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Comparative Effectiveness of Etanercept and Adalimumab in Patient Reported Outcomes and Injection-Related Tolerability

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:38pm

OBJECTIVE: To describe patient preferences in selecting specific biologics and compare clinical response using patient reported outcomes (PROs) among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) started on different anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapies.

METHODS: Participants were enrollees in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Patients with RA who had at least two provider visits and started a new anti-TNF therapy from 10/2010-8/2011, were eligible for participation in this longitudinal study. Using a telephone survey, patient preferences in biologic selection and RAPID3, MDHAQ, and SF-12 scores were collected at baseline and at 6 months. Patient scores rating injection/infusion-site burning and stinging (ISBS) were collected at 6 months.

RESULTS: In all, 267 patients with RA responded to the baseline survey, of whom 57% preferred an injectable biologic, 22% preferred an infused biologic, and 21% had no preference. Motivation for injectable biologics was convenience (92%) and for infusion therapy was dislike or lack of self-efficacy for self-injection (16%). After 6 months of treatment with anti-TNF, 70% of the 177 patients who answered the ISBS question reported ISBS with the last dose; on a scale of 1 (none) to 10 (worst), 41% of these reported a score of 2-5; and 29% reported a score of 6-10. Adalimumab users experienced 3.2 times (95% confidence interval 1.2-8.6) the level of ISBS that etanercept users experienced. There were no significant differences in RAPID3, MDHAQ, or SF-12 scores between etanercept or adalimumab initiators.

CONCLUSION: Convenience and fear of self-injection were important considerations to patients selecting a biologic drug. Although more convenient, adalimumab associated with more ISBS than did etanercept, and this rate was higher than reported in clinical trials. At 6 months, PROs did not differ between etanercept and adalimumab users.

Population Variations in Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment and Outcomes, Northern California, 1998-2009

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:38pm

OBJECTIVE: To assess variations in rheumatoid arthritis treatment and outcomes at the community level from 1998 through 2009.

METHODS: The study used computerized data from 16 Kaiser Permanente Northern California Medical Centers. Mixed modeling was used to assess patterns across time and clinic. The analysis accounted for patient demographics, clustering of patients within Medical Centers, and repeated measures of patients over time. The metric used to measure drug use, months of use per patient per year, included both users and nonusers in the denominator, to account for both prevalence and duration of use.

RESULTS: Assessment was performed of 28,601 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, with all levels of severity. From 1998 through 2009, methotrexate use doubled in the typical patient to include 23% of the time they were observed; sulfasalazine and hydrochloroquine use declined. By 2008 through 2009, leflunomide and antitumor necrosis factor agents were used by the typical patient 4% and 9% of the time, respectively. Between 1998 and 2009, disease-modifying antirheumatic drug use increased in the typical patient from 38% to 63% of the time, and oral prednisone use declined from 23% to 15% of the time, whereas opioid use initially rose but then fell to 23% of the time. No variations over time were observed for the rate of hospitalized pneumonia or opportunistic infection. Variation across clinics, measured by the difference in drug use between clinics at the 75th and 25th percentiles, was lowest for opioids (25% vs 20% of the time) and greatest for infliximab (< 1% to 3%).

CONCLUSION: Increased use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and declines in prednisone are encouraging. Opioid use may need intervention.

Is Helplessness Still Helpful in Diagnosing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:38pm

Criteria A2, experience of helplessness, fear, or horror at the time of the traumatic event, was removed from the posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. We argue that there is empirical support for retention of A2, a criterion that has clinical value and may improve diagnostic accuracy. Specifically, we demonstrate that A2 has high negative predictive power, aids in the prediction of symptom severity, and can be indispensible to detecting the disorder in children. We examine how augmenting A2 with other peritramautic emotions could improve clinical and diagnostic utility. In our opinion, rather than being eliminated, A2 needs to be reconstructed and included as one criterion of PTSD.

Exploitation of Prisoners in Clinical Research: Perceptions of Study Participants

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:37pm

This paper discusses findings of a study examining whether prisoners view their participation in clinical research studies as exploitative. Perspectives of seventy prisoners who were enrolled in one of six different clinical studies were analyzed. A minority of participants agreed with statements suggestive of potential exploitation. All but one participant believed that prisoners should have greater access to research. On balance, these data provide reassurance that prisoners in this sample do not view their involvement in clinical research as inappropriately exploitative.

The Validity of Disease-specific Quality of Life Attributions Among Adults with Multiple Chronic Conditions

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:37pm

BACKGROUND: A crucial assumption underlying all disease-specific quality of life (QOL) measures, that patients can validly differentiate a specific disease in the presence of multiple chronic conditions, has not been tested using multiple methods. Our objective was to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity of QOL attributions to specific diseases among adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC).

METHODS: Adults age 18 and older (N=4,480) sampled from eight pre-identified condition groups (asthma, COPD, angina/MI with angina, congestive heart failure, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis) completed an Internet survey. Comorbid conditions were determined using a 35-condition checklist. Product-moment correlations were analyzed separately by pre-identified condition group using the multitrait-multimethod of construct validation, where traits were defined by 9-26 conditions and each condition was measured by two methods: disease severity rating and Disease-specific Quality of Life Impact Scale (QDIS) global rating. A third method (symptom or clinical marker) was available for the eight pre-identified conditions. Convergent validity was supported when correlations among different methods of measuring the same condition (trait) were substantial (r > /=0.40). Discriminant validity was supported when correlations between the same and different methods of measuring different conditions were significantly lower than corresponding convergent correlations.

RESULTS: In support of convergent validity, 22 of 24 convergent correlations were substantial (r=0.38-0.84, median=0.53). In support of discriminant validity, 833 of 924 tests (90.2%) yielded significantly higher convergent than discriminant correlations across the eight pre-identified conditions. Exceptions to this pattern of results were most often observed for comorbid conditions within the same clinical area.

CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, convergent and discriminant test results support the construct validity of disease-specific QOL impact attributions across MCC within the eight pre-identified conditions. Noteworthy exceptions should be considered when interpreting some specific QOL impact attributions and warrant further study. Pursuit of a summary disease-specific QOL impact score standardized across MCC is recommended.

Single-Cell Squamous Carcinoma: An Underreported High-Risk Variant

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:37pm

BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in establishing diagnostic and treatment guidelines for high-risk squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Single-cell SCC has been recognized as a high-risk subtype but continues to be a less commonly reported and more poorly understood variant.

OBJECTIVE: To present the current literature on single-cell SCC.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of the literature on single-cell squamous cell carcinoma.

RESULTS: There are fewer than 100 cases of single-cell SCC in the literature. The reporting studies demonstrate an increase in the risk of metastasis compared with non-single-cell tumors. Confounding variables reported include other coexisting high-risk features: diameter > 2 cm, depth > 6 mm, and difficulty detecting single tumor cells. It is therefore unclear whether single-cell SCC is an independent risk factor for recurrence and regional spread. Studies have described use of immunostaining as a means to improve tumor detection.

CONCLUSION: Single-cell SCC continues to be an underreported SCC variant. Given its apparent aggressive behavior, more studies are warranted to better understand its tumor biology and behavior and to improve patient outcomes. Based on our present knowledge, complete tumor excision with or without the aid of immunostaining and use of multidisciplinary care are recommended.

A Retrospective Study of Nail Squamous Cell Carcinoma at 2 Institutions

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:37pm

BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the nail is infrequently reported in the medical literature and its causes are poorly understood. Studies have shown strong associations with immunosuppression, tobacco use, toxin/radiation exposure, and trauma. Common treatments include Mohs surgery and digital amputation.

OBJECTIVE: Review a series of nail SCCs treated at 2 institutions. Outcomes evaluated included rates of recurrence and disease progression/metastasis after treatment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of patients treated between 2005 and 2008. Medical record review and phone call follow-up using a standardized questionnaire were used.

RESULTS: Forty-two tumors were identified in 34 patients. Twenty-seven patients were male (79% CI, 62%-91%) and most tumors were located on the fingernails (39/42; 91% CI, 81%-99%). Twenty-four of 39 tumors (62% CI, 45%-77%) were on the nondominant hand. The middle third finger was the most frequent digit affected (16/42). Common symptoms reported were nail dystrophy (31/42; 74% CI, 58%-86%), followed by onycholysis (22/42; 52% CI, 36%-68%). Most tumors (35/42; 83% CI, 69%-93%) were treated with Mohs surgery.

CONCLUSION: Nail SCC is found nearly exclusively in adults and predominantly in men. There are multiple effective treatment possibilities including Mohs surgery, distal digital amputation, and early evidence suggesting radiotherapy.

Gadolinium-Induced Fibrosis

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:37pm

Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), once believed to be safe for patients with renal disease, have been strongly associated with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), a severe systemic fibrosing disorder that predominantly afflicts individuals with advanced renal dysfunction. We provide a historical perspective on the appearance and disappearance of NSF, including its initial recognition as a discrete clinical entity, its association with GBCA exposure, and the data supporting a causative relationship between GBCA exposure and NSF. On the basis of this body of evidence, we propose that the name gadolinium-induced fibrosis (GIF) more accurately reflects the totality of knowledge regarding this disease. Use of high-risk GBCAs, such as formulated gadodiamide, should be avoided in patients with renal disease. Restriction of GBCA use in this population has almost completely eradicated new cases of this debilitating condition. Emerging antifibrotic therapies may be useful for patients who suffer from GIF.

An exploratory study of therapeutic misconception among incarcerated clinical trial participants

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:37pm

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic misconception, the misunderstanding of differences between research and clinical care, is widely prevalent among non-incarcerated trial participants. Yet little attention has been paid to its presence among individuals who participate in research while incarcerated.

METHODS: This study examined the extent to which seventy-two incarcerated individuals may experience therapeutic misconception about their participation in one of six clinical trials, and its correlation with participant characteristics and potential influences on research participation.

RESULTS: On average, participants endorsed 70% of items suggestive of therapeutic misconception. The tendency toward therapeutic misconception was significantly higher among: African Americans and Latinos compared to Whites; older and less educated participants; enrollment in a substance abuse-related trial; and correlated with a belief that the trial was the only way to obtain needed treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic misconception may be particularly high among select incarcerated individuals and is associated with a perceived lack of treatment options. Further examination of therapeutic misconception among incarcerated research participants is needed.

HIV-1 RNA genome dimerizes on the plasma membrane in the presence of Gag protein

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:37pm

Retroviruses package a dimeric genome comprising two copies of the viral RNA. Each RNA contains all of the genetic information for viral replication. Packaging a dimeric genome allows the recovery of genetic information from damaged RNA genomes during DNA synthesis and promotes frequent recombination to increase diversity in the viral population. Therefore, the strategy of packaging dimeric RNA affects viral replication and viral evolution. Although its biological importance is appreciated, very little is known about the genome dimerization process. HIV-1 RNA genomes dimerize before packaging into virions, and RNA interacts with the viral structural protein Gag in the cytoplasm. Thus, it is often hypothesized that RNAs dimerize in the cytoplasm and the RNA-Gag complex is transported to the plasma membrane for virus assembly. In this report, we tagged HIV-1 RNAs with fluorescent proteins, via interactions of RNA-binding proteins and motifs in the RNA genomes, and studied their behavior at the plasma membrane by using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. We showed that HIV-1 RNAs dimerize not in the cytoplasm but on the plasma membrane. Dynamic interactions occur among HIV-1 RNAs, and stabilization of the RNA dimer requires Gag protein. Dimerization often occurs at an early stage of the virus assembly process. Furthermore, the dimerization process is probably mediated by the interactions of two RNA-Gag complexes, rather than two RNAs. These findings advance the current understanding of HIV-1 assembly and reveal important insights into viral replication mechanisms.

Cutting Edge: Novel Tmem173 Allele Reveals Importance of STING N Terminus in Trafficking and Type I IFN Production

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:37pm

With the stimulator of IFN genes (STING) C terminus being extensively studied, the role of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of STING remains an important subject of investigation. In this article, we identify novel mutations in NTD of Sting of the MOLF strain in response to HSV and Listeria monocytogenes both in vitro and in vivo. These mutations are responsible for low levels of IFN-beta caused by failure of MOLF STING to translocate from the endoplasmic reticulum. These data provide evidence that the NTD of STING affects DNA responses via control of trafficking. They also show that the genetic diversity of wild-derived mice resembles the diversity observed in humans. Several human alleles of STING confer attenuated IFN-I production similar to what we observe with the MOLF Sting allele, a crucial functional difference not apparent in classical inbred mice. Thus, understanding the functional significance of polymorphisms in MOLF STING can provide basic mechanistic insights relevant to humans.

Changes in depression subtypes for women during treatment with citalopram: a latent transition analysis

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:36pm

The aim of this study was to characterize latent subtypes of major depression and changes in these subtypes among women receiving citalopram in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial. Latent transition analysis was applied to data from 755 women who completed baseline and week 12 study visits in level 1 of STAR*D. Items from the self-report version of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used as indicators of latent depression subtype. Four subtypes were identified at baseline and week 12. The baseline subtypes were Mild (21 %), Moderate (30 %), Severe with Increased Appetite (16 %), and Severe with Decreased Appetite (34 %). The subtypes at week 12 were Symptom Resolution (65 %), Mild (23 %), Moderate (9 %), and Severe with Psychomotor Disturbances (3 %). Women in the Moderate subtype at baseline had the greatest chance of moving to Symptom Resolution (87 %). Women in the Severe with Decreased Appetite subtype had the lowest chance of transitioning to Symptom Resolution (46 %). Depression severity and appetite distinguished depression subtypes for women before treatment with citalopram. Depression severity and psychomotor disturbances characterized the subtypes after treatment. This work highlights the need to consider how depression treatment changes different symptoms instead of relying exclusively on summary rating scores.


Toll Receptor-Mediated Hippo Signaling Controls Innate Immunity in Drosophila

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:36pm

The Hippo signaling pathway functions through Yorkie to control tissue growth and homeostasis. How this pathway regulates non-developmental processes remains largely unexplored. Here, we report an essential role for Hippo signaling in innate immunity whereby Yorkie directly regulates the transcription of the Drosophila IkappaB homolog, Cactus, in Toll receptor-mediated antimicrobial response. Loss of Hippo pathway tumor suppressors or activation of Yorkie in fat bodies, the Drosophila immune organ, leads to elevated cactus mRNA levels, decreased expression of antimicrobial peptides, and vulnerability to infection by Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, Gram-positive bacteria acutely activate Hippo-Yorkie signaling in fat bodies via the Toll-Myd88-Pelle cascade through Pelle-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of the Cka subunit of the Hippo-inhibitory STRIPAK PP2A complex. Our studies elucidate a Toll-mediated Hippo signaling pathway in antimicrobial response, highlight the importance of regulating IkappaB/Cactus transcription in innate immunity, and identify Gram-positive bacteria as extracellular stimuli of Hippo signaling under physiological settings.

Synergy between Hematopoietic and Radioresistant Stromal Cells Is Required for Autoimmune Manifestations of DNase II-/-IFNaR-/- Mice

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:36pm

Detection of endogenous nucleic acids by cytosolic receptors, dependent on STING, and endosomal sensors, dependent on Unc93b1, can provoke inflammatory responses that contribute to a variety of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. In DNase II-deficient mice, the excessive accrual of undegraded DNA leads to both a STING-dependent inflammatory arthritis and additional Unc93b1-dependent autoimmune manifestations, including splenomegaly, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and autoantibody production. In this study, we use bone marrow chimeras to show that clinical and histological inflammation in the joint depends upon DNase II deficiency in both donor hematopoietic cells and host radioresistant cells. Additional features of autoimmunity in these mice, known to depend on Unc93b1 and therefore endosomal TLRs, also require DNase II deficiency in both donor and host compartments, but only require functional TLRs in the hematopoietic cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate a major role of both stromal and hematopoietic cells in all aspects of DNA-driven autoimmunity. These findings further point to the importance of cytosolic nucleic acid sensors in creating an inflammatory environment that facilitates the development of Unc93b1-dependent autoimmunity.

Mortality in Postmenopausal Women by Sexual Orientation and Veteran Status

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:36pm

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To examine differences in all-cause and cause-specific mortality by sexual orientation and Veteran status among older women.

ESIGN AND METHODS: Data were from the Women's Health Initiative, with demographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and health behaviors assessed at baseline (1993-1998) and mortality status from all available data sources through 2014. Women with baseline information on lifetime sexual behavior and Veteran status were included in the analyses (N = 137,639; 1.4% sexual minority, 2.5% Veteran). The four comparison groups included sexual minority Veterans, sexual minority non-Veterans, heterosexual Veterans, and heterosexual non-Veterans. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate mortality risk adjusted for demographic, psychosocial, and health variables.

RESULTS: Sexual minority women had greater all-cause mortality risk than heterosexual women regardless of Veteran status (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.36) and women Veterans had greater all-cause mortality risk than non-Veterans regardless of sexual orientation (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.06-1.22), but the interaction between sexual orientation and Veteran status was not significant. Sexual minority women were also at greater risk than heterosexual women for cancer-specific mortality, with effects stronger among Veterans compared to non-Veterans (sexual minority x Veteran HR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.01-2.85).

IMPLICATIONS: Postmenopausal sexual minority women in the United States, regardless of Veteran status, may be at higher risk for earlier death compared to heterosexuals. Sexual minority women Veterans may have higher risk of cancer-specific mortality compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Examining social determinants of longevity may be an important step to understanding and reducing these disparities.

Hysterectomy and Bilateral Salpingo-Oophorectomy: Variations by History of Military Service and Birth Cohort

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:36pm

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO), which are associated with both health risks and benefits, among women Veterans.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To compare the prevalence of hysterectomy with or without BSO, and early hysterectomy, between postmenopausal Veterans and non-Veterans.

DESIGN AND METHODS: We used baseline data from the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial and Observational Study. Multinomial logistic regression models examined differences in the prevalence of hysterectomy (neither hysterectomy nor BSO, hysterectomy without BSO, and hysterectomy with BSO) between Veterans and non-Veterans. Generalized linear models were used to determine whether early hysterectomy (before age 40) differed between Veterans and non-Veterans. Analyses were stratified by birth cohort ( < 65, > /=65 years at enrollment).

RESULTS: The unadjusted prevalence of hysterectomy without BSO was similar among Veterans and non-Veterans in both birth cohorts ( < 65: 22% vs 21%; > /=65: 22% vs 21%). The unadjusted prevalence of hysterectomy with BSO was equivalent among Veterans and non-Veterans in the > 65 cohort (21%), but higher among Veterans in the < 65 cohort (22% vs 19%). In adjusted analyses, although no differences were observed in the > 65 cohort, Veterans in the < 65 cohort had higher odds of hysterectomy without BSO (odds ratio [OR] 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03, 1.36) and with BSO (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.10, 1.45), as well as elevated risk of early hysterectomy (relative risk 1.32, 95% CI 1.19, 1.47), compared with non-Veterans.

IMPLICATIONS: Aging women Veterans may have higher prevalence of hysterectomy and BSO than non-Veterans. This information contributes to understanding the health needs and risks of women Veterans and can inform clinical practice and policy for this population.

Brief Report: Development and Validation of a Semiautomated Method to Measure Erosion Volume in Inflammatory Arthritis by Computed Tomography Scanning

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:36pm

OBJECTIVE: Valid measurement of erosion volume in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) will facilitate the testing of treatments that may help to heal erosion. This study was undertaken to develop and validate a software method to measure erosion volume on computed tomography (CT) scans of the hand and wrist.

METHODS: Duplicate CT acquisitions of both hands of 5 patients with RA were evaluated using a semiautomated software tool to measure erosion volume in the entire hand and wrist and in each of 6 subregions. Reproducibility was quantified using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), root mean square standard deviation (RMSSD), and coefficient of variation (CV), and the analysis was performed at the level of the hand (n = 10) and the subject (n = 5).

RESULTS: The ICCs between 2 repositioned acquisitions were excellent, ranging from 0.97 to 1.00. At the hand level, the RMSSD was 15.6 mm(3) with a CV of 7.3%, and the CVs at the 6 regions ranged from 7.6% to 21.0%. At the subject level, the RMSSD was 31.2 mm(3) with a CV of 3.7%, and the CVs at the 6 regions ranged from 0.5% to 15.8%.

CONCLUSION: We have developed a novel semiautomated software method to measure erosion volume on hand and wrist CT scans. The method is reproducible and can be used to detect changes in erosion volume. This will facilitate the testing of treatments intended to reduce erosion volume.

Methodological challenges collecting parent phone-call healthcare utilization data

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:36pm

Recommendations by the National Institute of Nursing Research and other groups have strongly encouraged nurses to pay greater attention to cost-effectiveness analysis when conducting research. Given the increasing prominence of translational science and comparative effective research, cost-effective analysis has become a basic tool in determining intervention value in research. Tracking phone-call communication (number of calls and context) with cross-checks between parents and healthcare providers is an example of this type of healthcare utilization data collection. This article identifies some methodological challenges that have emerged in the process of collecting this type of data in a randomized controlled trial: Parent education Through Simulation-Diabetes (PETS-D). We also describe ways in which those challenges have been addressed with comparison data results, and make recommendations for future research.

Endovascular repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms does not reduce later mortality compared with open repair

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:36pm

OBJECTIVE: Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAAs) reduces in-hospital mortality compared with open repair (OR), but it is unknown whether EVAR reduces long-term mortality. We hypothesized that EVAR of RAAA would independently reduce long-term mortality compared with OR.

METHODS: The Vascular Quality Initiative database (2003-2013) was used to determine Kaplan-Meier 1-year and 5-year mortality after EVAR and OR of RAAA. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify patient and operative characteristics associated with mortality at 1 year and 5 years after RAAA repair.

RESULTS: Among 590 patients who underwent EVAR and 692 patients who underwent OR of RAAA, the lower mortality seen in the hospital after EVAR (EVAR 23% vs OR 35%; P < .001) persisted at 1 year (EVAR 34% vs OR 42%; P = .001) and 5 years (EVAR 50% vs OR 58%; P = .003) after repair. After adjusting for patient and operative characteristics, EVAR did not independently reduce mortality at 1 year (hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-1.1) or 5 years (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.77-1.2) compared with OR. Dialysis dependence (HR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.8-8.6), home oxygen use (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.7), cardiac ejection fraction < 50% (HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.03-2.1), female gender (HR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.04-1.6), and age (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.05-1.08 per 5 years) as well as cardiac arrest (HR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.5-4.5), loss of consciousness (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.2), and preoperative systolic blood pressure < 90 mm Hg (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8) on admission predicted mortality at 1 year and 5 years after RAAA repair. Type I endoleak (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-3.8) also predicted mortality at 1 year.

CONCLUSIONS: EVAR does not independently reduce long-term mortality compared with OR. Patient comorbidities and indices of shock on admission are the primary independent determinants of long-term mortality. However, the lower early mortality observed in the Vascular Quality Initiative for patients selected to undergo EVAR of RAAA compared with patients selected for OR is sustained over time, suggesting that EVAR for RAAA is beneficial in appropriate candidates. Better elucidation of the key selection factors, including aneurysm anatomy, is needed to best select patients for EVAR and OR to reduce long-term mortality.

Developing Research and Community Literacies to Recruit Latino Researchers and Practitioners to Address Health Disparities

Tue, 04/04/2017 - 10:36pm

Engaging community residents and undergraduate Latino students in developing research and community literacies can expose both groups to resources needed to address health disparities. The bidirectional learning process described in this article developed these literacies through an ethnographic mapping fieldwork activity that used a learning-by-doing method in combination with reflection on the research experience. The active efforts of research team members to promote reflection on the research activities were integral for developing research and community literacies. Our findings suggest that, through participating in this field research activity, undergraduate students and community residents developed a better understanding of resources for addressing health disparities. Our research approach assisted community residents and undergraduate students by demystifying research, translating scientific and community knowledge, providing exposure to multiple literacies, and generating increased awareness of research as a tool for change among community residents and their organizations. The commitment of the community and university leadership to this pedagogical method can bring out the full potential of mentoring, both to contribute to the development of the next generation of Latino researchers and to assist community members in their efforts to address health disparities.