Chromosome conformation capture (3C) has revolutionized the ways in which the conformation of chromatin and its relationship to other molecular functions can be studied. 3C-based techniques are used to determine the spatial arrangement of chromosomes in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans. In particular, they can be applied to the study of chromosome folding and organization in model organisms with small genomes and for which powerful genetic tools exist, such as budding yeast. Studies in yeast allow the mechanisms that establish or maintain chromatin structure to be analyzed at very high resolution with relatively low cost, and further our understanding of these fundamental processes in higher eukaryotes as well. Here we provide an overview of chromatin structure and introduce methods for performing 3C, with a focus on studies in budding yeast. Variations of the basic 3C approach (e.g., 3C-PCR, 5C, and Hi-C) can be used according to the scope and goals of a given experiment.
We describe a Hi-C-based method, Micro-C, in which micrococcal nuclease is used instead of restriction enzymes to fragment chromatin, enabling nucleosome resolution chromosome folding maps. Analysis of Micro-C maps for budding yeast reveals abundant self-associating domains similar to those reported in other species, but not previously observed in yeast. These structures, far shorter than topologically associating domains in mammals, typically encompass one to five genes in yeast. Strong boundaries between self-associating domains occur at promoters of highly transcribed genes and regions of rapid histone turnover that are typically bound by the RSC chromatin-remodeling complex. Investigation of chromosome folding in mutants confirms roles for RSC, "gene looping" factor Ssu72, Mediator, H3K56 acetyltransferase Rtt109, and the N-terminal tail of H4 in folding of the yeast genome. This approach provides detailed structural maps of a eukaryotic genome, and our findings provide insights into the machinery underlying chromosome compaction.
The three-dimensional organization of a genome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression, yet little is known about the machinery and mechanisms that determine higher-order chromosome structure. Here we perform genome-wide chromosome conformation capture analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and RNA-seq to obtain comprehensive three-dimensional (3D) maps of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome and to dissect X chromosome dosage compensation, which balances gene expression between XX hermaphrodites and XO males. The dosage compensation complex (DCC), a condensin complex, binds to both hermaphrodite X chromosomes via sequence-specific recruitment elements on X (rex sites) to reduce chromosome-wide gene expression by half. Most DCC condensin subunits also act in other condensin complexes to control the compaction and resolution of all mitotic and meiotic chromosomes. By comparing chromosome structure in wild-type and DCC-defective embryos, we show that the DCC remodels hermaphrodite X chromosomes into a sex-specific spatial conformation distinct from autosomes. Dosage-compensated X chromosomes consist of self-interacting domains ( approximately 1 Mb) resembling mammalian topologically associating domains (TADs). TADs on X chromosomes have stronger boundaries and more regular spacing than on autosomes. Many TAD boundaries on X chromosomes coincide with the highest-affinity rex sites and become diminished or lost in DCC-defective mutants, thereby converting the topology of X to a conformation resembling autosomes. rex sites engage in DCC-dependent long-range interactions, with the most frequent interactions occurring between rex sites at DCC-dependent TAD boundaries. These results imply that the DCC reshapes the topology of X chromosomes by forming new TAD boundaries and reinforcing weak boundaries through interactions between its highest-affinity binding sites. As this model predicts, deletion of an endogenous rex site at a DCC-dependent TAD boundary using CRISPR/Cas9 greatly diminished the boundary. Thus, the DCC imposes a distinct higher-order structure onto X chromosomes while regulating gene expression chromosome-wide.
We have examined the three-dimensional organization of the yeast genome during quiescence by a chromosome capture technique as a means of understanding how genome organization changes during development. For exponentially growing cells we observe high levels of inter-centromeric interaction but otherwise a predominance of intrachromosomal interactions over interchromosomal interactions, consistent with aggregation of centromeres at the spindle pole body and compartmentalization of individual chromosomes within the nucleoplasm. Three major changes occur in the organization of the quiescent cell genome. First, intrachromosomal associations increase at longer distances in quiescence as compared to growing cells. This suggests that chromosomes undergo condensation in quiescence, which we confirmed by microscopy by measurement of the intrachromosomal distances between two sites on one chromosome. This compaction in quiescence requires the condensin complex. Second, inter-centromeric interactions decrease, consistent with prior data indicating that centromeres disperse along an array of microtubules during quiescence. Third, inter-telomeric interactions significantly increase in quiescence, an observation also confirmed by direct measurement. Thus, survival during quiescence is associated with substantial topological reorganization of the genome.
SMC condensin complexes play a central role in compacting and resolving replicated chromosomes in virtually all organisms, yet how they accomplish this remains elusive. In Bacillus subtilis, condensin is loaded at centromeric parS sites, where it encircles DNA and individualizes newly replicated origins. Using chromosome conformation capture and cytological assays, we show that condensin recruitment to origin-proximal parS sites is required for the juxtaposition of the two chromosome arms. Recruitment to ectopic parS sites promotes alignment of large tracks of DNA flanking these sites. Importantly, insertion of parS sites on opposing arms indicates that these "zip-up" interactions only occur between adjacent DNA segments. Collectively, our data suggest that condensin resolves replicated origins by promoting the juxtaposition of DNA flanking parS sites, drawing sister origins in on themselves and away from each other. These results are consistent with a model in which condensin encircles the DNA flanking its loading site and then slides down, tethering the two arms together. Lengthwise condensation via loop extrusion could provide a generalizable mechanism by which condensin complexes act dynamically to individualize origins in B. subtilis and, when loaded along eukaryotic chromosomes, resolve them during mitosis.
In the gulf between genotype and phenotype exists proteins and, in particular, protein signal transduction systems. These systems use a relatively limited parts list to respond to a much longer list of extracellular, environmental, and/or mechanical cues with rapidity and specificity. Most signaling networks function in a highly nonlinear and often contextual manner. Furthermore, these processes occur dynamically across space and time. Because of these complexities, systems and "OMIC" approaches are essential for the study of signal transduction. One challenge in using OMIC-scale approaches to study signaling is that the "signal" can take different forms in different situations. Signals are encoded in diverse ways such as protein-protein interactions, enzyme activities, localizations, or post-translational modifications to proteins. Furthermore, in some cases signals may be encoded only in the dynamics, duration, or rates of change of these features. Accordingly, systems-level analyses of signaling may need to integrate multiple experimental and/or computational approaches. As the field has progressed, the non-triviality of integrating experimental and computational analyses has become apparent. Successful use of OMIC methods to study signaling will require the "right" experiments and the "right" modeling approaches, and it is critical to consider both in the design phase of the project. In this review, we discuss common OMIC and modeling approaches for studying signaling, emphasizing the philosophical and practical considerations for effectively merging these two types of approaches to maximize the probability of obtaining reliable and novel insights into signaling biology.
Switches play an important regulatory role at all levels of biology, from molecular switches triggering signaling cascades to cellular switches regulating cell maturation and apoptosis. Medical therapies are often designed to toggle a system from one state to another, achieving a specified health outcome. For instance, small doses of subpathologic viruses activate the immune system’s production of antibodies. Electrical stimulation revert cardiac arrhythmias back to normal sinus rhythm. In all of these examples, a major challenge is finding the optimal stimulus waveform necessary to cause the switch to flip. This thesis develops, validates, and applies a novel model-independent stochastic algorithm, the Extrema Distortion Algorithm (EDA), towards finding the optimal stimulus. We validate the EDA’s performance for the Hodgkin-Huxley model (an empirically validated ionic model of neuronal excitability), the FitzHugh-Nagumo model (an abstract model applied to a wide range of biological systems that that exhibit an oscillatory state and a quiescent state), and the genetic toggle switch (a model of bistable gene expression). We show that the EDA is able to not only find the optimal solution, but also in some cases excel beyond the traditional analytic approaches. Finally, we have computed novel optimal stimulus waveforms for aborting epileptic seizures using the EDA in cellular and network models of epilepsy. This work represents a first step in developing a new class of adaptive algorithms and devices that flip biological switches, revealing basic mechanistic insights and therapeutic applications for a broad range of disorders.
Declining Trends and Widening Disparities in Overweight and Obesity Prevalence Among Massachusetts Public School Districts, 2009-2014
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the overall and sociodemographic disparities in trends in prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity in Massachusetts public school districts between 2009 and 2014.
METHODS: In 2009, Massachusetts mandated annual screening of body mass index for students in grades 1, 4, 7, and 10. This was part of the statewide Mass in Motion prevention programs. We assessed trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity between 2009 and 2014 by district, gender, grade, and district income.
RESULTS: From 2009 to 2014, prevalence decreased 3.0 percentage points (from 34.3% to 31.3%) statewide. The 2014 district-level rates ranged from 13.9% to 54.5% (median = 31.2%). When stratified by grade, the decreasing trends were significant only for grades 1 and 4. Although rates of districts with a median household income greater than $37 000 improved notably, rates of the poorest remain unchanged and were approximately 40%.
CONCLUSIONS: Although overall prevalence began to decrease, the geographic and socioeconomic disparities in childhood obesity are widening and remain a public health challenge in Massachusetts. Special efforts should be made to address the needs of socioeconomically disadvantaged districts and to narrow the disparities in childhood obesity. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print August 13, 2015: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2015.302807).
Facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) is a unique and complex genetic disease that is not entirely solved. Recent advances in the field have led to a consensus genetic premise for the disorder, enabling researchers to now pursue the design of preclinical models. In this review we explore all available FSHD models (DUX4-dependent and -independent) for their utility in therapeutic discovery and potential to yield novel disease insights. Owing to the complex nature of FSHD, there is currently no single model that accurately recapitulates the genetic and pathophysiological spectrum of the disorder. Existing models emphasize only specific aspects of the disease, highlighting the need for more collaborative research and novel paradigms to advance the translational research space of FSHD.
A hierarchy of different chromosome conformations plays a role in many biological systems. These conformations contribute to the regulation of gene expression, cellular development, chromosome transmission, and defects can lead to human disease. The highest functional level of this hierarchy is the partitioning of the genome into compartments of active and inactive chromatin domains (1’s -10’s Mb). These compartments are further partitioned into Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) that spatially cluster co-regulated genes (100’s kb – 1’s Mb). The final level that has been observed is long range loops formed between regulatory elements and promoters (10’s kb – 100’s Mb). At all of these levels, mechanisms that establish these conformations remain poorly understood. To gain new insights into processes that determine chromosome folding I used the mating type switching system in budding yeast to study the chromosome conformation at length scales analogous to looping interaction. I specifically examined the role in chromosome conformation in the mating type switching system. Budding yeast cells can have two sexes: MATa and MATα. The mating types are determined by allele-specific expression of the MAT locus on chromosome III. The MATa allele encodes for transcription factors responsible for the MATa mating type and the MATα allele encodes transcription factors responsible for the MATα mating type. Yeast cells can switch their mating type by a process that repairs a break at MAT using one of two silent loci, HML or HMR, as a donor to convert the allele at the MAT locus. When MATa cells switch they prefer to use HML, which contains the MATα allele, located at the end of the left arm. MATα cells prefer to use HMR, which contains the MATa allele, located on the end of the right arm of chromosome III. The sequences of the HM loci are not important for donor preference. Instead the cell chooses the donor on the left arm in MATa cells and chooses the donor on the right arm in MATα cells. This lack of sequence specificity has led to the hypothesis that the conformation of the chromosome may play a role in donor preference. I found that the conformation of chromosome III is, indeed, different between the two mating types. In MATa cells the chromosomes displays a more crumpled conformation in which the left arm of the chromosome interacts with a large region of the right arm which includes the centromere and the MAT locus. In MATα cells, on the other hand, the left arm of the chromosomes displays a more extend conformation. I found that the Recombination Enhancer (RE), which enhances recombination along the left arm of the chromosome in MATa cells, is responsible for these mating type-specific conformations. Deleting the RE affects the conformation of the chromosomes in both MATa and MATα cells. The left portion of the RE, which is essential for donor preference during the switching reaction in MATa cells, does not contribute to the conformation in MATa. This region does have a minor effect on the conformation in MATα cells. However, I found that the right portion of the RE is responsible for the conformation of chromosome III in both mating types prior to initiation of switching. This work demonstrates that chromosome conformation is determined by specific cis regulatory elements that drive cell-type specific chromosome conformation.
The Study of Two Strategies for Decreasing Mutant Huntingtin: Degradation by Puromycin Sensitive AminoPeptidase and RNA Interference: A Dissertation
Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG repeat expansion in exon 1 of the huntingtin gene, resulting in an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat in the huntingtin protein. Patients receive symptomatic treatment for motor, emotional, and cognitive impairments; however, there is no treatment to slow the progression of the disease, with death occurring 15-20 years after diagnosis. Mutant huntingtin protein interferes with multiple cellular processes leading to cellular dysfunction and neuronal loss. Due to the complexity of mutant huntingtin toxicity, many approaches to treating each effect are being investigated. Unfortunately, addressing one cause of toxicity might not result in protection from other toxic insults, necessitating a combination of treatments for HD patients. Ideally, single therapy targeting the mutant mRNA or protein could prevent all downstream toxicities caused by mutant huntingtin. In this work, I used animal models to investigate a potential therapeutic target for decreasing mutant huntingtin protein, and I apply bioluminescent imaging to investigate RNA interference to silence mutant huntingtin target sites.
The enzyme puromycin sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA) has the unique property of degrading polyQ peptides and been implicated in the degradation of huntingtin. In this study, we looked for an effect of decreased PSA on the pathology and behavior in a mouse model of Huntington’s disease. To achieve this, we crossed HD mice with mice with one functional PSA allele and one inactivated PSA allele. We found that PSA heterozygous HD mice develop a greater number of pathological inclusion bodies, representing an accumulation of mutant huntingtin in neurons. PSA heterozygous HD mice also exhibit worsened performance on the raised-beam test, a test for balance and coordination indicating that the PSA heterozygosity impairs the function of neurons with mutant huntingtin. In order to test whether increasing PSA expression ameliorates the HD phenotype in mice we created an adeno-associated virus (AAV) expressing the human form of PSA (AAV-hPSA). Unexpectedly, testing of AAV-hPSA in non-HD mice resulted in widespread toxicity at high doses. These findings suggest that overexpression of PSA is toxic to neurons in the conditions tested.
In the second part of my dissertation work, I designed a model for following the silencing of huntingtin sequences in the brain. Firefly luciferase is a bioluminescent enzyme that is extensively used as a reporter molecule to follow biological processes in vivo using bioluminescent imaging (BLI). I created an AAV expressing the luciferase gene containing huntingtin sequences in the 3'-untranslated region (AAV-Luc-Htt). After co-injection of AAV-Luc-Htt with RNA-silencing molecules (RNAi) into the brain, we followed luciferase activity. Using this method, we tested cholesterol-conjugated siRNA, un-conjugated siRNA, and hairpin RNA targeting both luciferase and huntingtin sequences. Despite being able to detect silencing on isolated days, we were unable to detect sustained silencing, which had been reported in similar studies in tissues other than the brain. We observed an interesting finding that co-injection of cholesterol-conjugated siRNA with AAV-Luc-Htt increased luminescence, findings that were verified in cell culture to be independent of serotype, siRNA sequence, and cell type. That cc-siRNA affects the expression of AAV-Luc-Htt reveals an interesting interaction possibly resulting in increased delivery of AAV into cells or an increase in luciferase expression within the cell. My work presents a method to follow gene silencing of huntingtin targets in the brain, which needs further optimization in order to detect sustained silencing.
Finally, in this dissertation I continue the study of bioluminescent imaging in the brain. We use mice that have been injected in the brain with AAV-Luciferase (AAV-Luc) to screen 34 luciferase substrate solutions to identify the greatest light-emitting substrate in the brain. We identify two substrates, CycLuc1 and iPr-amide as substrates with enhanced light-emitting properties compared with D-luciferin, the standard, commercially available substrate. CycLuc1 and iPr-amide were tested in transgenic mice expressing luciferase in dopaminergic neurons. These novel substrates produced luminescence unlike the standard substrate, D-luciferin which was undetectable. This demonstrates that CycLuc1 and iPr-amide improve the sensitivity of BLI in low expression models. We then used CycLuc1 to test silencing of luciferase in the brain using AAV-shRNA (AAV-shLuc). We were unable to detect silencing in treated mice, despite a 50% reduction of luciferase mRNA. The results from this experiment identify luciferase substrates that can be used to image transgenic mice expressing luciferase in dopaminergic neurons.
My work contributes new data on the study of PSA as a modifier of Huntington’s disease in a knock-in mouse model of Huntington’s disease. My work also makes contributions to the field of bioluminescent imaging by identifying and testing luciferase substrates in the brain to detect low level of luciferase expression.
En Français S'il Vous Plaît: Translation and Adaptation of the New England Collaborative Data Management Curriculum’s Introductory Module
The New England Collaborative Data Management Curriculum (NECDMC) is “an instructional tool for teaching data management best practices to undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers in the health sciences” (Lamar Soutter Library 2015a). This article reports on the French translation and adaptation of the first module of the NECDMC as part of the design of a short library instruction workshop.
Despite 30 years of intensive research，an effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine still remains elusive. The desirable immune response capable of providing protection against HIV acquisition is still not clear. The accumulating evidence learned from a recent vaccine efficacy correlate study not only confirmed the importance of antibody responses, but also highlighted potential protective functions of antibodies with a broad repertoire of HIV-1 epitope specificities and a wide range of different antiviral mechanisms. This necessitates a deep understanding of the complexity and diversity of antibody responses elicited by HIV-1 vaccines. My dissertation characterizes antibody response profiles of HIV-1 Env antibodies elicited by several novel immunogens or different immunization regimens, in terms of magnitude, persistence, epitope specificity, binding affinity, and biological function.
First, to overcome the challenge of studying polyclonal sera without established assays, we expanded a novel platform to isolate Env-specific Rabbit mAbs (RmAb) elicited by DNA prime-protein boost immunization. These RmAbs revealed diverse epitope specificity and cross-reactivity against multiple gp120 antigens from more than one subtype, and several had potent and broad neutralizing activities against sensitive Tier 1 viruses. Further, structural analysis of two V3 mAbs demonstrated that a slight shift of the V3 epitope might have a dramatic impact on their neutralization activity. All of these observations provide a useful tool to study the induction of a desired type of antibody by different immunogens or different immunization regimens.
Since heavily glycosylated HIV Env protein is a critical component of an HIV vaccine, we wanted to determine the impact of the HIV Env-associated glycan shield on antibody responses. We were able to produce Env proteins with a selective and homogeneous pattern of N-glycosylation using a glycoengineered yeast cell line. Antigenicity of these novel Env proteins was examined by well-characterized human mAbs. Immunogenicity studies showed that they were immunogenic and elicited gp120- specific antibody responses. More significantly, sera elicited by glycan-modified gp120 protein immunogens revealed better neutralizing activities and increased diversity of epitopes compared to sera elicited by traditional gp120 produced in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells.
Further, we examined the impact of the delivery order of DNA and protein immunization on antibody responses. We found that DNA prime-protein boost induced a comparable level of Env-specific binding Abs at the peak immunogenicity point to codelivery of DNA. However, antibody responses from DNA prime-protein boost had high avidity and diverse specificities, which improved potency and breadth of neutralizing Abs against Tier 1 viruses. Our data indicate that DNA vaccine priming of the immune system is essential for generation of high-quality antibodies.
Additionally, we determined the relative immunogenicity of gp120 and gp160 Env in the context of DNA prime-protein boost vaccination to induce high-quality antibody responses. Immunized sera from gp120 DNA primed animals, but not those primed with gp160 DNA, presented with distinct antibody repertoire specificities, a high magnitude of CD4 binding site-directed binding capabilities as well as neutralizing activities. We confirmed the importance of using the gp120 Env form at the DNA priming phase, which directly determined the quality of antibody response.
Antiplatelet activity, P2Y(1) and P2Y(1)(2) inhibition, and metabolism in plasma of stereoisomers of diadenosine 5',5'''-P(1) ,P(4)-dithio-P(2),P(3)-chloromethylenetetraphosphate
BACKGROUND: Diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A), a constituent of platelet dense granules, and its P1,P4-dithio and/or P2,P3-chloromethylene analogs, inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation. We recently reported that these compounds antagonize both platelet ADP receptors, P2Y1 and P2Y12. The most active of those analogs, diadenosine 5',5''''-P1,P4-dithio-P2,P3-chloromethylenetetraphosphate, (compound 1), exists as a mixture of 4 stereoisomers.
OBJECTIVE: To separate the stereoisomers of compound 1 and determine their effects on platelet aggregation, platelet P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptor antagonism, and their metabolism in human plasma.
METHODS: We separated the 4 diastereomers of compound 1 by preparative reversed-phase chromatography, and studied their effect on ADP-induced platelet aggregation, P2Y1-mediated changes in cytosolic Ca2+, P2Y12-mediated changes in VASP phosphorylation, and metabolism in human plasma.
RESULTS: The inhibition of ADP-induced human platelet aggregation and human platelet P2Y12 receptor, and stability in human plasma strongly depended on the stereo-configuration of the chiral P1- and P4-phosphorothioate groups, the SPSP diastereomer being the most potent inhibitor and completely resistant to degradation in plasma, and the RPRP diastereomer being the least potent inhibitor and with the lowest plasma stability. The inhibitory activity of SPRP diastereomers depended on the configuration of the pseudo-asymmetric carbon of the P2,P3-chloromethylene group, one of the configurations being significantly more active than the other. Their plasma stability did not differ significantly, being intermediate to that of the SPSP and the RPRP diastereomers.
CONCLUSIONS: The presently-described stereoisomers have utility for structural, mechanistic, and drug development studies of dual antagonists of platelet P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors.
Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. Since text is a rich source of information in figures, automatically extracting such text may assist in the task of mining figure information. A high-quality ground truth standard can greatly facilitate the development of an automated system. This article describes DeTEXT: A database for evaluating text extraction from biomedical literature figures. It is the first publicly available, human-annotated, high quality, and large-scale figure-text dataset with 288 full-text articles, 500 biomedical figures, and 9308 text regions. This article describes how figures were selected from open-access full-text biomedical articles and how annotation guidelines and annotation tools were developed. We also discuss the inter-annotator agreement and the reliability of the annotations. We summarize the statistics of the DeTEXT data and make available evaluation protocols for DeTEXT. Finally we lay out challenges we observed in the automated detection and recognition of figure text and discuss research directions in this area. DeTEXT is publicly available for downloading at http://prir.ustb.edu.cn/DeTEXT/.
Plekhm1 is a large, multi-modular, adapter protein implicated in osteoclast vesicle trafficking and bone resorption. In patients, inactivating mutations cause osteopetrosis, and gain-of-function mutations cause osteopenia. Investigations of potential Plekhm1 interaction partners by mass spectrometry identified TRAFD1 (FLN29), a protein previously shown to suppress toll-like receptor signaling in monocytes/macrophages, thereby dampening inflammatory responses to innate immunity. We mapped the binding domains to the TRAFD1 zinc finger (aa 37-60), and to the region of Plekhm1 between its second pleckstrin homology domain and its C1 domain (aa 784-986). RANKL slightly increased TRAFD1 levels, particularly in primary osteoclasts, and the co-localization of TRAFD1 with Plekhm1 also increased with RANKL treatment. Stable knockdown of TRAFD1 in RAW 264.7 cells inhibited resorption activity proportionally to the degree of knockdown, and inhibited acidification. The lack of acidification occurred despite the presence of osteoclast acidification factors including carbonic anhydrase II, a3-V-ATPase, and the ClC7 chloride channel. Secretion of TRAP and cathepsin K were also markedly inhibited in knockdown cells. Truncated Plekhm1 in ia/ia osteopetrotic rat cells prevented vesicle localization of Plekhm1 and TRAFD1. We conclude that TRAFD1, in association with Plekhm1/Rab7-positive late endosomes-early lysosomes, has a previously unknown role in vesicle trafficking, acidification, and resorption in osteoclasts.
A multilaboratory comparison of calibration accuracy and the performance of external references in analytical ultracentrifugation
Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) is a first principles based method to determine absolute sedimentation coefficients and buoyant molar masses of macromolecules and their complexes, reporting on their size and shape in free solution. The purpose of this multi-laboratory study was to establish the precision and accuracy of basic data dimensions in AUC and validate previously proposed calibration techniques. Three kits of AUC cell assemblies containing radial and temperature calibration tools and a bovine serum albumin (BSA) reference sample were shared among 67 laboratories, generating 129 comprehensive data sets. These allowed for an assessment of many parameters of instrument performance, including accuracy of the reported scan time after the start of centrifugation, the accuracy of the temperature calibration, and the accuracy of the radial magnification. The range of sedimentation coefficients obtained for BSA monomer in different instruments and using different optical systems was from 3.655 S to 4.949 S, with a mean and standard deviation of (4.304 +/- 0.188) S (4.4%). After the combined application of correction factors derived from the external calibration references for elapsed time, scan velocity, temperature, and radial magnification, the range of s-values was reduced 7-fold with a mean of 4.325 S and a 6-fold reduced standard deviation of +/- 0.030 S (0.7%). In addition, the large data set provided an opportunity to determine the instrument-to-instrument variation of the absolute radial positions reported in the scan files, the precision of photometric or refractometric signal magnitudes, and the precision of the calculated apparent molar mass of BSA monomer and the fraction of BSA dimers. These results highlight the necessity and effectiveness of independent calibration of basic AUC data dimensions for reliable quantitative studies.
Novel Roles of GATA4/6 in the Postnatal Heart Identified through Temporally Controlled, Cardiomyocyte-Specific Gene Inactivation by Adeno-Associated Virus Delivery of Cre Recombinase
GATA4 and GATA6 are central cardiac transcriptional regulators. The postnatal, stage-specific function of the cardiac transcription factors GATA4 and GATA6 have not been evaluated. In part, this is because current Cre-loxP approaches to cardiac gene inactivation require time consuming and costly breeding of Cre-expressing and "floxed" mouse lines, often with limited control of the extent or timing of gene inactivation. We investigated the stage-specific functions of GATA4 and GATA6 in the postnatal heart by using adeno-associated virus serotype 9 to control the timing and extent of gene inactivation by Cre. Systemic delivery of recombinant, adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9) expressing Cre from the cardiac specific Tnnt2 promoter was well tolerated and selectively and efficiently recombined floxed target genes in cardiomyocytes. AAV9:Tnnt2-Cre efficiently inactivated Gata4 and Gata6. Neonatal Gata4/6 inactivation caused severe, rapidly lethal systolic heart failure. In contrast, Gata4/6 inactivation in adult heart caused only mild systolic dysfunction but severe diastolic dysfunction. Reducing the dose of AAV9:Tnnt2-Cre generated mosaics in which scattered cardiomyocytes lacked Gata4/6. This mosaic knockout revealed that Gata4/6 are required cell autonomously for physiological cardiomyocyte growth. Our results define novel roles of GATA4 and GATA6 in the neonatal and adult heart. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that evaluation of gene function hinges on controlling the timing and extent of gene inactivation. AAV9:Tnnt2-Cre is a powerful tool for controlling these parameters.
The Origin, Development and Molecular Diversity of Rodent Olfactory Bulb Glutamatergic Neurons Distinguished by Expression of Transcription Factor NeuroD1
Production of olfactory bulb neurons occurs continuously in the rodent brain. Little is known, however, about cellular diversity in the glutamatergic neuron subpopulation. In the central nervous system, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD1 (ND1) is commonly associated with glutamatergic neuron development. In this study, we utilized ND1 to identify the different subpopulations of olfactory bulb glutamategic neurons and their progenitors, both in the embryo and postnatally. Using knock-in mice, transgenic mice and retroviral transgene delivery, we demonstrate the existence of several different populations of glutamatergic olfactory bulb neurons, the progenitors of which are ND1+ and ND1- lineage-restricted, and are temporally and regionally separated. We show that the first olfactory bulb glutamatergic neurons produced - the mitral cells - can be divided into molecularly diverse subpopulations. Our findings illustrate the complexity of neuronal diversity in the olfactory bulb and that seemingly homogenous neuronal populations can consist of multiple subpopulations with unique molecular signatures of transcription factors and expressing neuronal subtype-specific markers.
Studies of OC-STAMP in Osteoclast Fusion: A New Knockout Mouse Model, Rescue of Cell Fusion, and Transmembrane Topology
The fusion of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells into fully active, multinucleated, bone resorbing osteoclasts is a complex cell biological phenomenon that utilizes specialized proteins. OC-STAMP, a multi-pass transmembrane protein, has been shown to be required for pre-osteoclast fusion and for optimal bone resorption activity. A previously reported knockout mouse model had only mononuclear osteoclasts with markedly reduced resorption activity in vitro, but with paradoxically normal skeletal micro-CT parameters. To further explore this and related questions, we used mouse ES cells carrying a gene trap allele to generate a second OC-STAMP null mouse strain. Bone histology showed overall normal bone form with large numbers of TRAP-positive, mononuclear osteoclasts. Micro-CT parameters were not significantly different between knockout and wild type mice at 2 or 6 weeks old. At 6 weeks, metaphyseal TRAP-positive areas were lower and mean size of the areas were smaller in knockout femora, but bone turnover markers in serum were normal. Bone marrow mononuclear cells became TRAP-positive when cultured with CSF-1 and RANKL, but they did not fuse. Expression levels of other osteoclast markers, such as cathepsin K, carbonic anhydrase II, and NFATc1, were not significantly different compared to wild type. Actin rings were present, but small, and pit assays showed a 3.5-fold decrease in area resorbed. Restoring OC-STAMP in knockout cells by lentiviral transduction rescued fusion and resorption. N- and C-termini of OC-STAMP were intracellular, and a predicted glycosylation site was shown to be utilized and to lie on an extracellular loop. The site is conserved in all terrestrial vertebrates and appears to be required for protein stability, but not for fusion. Based on this and other results, we present a topological model of OC-STAMP as a 6-transmembrane domain protein. We also contrast the osteoclast-specific roles of OC- and DC-STAMP with more generalized cell fusion mechanisms.