathways that sense DNA damage and mediate tightly coordinated reactions to halt the cell cycle and repair DNA with a collection of different enzymes. In this manner, the DDR protects the genome by preventing the accumulation of mutations and DNA aberrations that promote cellular transformation and cancer development. Loss of function mutations in DDR genes and genomic instability occur frequently in many tumor types and underlie numerous cancer-prone hereditary syndromes such as Fanconi Anemia (FA).

My thesis research applies candidate-based and unbiased experimental approaches to investigate the role of several tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in the DDR. My dissertation will first describe a novel function for the breast and ovarian cancer tumor suppressor and FA-associated gene FANCJ in the DDR to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. In response to UV irradiation FANCJ supports checkpoint induction, the arrest of DNA synthesis, and suppresses UV induced point mutations. Suggesting that FANCJ could suppress UV induced cancers, in sequenced melanomas from multiple databases I found somatic mutations in FANCJ previously associated with breast/ovarian cancer and FA syndrome.

The second part of my dissertation will describe an RNA interference screen to identify genes modulating cellular sensitivity to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. The hereditary breast/ovarian cancer tumor suppressor BRCA2 is essential for DNA repair, thus BRCA2 mutant ovarian cancer cells are initially sensitive to cisplatin chemotherapy that induces DNA damage. However, drug resistance develops and remains a major problem in the clinic. My screen identified the chromatin remodeling factor CHD4 as a potent modulator of cisplatin sensitivity and predictor of response to chemotherapy in BRCA2 mutant cancers. Taken together, my investigations highlight the important contribution of the DDR and the role they play in tumorigenesis and predicting therapeutic response.

POS-1 Regulation of Endo-mesoderm Identity in C. elegans: A Dissertation

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 3:51pm

How do embryos develop with such poise from a single zygote to multiple cells with different identities, and yet survive? At the four-cell stage of the C. elegans embryo, only the blastomere EMS adopts the endo-mesoderm identity. This fate requires SKN-1, the master regulator of endoderm and mesoderm differentiation. However, in the absence of the RNA binding protein POS-1, EMS fails to fulfill its fate despite the presence of SKN-1. pos-1(-) embryos die gutless. Conversely, the RNA binding protein MEX-5 prevents ectoderm blastomeres from adopting the endo-mesoderm identity by repressing SKN-1. mex-5(-) embryos die with excess muscle at the expense of skin and neurons.

Through forward and reverse genetics, I found that genes gld-3/Bicaudal C, cytoplasmic adenylase gld-2, cye-1/Cyclin E, glp-1/Notch and the novel gene neg-1 are suppressors that restore gut development despite the absence of pos-1. Both POS-1 and MEX-5 bind the 3’UTR of neg-1 mRNA and its poly(A) tail requires GLD-3/2 for elongation. Moreover, neg-1 requires MEX-5 for its expression in anterior ectoderm blastomeres and is repressed in EMS by POS-1. Most neg-1(-) embryos die with defects in anterior ectoderm development where the mesoderm transcription factor pha-4 becomes ectopically expressed. This lethality is reduced by the concomitant loss of med- 1, a key mesoderm-promoting transcription factor.

Thus the endo-mesoderm identity of EMS is determined by the presence of SKN- 1 and the POS-1 repression of neg-1, whose expression is promoted by MEX-5. Together they promote the anterior ectoderm identity by repressing mesoderm differentiation. Such checks and balances ensure the vital plurality of cellular identity without the lethal tyranny of a single fate.

Outpatient Emergency Department Utilization: Measurement and Prediction: A Dissertation

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 3:51pm

Approximately half of all emergency department (ED) visits are primary-care sensitive (PCS) – meaning that they could potentially be avoided with timely, effective primary care. Reducing undesirable types of healthcare utilization (including PCS ED use) requires the ability to define, measure, and predict such use in a population.

In this retrospective, observational study, we quantified ED use in 2 privately insured populations and developed ED risk prediction models. One dataset, obtained from a Massachusetts managed-care network (MCN), included data from 2009-11. The second was the MarketScan database, with data from 2007-08. The MCN study included 64,623 individuals enrolled for at least 1 base-year month and 1 prediction-year month in Massachusetts whose primary care provider (PCP) participated in the MCN. The MarketScan study included 15,136,261 individuals enrolled for at least 1 base-year month and 1 prediction-year month in the 50 US states plus DC, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands.

We used medical claims to identify principal diagnosis codes for ED visits, and scored each according to the New York University Emergency Department algorithm. We defined primary-care sensitive (PCS) ED visits as those in 3 subcategories: nonemergent, emergent but primary-care treatable, and emergent but preventable/avoidable.

We then: 1) defined and described the distributions of 3 ED outcomes: any ED use; number of ED visits; and a new outcome, based on the NYU algorithm, that we call PCS ED use; 2) built and validated predictive models for these outcomes using administrative claims data; 3) compared the performance of models predicting any ED use, number of ED visits, and PCS ED use; 4) enhanced these models by adding enrollee characteristics from electronic medical records, neighborhood characteristics, and payor/provider characteristics, and explored differences in performance between the original and enhanced models.

In the MarketScan sample, 10.6% of enrollees had at least 1 ED visit, with about half of utilization scored as PCS. For the top risk group (those in the 99.5th percentile), the model’s sensitivity was 3.1%, specificity was 99.7%, and positive predictive value (PPV) was 49.7%. The model predicting PCS visits yielded sensitivity of 3.8%, specificity of 99.7%, and PPV of 40.5% for the top risk group.

In the MCN sample, 14.6% (±0.1%) had at least 1 ED visit during the prediction period, with an overall rate of 18.8 (±0.2) visits per 100 persons and 7.6 (±0.1) PCS ED visits per 100 persons. Measuring PCS ED use with a threshold-based approach resulted in many fewer visits counted as PCS, discarding information unnecessarily. Out of 45 practices, 5 to 11 (11-24%) had observed values that were statistically significantly different from their expected values. Models predicting ED utilization using age, sex, race, morbidity, and prior use only (claims-based models) had lower R2 (ranging from 2.9% to 3.7%) and poorer predictive ability than the enhanced models that also included payor, PCP type and quality, problem list conditions, and covariates from the EMR, Census tract, and MCN provider data (enhanced model R2 ranged from 4.17% to 5.14%). In adjusted analyses, age, claims-based morbidity score, any ED visit in the base year, asthma, congestive heart failure, depression, tobacco use, and neighborhood poverty were strongly associated with increased risk for all 3 measures (all P<.001).

CD8+ T Cell and NK Responses to a Novel Dengue Epitope: A Possible Role for KIR3DL1 in Dengue Pathogenesis: A Dissertation

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 3:51pm

Variation in the sequence of T cell epitopes between dengue virus (DENV) serotypes is believed to alter memory T cell responses during second heterologous infections contributing to pathology following DENV infection. We identified a highly conserved, novel, HLA-B57-restricted epitope on the DENV NS1 protein, NS126-34. We predicted higher frequencies of NS126-34-specific CD8+ T cells in PBMC from individuals undergoing secondary, rather than primary, DENV infection due to the expansion of memory CD8+T cells. We generated a tetramer against this epitope (B57-NS126-34TET) and used it to assess the frequencies and phenotype of antigen-specific T cells in samples from a clinical cohort of children with acute DENV infection established in Bangkok, Thailand. High tetramer-positive T cell frequencies during acute infection were seen in only 1 of 9 subjects with secondary infection. B57-NS126-34-specific, other DENV epitope-specific CD8+ T cells, as well as total CD8+ T cells, expressed an activated phenotype (CD69+ and/or CD38+) during acute infection. In contrast, expression of CD71 was largely limited to DENV-specific CD8+ T cells. In vitro stimulation of CD8+ T cell lines, generated against three different DENV epitopes, indicated that CD71 expression was differentially sensitive to stimulation by homologous and heterologous variant peptides with substantial upregulation of CD71 detected to peptides which also elicited strong functional responses. CD71 may therefore represent a useful marker of antigenspecific T cell activation.

During the course of our analysis we found substantial binding of B57-NS126-34 TET to CD8- cells. We demonstrated that the B57-NS126-34 TET bound KIR3DL1, an inhibitory receptor on natural killer (NK) cells. NK sensitive target cells presenting the NS126-34 peptide in the context of HLA-B57 were able to dampen functional responses of only KIR3DL1+ NK cells. Analysis of the activation of an NK enriched population in our Thai cohort revealed peak activation during the critical time phase in patients with severe dengue illness, dengue hemorrhagic fever, compared to people with mild illness.

Our data identified CD71 as biologically useful marker to study DENV-specific CD8+ T cell responses and highlighted the role of viral peptides in modulating NK cell activation through KIR-MHC class I interactions during DENV infection.

Dissecting the Role of Cytosolic Nucleic Acid Sensors in the Type I Interferon Response to Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and other Ligands: A Dissertation

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 3:51pm

The innate immune system provides the first line of defense against infection. Pathogens are detected though a variety of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), which activate downstream signaling cascades. Effector molecules such as cytokines and chemokines are released upon activation and aid in cell recruitment, control of pathogen replication, and coordination of the adaptive immune response. Nucleic acids that are released into the cytosol during viral and bacterial infection are recognized through a special class of PRRs, coined cytosolic nucleic acid sensors. Upon recognition, these receptors induce the production of type I interferons and other cytokines to aid in pathogen clearance. Although many cytosolic nucleic acid sensors have been discovered, it is unclear how they work in concert to mediate these responses.

The Interferon Gamma Inducible protein (IFI)16 and its proposed mouse orthologue IFI204 are cytosolic DNA sensors that have been linked to the detection of cytosolic DNA during infection with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1). IFI16 binds dsDNA that has been released into the cytosol during viral infection and engages the adaptor molecule Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) leading to TANK binding kinase-1 (TBK1) dependent phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and transcription of type I interferons and interferon stimulated genes. In addition to its role as a sensor, in chapter two of this thesis we describe a broader role for IFI16 in the regulation of the type I IFN response to RNA and DNA viruses in anti-viral immunity. In an effort to better understand the role of IFI16 in coordinating type I IFN gene regulation, we generated cell lines with stable knockdown of IFI16 and examined responses to DNA and RNA viruses as well as other inducers of IFN such as cyclic-dinucleotides. As expected, stable knockdown of IFI16 led to a severely attenuated type I IFN response to cytosolic DNA ligands and DNA viruses. In contrast, expression of the NF-κB regulated cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-1β were unaffected in IFI16 knockdown cells, suggesting that the role of IFI16 in sensing these triggers was unique to the type I IFN pathway. Surprisingly, we also found that knockdown of IFI16 led to a severe attenuation of expression of IFN-α and IFN stimulated genes such as RIG-I in response to cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP), a second messenger produced in response to cGAS, as well as RNA ligands and viruses. Analysis of IFI16 knockdown cells revealed compromised occupancy of RNA polymerase II on the IFN-α promoter in IFI16 knockdown cells suggesting that transcription of ISGs is dependent on IFI16. Since IFI16 knockdown compromised not only DNA virus driven pathways, we propose additional regulatory roles outside of DNA sensing. Collectively, these results indicate that IFI16 plays a role in the regulation of type I IFN gene transcription and production in response to both RNA and DNA viruses.

The role of IFI16/IFI204 has been studied extensively in vitro, however the role of the receptors in vivo has yet to be determined. In chapter three of this thesis, we developed a mouse deficient in IFI204 to explore the role of IFI204 in in vivo immune responses to viruses. We investigated the ability of IFI204 deficient cells to induce type I interferons and other cytokines in response to a panel of DNA and RNA ligands in vitro. IFI204 deficient BMDMs displayed a partial defect in type I interferon induction in response to both DNA and RNA ligands and viruses as compared to WT mice. We also observed that this phenotype is time dependent, since there was no change in type I interferon induction after 12 hours post infection as compared to earlier time points. In contrast to these results, expression of the NF-κB regulated cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β were unaffected in IFI16 knockdown cells. These results suggest that IFI204 plays a partial role in the induction of type I interferons in response to both DNA and RNA ligands. Additionally, IFI204 may work in tandem with other receptors in a sequential manner to amplify the type I interferon response. We also studied the involvement of IFI204 in an in vivo model of HSV-1 infection. IFI204 knockout mice produce less brain and serum IFN-β, IL-6, and IL-1β 72 hours post intraperitoneal infection with HSV-1. Furthermore, IFI204 -/- mice are more susceptible to HSV-1 infection as compared to WT mice. These data indicate that IFI204 mediates the response to HSV-1 in vivo by inducing the production of cytokines that are necessary for the control of viral infection.

Characterization of Anti-Fungal Inflammasome Responses and the Role of Caspase-8 in Innate Immune Signaling: A Dissertation

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 3:51pm

The innate immune system is an evolutionarily conserved primary defense system against microbial infections. One of the central components of innate immunity are the pattern recognition receptors which sense infection by detecting various conserved molecular patterns of pathogens and trigger a variety of signaling pathways. In this dissertation, the signaling pathways of several classes of these receptors were dissected. In chapters II and III, the role of two NOD-like receptors, NLRP3 and NLRC4 were investigated in the context of infection with the fungal pathogen, C. albicans. C. albicans is an opportunistic pathogen that causes diseases mainly in immunocompromised humans and innate immunity is critical to control the infection. In chapters II and III, we demonstrate that a multiprotein-inflammasome complex formed by the NLR protein, NLRP3 and its associated partners, ASC and caspase-1 are critical for triggering the production of mature cytokine IL-1β in response to C. albicans. NLRC4, another inflammasome forming NLR that is activated by intracellular bacterial pathogens, was not required for this process in macrophages. Thus, our data indicates that NLRP3 inflammasome responds to fungal infections in addition to its known stimuli such as bacterial and viral infections, toxic, crystalline and metabolic signals.

Interestingly, this NLRP3 dependent inflammasome response was maintained even when the pathogen is not viable, and is either formalin fixed or heat-killed (HK). Hence, in chapter III, we examined β-glucans, a structural cell wall component, as the potential immunostimulatory component of C. albicans and dissected the inflammasome responses to β -glucans. We observed that NLRP3-ASC-caspase-1 inflammasome was critical for commercially obtained particulate β-glucans similar to the case of C. albicans. β-glucan sensing C-lectin receptor dectin-1 and the complement receptor CR3 mediated inflammasome activation, IL-1β production in response to the glucan particles. Interestingly, CR3 which recognizes glucans as well as complement opsonized pathogens was strongly required for HK C. albicans induced IL-1β, and partially required for that of live C. albicans, while dectin-1 was not required. Consistent with the receptor studies, blocking of β -glucan receptors by pre-incubating cells with nonstimulatory, soluble glucans led to decreased IL-1β production in response to HK C. albicanswith no effect on IL-1β in response to the live fungus. Dectin-1, CR3 and β-glucan sensing also triggered a moderate dendritic cell death response to β-glucans and HK C. albicans. Live C. albicans induced cell death requires phagocytosis but not the inflammasome, β-glucan sensing, dectin-1 or CR3.

The Drosophila caspase-8 like molecule DREDD plays an essential, nonapoptotic role in the Drosophila NF-κB pathway called the ‘IMD’ pathway. Owing to the remarkable evolutionary conservation between Drosophila and mammalian innate immune NF-κB pathways, we explored the potential role of caspase-8 in inflammasomes and in TLR signaling. Using casp8-/- Rip3-/- macrophages and dendritic cells, we observed that caspase-8, specifically augments β-glucan and HK C. albicans induced IL-1β as well as cell death in a caspase-1 independent manner, but not that of live C. albicans, in chapter III.

We also found that caspase-8 differentially regulates TLR4 and TLR3 induced cytokine production (chapter IV). Caspase-8 specifically promotes TLR4 induced production of cytokines such as TNF, IL-1β in response to LPS and E. coli. On the other hand, caspase-8 negatively regulates TRIF induced IFNβ production in TLR4 and TLR3 signaling in response to LPS and dsRNA. Caspase-8 executed a similar mode of regulation of the cytokine RANTES in MEFs, in part, by collaborating with RIP3. Strikingly, caspase-8 deficiency alone triggers higher macrophage death and IL-1β production in response to TLR ligands, due to the presence of RIP3. Thus, in addition to its conventional roles in apoptosis, caspase-8 modulates TLR4 and TLR3 induced cytokine production and prevents RIP3 mediated hyper inflammation in response to TLR signals.

Together, our findings provide valuable information on fungal pattern recognition and inflammasome pathways and define the contribution of β-glucan sensing to C. albicans induced inflammasome responses. In addition, we demonstrate how caspase-8 adds a layer of specificity to inflammasome as well as TLR signaling. Overall, these results also shed light on the cross talk between death signaling components and innate immune pathways to mount a specific and potentially effective innate immune response against microbial pathogens.

ADHD-200 Patient Characterization and Classification using Resting State Networks: A Dissertation

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 3:51pm

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder of childhood that is characterized by symptoms of inattention, impulsivity/hyperactivity, or a combination of both. Intrinsic brain dysfunction in ADHD can be examined through various methods including resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI), which investigates patients’ functional brain connections in the absence of an explicit task. To date, studies of group differences in resting brain connectivity between patients with ADHD and typically developing controls (TDCs) have revealed reduced connectivity within the Default Mode Network (DMN), a resting state network implicated in introspection, mind-wandering, and day-dreaming. However, few studies have addressed the use of resting state connectivity measures as a diagnostic aide for ADHD on the individual patient level. In the current work, we attempted first to characterize the differences in resting state networks, including the DMN and three attention networks (the salience network, the left executive network, and the right executive network), between a group of youth with ADHD and a group of TDCs matched for age, IQ, gender, and handedness. Significant over- and under-connections were found in the ADHD group in all of these networks compared with TDCs. We then attempted to use a support vector machine (SVM) based on the information extracted from resting state network connectivity to classify participants as “ADHD” or “TDC.” The IFGmiddle temporal network (66.8% accuracy), the parietal association network (86.6% specificity and 48.5% PPV), and a physiological noise component (sensitivity 39.7% and NPV 69.6%) performed the best classifications. Finally, we attempted to combine and utilize information from all the resting state networks that we identified to improve classification accuracy. Contrary to our hypothesis, classification accuracy decreased to 54-55% when this information was combined. Overall, the work presented here supports the theory that the ADHD brain is differently connected at rest than that of TDCs, and that this information may be useful for developing a diagnostic aid. However, because ADHD is such a heterogeneous disorder, each ADHD patient’s underlying brain deficits may be unique making it difficult to determine what connectivity information is diagnostically useful.

Identification and Characteristics of Factors Regulating Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression and Metastasis: A Dissertation

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 3:51pm

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy of the liver that is one of the most frequent causes of cancer-related death in the world. Surgical resection and liver transplantation are the only curative options for HCC, and tumor invasion and metastasis render many patients ineligible for these treatments. Identification of the mechanisms that contribute to invasive and metastatic disease may enlighten therapeutic strategies for those not eligible for surgical treatments. In this dissertation, I describe two sets of experiments to elucidate mechanisms underlying HCC dissemination, involving the activities of Krüppel-like factor 6 and a particular p53 point mutation, R172H.

Gene expression profiling of migratory HCC subpopulations demonstrated reduced expression of Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) in invasive HCC cells. Knockdown of KLF6 in HCC cells increased cell transformation and migration. Single-copy deletion of Klf6 in a HCC mouse model results in increased tumor formation, increased metastasis to the lungs, and decreased survival, indicating that KLF6 suppresses both tumor formation and metastasis in HCC.

To elucidate the mechanism of KLF6-mediated tumor and metastasis suppression, we performed gene expression profiling and ChIP-sequencing to identify direct transcriptional targets of KLF6 in HCC cells. This analysis revealed novel transcriptional targets of KLF6 in HCC including CDC42EP3 and VAV3, both of which are positive regulators of Rho family GTPases. Concordantly, KLF6 knockdown cells demonstrate increased activity of the Rho family GTPases RAC1 and CDC42, and RAC1 is required for migration induced following KLF6 knockdown. Moreover, VAV3 and CDC42EP3 are also required for enhanced cell migration in HCC cells with KLF6 knockdown. Together, this work describes a novel signaling axis through which KLF6-mediated repression of VAV3 and CDC42EP3 inhibits RAC1Gmediated HCC cell migration in culture, and potentially HCC metastasis in vivo.

TP53 gene mutations are commonly found in HCC and are associated with poor prognosis. Prior studies have suggested that p53 mutants can display gain-of- function properties in other tumor types. Therefore, I sought to determine if a particular hotspot p53 mutation, p53R172H, provided enhanced, gain-of-function properties compared to p53 loss in HCC. In vitro, soft agar colony formation and cell migration is reduced upon knockdown of p53R172H, indicating that this mutation is required for transformation-associated phenotypes in these cells. However, p53R172H-expressing mice did not have enhanced tumor formation or metastasis compared to p53-null mice. These data suggest that p53R172H and p53 deletion are functionally equivalent in vivo, and that p53R172H is not a gain-of-function mutant in HCC. Inhibition of the related transcription factors p63 and p73 has been suggested as a potential mechanism by which mutant p53 exerts its gain-of-function effects. Analysis of p63 and p73 target genes demonstrated that they are similarly suppressed in p53-null and p53R172H-expressing HCC cell lines, suggesting a potential explanation for the phenotypes I observed in vivo and in vitro.

Together, the studies described in this dissertation increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying HCC progression and metastasis. Specifically, we find and characterize KLF6 as a novel suppressor of HCC metastasis, and determine the contribution of a common p53 point mutation in HCC. This work contributes to ongoing efforts to improve treatment options for HCC patients.

Optimal equations for describing the relationship between prostate volume, number of sources, and total activity in permanent prostate brachytherapy

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 11:16am

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether there is an optimal type of mathematical equation for predicting seed and activity requirements for permanent prostate brachytherapy.

METHODS: Four institutions with extensive brachytherapy experience each submitted details of more than 40 implants. The data was used to generate power and linear equations to reflect the relationship between preimplant volume and the number of seeds implanted, and preimplant volume and the total implant activity. We compared the R and standard error of the generated equations to determine which type of equation better fit the data.

RESULTS: For the limited range of prostate volumes commonly implanted (20-60 mL), power and linear equations predict seed and activity requirements comparably well.

CONCLUSIONS: Linear and power equations are equally suitable for generating institution-specific nomograms.

Results of a multi-institutional benchmark test for cranial CT/MR image registration

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 11:16am

PURPOSE: Variability in computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MR) cranial image registration was assessed using a benchmark case developed by the Quality Assurance Review Center to credential institutions for participation in Children's Oncology Group Protocol ACNS0221 for treatment of pediatric low-grade glioma.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two DICOM image sets, an MR and a CT of the same patient, were provided to each institution. A small target in the posterior occipital lobe was readily visible on two slices of the MR scan and not visible on the CT scan. Each institution registered the two scans using whatever software system and method it ordinarily uses for such a case. The target volume was then contoured on the two MR slices, and the coordinates of the center of the corresponding target in the CT coordinate system were reported. The average of all submissions was used to determine the true center of the target.

RESULTS: Results are reported from 51 submissions representing 45 institutions and 11 software systems. The average error in the position of the center of the target was 1.8 mm (1 standard deviation = 2.2 mm). The least variation in position was in the lateral direction. Manual registration gave significantly better results than did automatic registration (p = 0.02).

CONCLUSION: When MR and CT scans of the head are registered with currently available software, there is inherent uncertainty of approximately 2 mm (1 standard deviation), which should be considered when defining planning target volumes and PRVs for organs at risk on registered image sets.

Howard Kelly establishes gynecologic brachytherapy in the United States

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 11:16am

PURPOSE: Exploration of Howard Atwood Kelly's contributions to gynecologic brachytherapy.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: Review of contemporary journals, texts, newspaper accounts, and the memoirs of Kelly's associates. Information from unpublished material, including Kelly's handwritten notes and diaries, was culled from the Alan Mason Chesney Archives of the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions.

RESULTS: Despite European reports of radium's efficacy, gynecologists on both sides of the Atlantic resisted its adoption. The endorsement of radium therapy by America's foremost gynecologist, Howard Kelly, was instrumental in its acceptance. His consummate skill as clinician, investigator, publicist, and entrepreneur established brachytherapy as the primary treatment modality for carcinoma of the cervix and vagina. The technique he pioneered in the second decade of the 20th century, a combination of brachytherapy and megavoltage-equivalent teletherapy, presaged modern practice.

CONCLUSION: Principles for the management of female genital neoplasia, outlined by Howard Kelly nine decades ago, remain relevant today.

Impact of high-dose chemotherapy on the ability to deliver subsequent local-regional radiotherapy for breast cancer: analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B Protocol 9082

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 11:16am

PURPOSE: To report, from Cancer and Leukemia Group B Protocol 9082, the impact of high-dose cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, and BCNU (HD-CPB) vs. intermediate-dose CPB (ID-CPB) on the ability to start and complete the planned course of local-regional radiotherapy (RT) for women with breast cancer involving >or=10 axillary nodes.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 1991 to 1998, 785 patients were randomized. The HD-CPB and ID-CPB arms were balanced regarding patient characteristics. The HD-CPB and ID-CPB arms were compared on the probability of RT initiation, interruption, modification, or incompleteness. The impact of clinical variables and interactions between variables were also assessed.

RESULTS: Radiotherapy was initiated in 82% (325 of 394) of HD-CPB vs. 92% (360 of 391) of ID-CPB patients (p = 0.001). On multivariate analyses, RT was less likely given to patients who were randomized to HD treatment (odds ratio [OR] = 0 .38, p < 0.001), older (p = 0.005), African American (p = 0.003), postmastectomy (p = 0.02), or estrogen receptor positive (p = 0.03). High-dose treatment had a higher rate of RT interruption (21% vs. 12%, p = 0.001, OR = 2.05), modification (29% vs. 14%, p = 0.001, OR = 2.46), and early termination of RT (9% vs. 2%, p = 0.0001, OR = 5.35), compared with ID.

CONCLUSION: Treatment arm significantly related to initiation, interruption, modification, and early termination of RT. Patients randomized to HD-CPB were less likely to initiate RT, and of those who did, they were more likely to have RT interrupted, modified, and terminated earlier than those randomized to ID-CPB. The observed lower incidence of RT usage in African Americans vs. non-African Americans warrants further study.

Initial experience with volumetric IMRT (RapidArc) for intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 11:16am

PURPOSE: Initial experience with delivering frameless stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) using volumetric intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) delivered with RapidArc is presented.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: Treatment details for 12 patients (14 targets) with a mean clinical target volume (CTV) of 12.8 +/- 4.0 cm(3) were examined. Dosimetric indices for conformality, homogeneity, and dose gradient were calculated and compared with published results for other frameless, intracranial SRT techniques, including CyberKnife, TomoTherapy, and static-beam IMRT. Statistics on setup and treatment times and per patient dose validations were examined.

RESULTS: Dose indices compared favorably with other techniques. Mean conformality, gradient, and homogeneity index values were 1.10 +/- 0.11, 64.9 +/- 14.1, 1.083 +/- 0.026, respectively. Median treatment times were 4.8 +/- 1.7 min.

CONCLUSION: SRT using volumetric IMRT is a viable alternative to other techniques and enables short treatment times. This is anticipated to have a positive impact on radiobiological effect and for facilitating wider use of SRT.

Quality of radiotherapy reporting in randomized controlled trials of Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: in regard to Bekelman and Yahalom (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009;73:492-498)

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 11:16am

Comment on Quality of radiotherapy reporting in randomized controlled trials of Hodgkin's lymphoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a systematic review. [Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009]

Don Lawrence and the "k-capture" revolution

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 11:16am

PURPOSE: The practice of brachytherapy was in steep decline in the mid-20th century, largely because of safety issues. This article explores the innovations that revitalized brachytherapy with special attention to the introduction of low-energy seeds for permanent implantation.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: Literature review; interviews; and the memos, records, and correspondence of Donald C. Lawrence.

RESULTS: Paul Harper first proposed the use of radionuclides that decay by k-capture in the 1950s. But it was the vision and tenacity of health physicist Donald Lawrence that led to the successful implementation of I-125 (in the 1960s) and Cs-131 (40 years later).

Critical impact of radiotherapy protocol compliance and quality in the treatment of advanced head and neck cancer: results from TROG 02.02

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 11:16am

PURPOSE: To report the impact of radiotherapy quality on outcome in a large international phase III trial evaluating radiotherapy with concurrent cisplatin plus tirapazamine for advanced head and neck cancer.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: The protocol required interventional review of radiotherapy plans by the Quality Assurance Review Center (QARC). All plans and radiotherapy documentation underwent post-treatment review by the Trial Management Committee (TMC) for protocol compliance. Secondary review of noncompliant plans for predicted impact on tumor control was performed. Factors associated with poor protocol compliance were studied, and outcome data were analyzed in relation to protocol compliance and radiotherapy quality.

RESULTS: At TMC review, 25.4% of the patients had noncompliant plans but none in which QARC-recommended changes had been made. At secondary review, 47% of noncompliant plans (12% overall) had deficiencies with a predicted major adverse impact on tumor control. Major deficiencies were unrelated to tumor subsite or to T or N stage (if N+), but were highly correlated with number of patients enrolled at the treatment center (< five patients, 29.8%; > or = 20 patients, 5.4%; P < .001). In patients who received at least 60 Gy, those with major deficiencies in their treatment plans (n = 87) had a markedly inferior outcome compared with those whose treatment was initially protocol compliant (n = 502): -2 years overall survival, 50% v 70%; hazard ratio (HR), 1.99; P < .001; and 2 years freedom from locoregional failure, 54% v 78%; HR, 2.37; P < .001, respectively.

CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the critical importance of radiotherapy quality on outcome of chemoradiotherapy in head and neck cancer. Centers treating only a few patients are the major source of quality problems.

Treatment results for patients with localized, completely resected (Group I) alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma on Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group (IRSG) protocols III and IV, 1984-1997: a report from the Children's Oncology Group

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 11:16am

PURPOSE: To assess local control, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS) rates in 71 patients with localized, completely resected (Group I) alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ALV RMS) and their relation to radiation therapy (RT) on IRSG Protocols III and IV, 1984-1997. METHODS: Chart review and standard statistical procedures.

PATIENTS AND TUMORS: Patients were 1-18 years at diagnosis (median, 6 years). Primary tumor sites were extremity/trunk (N = 54), head/neck (N = 9), genitourinary tract (N = 7), and perineum (N = 1). Thirty patients received VA +/- C with RT; 41 received VA +/- C alone. RT was assigned, not randomized.

RESULTS: Fifty-four patients had Stage 1 (favorable site, any size) or Stage 2 (unfavorable site, < or = 5 cm) tumors. Eight-year EFS was 90%, with 100% local control for 17 patients given RT. Eight-year EFS was 88%, with 92% local control for 37 patients without RT; P = 0.52 for EFS comparisons, 0.3 for local control comparisons. In 17 Stage 3 patients (unfavorable site, tumors >5 cm, N0), 8-year EFS was 84% with 100% local control in 13 patients given RT; 8-year EFS was only 25% and local control 50% in 4 patients without RT. Local recurrence was the most common site of first failure in non-irradiated patients.

CONCLUSION: Patients with Stage 1-2 ALV RMS had slightly but statistically insignificantly improved local control, EFS, and OS rates when local RT was given. The need for local RT in Stage 1-2 patients deserves evaluation in a randomized study. Local control, EFS, and OS rates were significantly improved in Stage 3 patients receiving local RT.

Impact of tumor viability at second-look procedures performed before completing treatment on the Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group protocol IRS-IV, 1991-1997: a report from the children's oncology group

Tue, 06/17/2014 - 11:16am

PURPOSES: The aims of the study were to compare results of clinical/radiographic studies before second-look procedures (SLP) with SLP specimens from patients with gross residual sarcoma at diagnosis and to relate tumor viability to outcome.

PATIENTS: Seventy-three patients underwent SLP before completing chemotherapy, with (n = 59) or without (n = 14) radiotherapy. Tumor sites were bladder/prostate (n = 27), head/orbit/parameningeal (n = 22), extremity/trunk (n = 14), and retroperitoneum/pelvis (n = 10).

RESULTS: Of 14 patients, 1 (7%) with clinical/radiographic complete response (CR) had viable tumor. Of 59 patients, 35 (59%) without CR had viable tumor. Five-year failure-free survival (FFS) rates were 81% in 37 patients without viable tumor and 53% in 36 patients with viable tumor (Cox proportional hazards adjusted P = .05). Five-year FFS rates were 67% in 15 patients with clear margins and 43% in 21 patients with tumor-involved margins (n = 18) or viable gross tumor (n = 3) (Cox proportional hazards adjusted P = .04). Five-year survival was 78% to 79% among 73 patients with and 333 patients without SLP during treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: Second-look procedures can show whether viable tumor is present and may be beneficial in selected patients with rhabdomyosarcoma. Disappearance of tumor (CR) usually correlated with no viable tumor at SLP. However, 41% of patients without CR had no viable tumor. Those without viable tumor had increased FFS but not survival compared to those with viable tumor.