To review the classification of testicular tumors, describe the sonographic and pathologic features of each tumor type, and discuss the mimics, diagnostic pitfalls, and management of testicular tumors. Method consists of pictorial review. We review sonographic and pathologic findings of several testicular tumors and tumorlike entities. Although ultrasound is the first-line imaging modality to differentiate between intratesticular and extratesticular location of an intrascrotal mass, it is not specific for intratesticular lesion characterization. Therefore, correlation with histology sampling is often necessary.
Improving the Transcription of Patient Information From Image Requisitions to the Radiology Information System
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to improve the transcription of patient information from imaging study requisitions to the radiology information database at a single institution.
METHODS: Five hundred radiology reports from adult outpatient radiographic examinations were chosen randomly from the radiology information system (RIS) and categorized according to their degree of concordance with their corresponding clinical order indications. The number and types of grammatical errors and types of order forms were also recorded. Countermeasures centered on the education of the technical staff and referring physician offices and the implementation of a checklist. Another sample of 500 reports was taken after the implementation of the countermeasures and compared with the baseline data using a chi2 test.
RESULTS: The number of RIS indications perfectly concordant with their corresponding clinical order indications increased from 232 (46.4%) to 314 (62.8%) after the implementation of the countermeasures (P < .0001). The number of partially concordant matches due to inadequate RIS indications dropped from 162 (32.4%) to 114 (22.8%) (P < .001), whereas the number of partially concordant matches due to inadequate clinical order indications increased from 22 (4.4%) to 57 (11.4%) (P < .0001). The number of discordant pairings dropped from 84 (16.8%) to 15 (3%) (P < .0001). Technologists began to input additional patient information obtained from the patients (not present in the image requisitions) in the RIS after the implementation of the countermeasures.
CONCLUSIONS: The education of technical staff members and the implementation of a checklist markedly improved the information provided to radiologists on image requisitions from referring providers.
OBJECTIVE: The longus colli muscle (LCM) forms the bulk of the deep flexor muscles of the neck. To our knowledge, very little information on the effects of trauma on this muscle group has been published. We describe MRI findings related to injury of the LCM in patients with a history of neck trauma.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A radiology department database was searched to identify patient medical records from 2008 to 2013 that included the keywords "longus colli" and "deep flexors." Patients with fractures and ligament injuries were excluded. Patients with other obvious large soft-tissue injuries and nontraumatic conditions were also omitted. A total of 12 patients met the inclusion criterion of having an isolated or predominant injury to the LCM. Five patients had been involved in a motor vehicle accident, and seven patients had fallen. Eleven patients had undergone a CT examination before MRI was performed.
RESULTS: No fractures were noted on CT. MRI examinations of the cervical spine were obtained for the following reasons: for increased prevertebral soft-tissue swelling noted on a CT scan plus neck pain (n = 6), for neck pain only (n = 4), or as part of a routine protocol for assessment of obtunded patients (n = 2). Eight of the 12 patients had isolated injury to the LCM. The remaining four patients also had minor injuries to the other neck muscles. The MR image showed swelling and T2 hyperintensity in the LCM and revealed free fluid in the prevertebral space.
CONCLUSION: Isolated injury to the LCM may occur in neck injuries. The MRI findings indicating such injury include increased T2 signal, swelling of the muscle, and the presence of prevertebral fluid.
Stent-assisted coil embolization of aneurysms with small parent vessels: safety and efficacy analysis
BACKGROUND: Stent-assisted coil embolization (SACE) is a viable therapeutic approach for wide-neck intracranial aneurysms. However, it can be technically challenging in small cerebral vessels ( < /=2 mm).
OBJECTIVE: To present our experience with stents approved for SACE in aneurysms with small parent arteries.
METHODS: All patients who underwent stent-assisted aneurysm treatment with either a Neuroform or an Enterprise stent device at our institution between June 2006 and October 2012 were identified. Additionally, we evaluated each patient's vascular risk factors, aneurysm characteristics (ruptured vs non-ruptured, incidental finding, recanalized) and follow-up angiography data.
RESULTS: A total of 41 patients with 44 aneurysms met our criteria, including 31 women and 10 men. Most of the aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation (75%). Stent placement in vessels 1.2-2 mm in diameter was successful in 93.2%. Thromboembolic complications occurred in 6 cases and vessel straightening was seen in 1 case only. Initial nearly complete to complete aneurysm obliteration was achieved in 88.6%. Six-month follow-up angiography showed coil compaction in three cases, one asymptomatic in-stent stenosis and stent occlusion. Twelve to 20-months' follow-up showed stable coil compaction in two patients compared with previous follow-up, and aneurysm recanalization in two patients. Twenty-four to 36-months' follow-up showed further coil compaction in one of these patients and aneurysm recanalization in a previous case of stable coil compaction on mid-term follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that SACE of aneurysms with small parent vessels is feasible in selected cases and shows good long-term patency rates of parent arteries.
Successful treatment of a giant pediatric fusiform basilar trunk aneurysm with surpass flow diverter
Fusiform aneurysms present a unique challenge to traditional microsurgical and endovascular treatment because of the lack of a discernible neck and the involvement of parent vessel. Flow diversion has increasingly become the treatment of choice for fusiform aneurysms in the anterior circulation, but its results in the posterior circulation are variable. We report successful treatment of a giant fusiform upper basilar trunk aneurysm with the Surpass flow diverter in an adolescent, and discuss the potential advantages of this emerging technology in the treatment of fusiform posterior circulation aneurysms.
AIM: To re-examine whether hepatic vein thrombosis (HVT) (classical Budd-Chiari syndrome) and hepatic vena cava-Budd Chiari syndrome (HVC-BCS) are the same disorder.
METHODS: A systematic review of observational studies conducted in adult subjects with primary BCS, hepatic vein outflow tract obstruction, membranous obstruction of the inferior vena cava (IVC), obliterative hepatocavopathy, or HVT during the period of January 2000 until February 2015 was conducted using the following databases: Cochrane Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed and Scopus.
RESULTS: Of 1299 articles identified, 26 were included in this study. Classical BCS is more common in women with a pure hepatic vein obstruction (49%-74%). HVC-BCS is more common in men with the obstruction often located in both the inferior vena cava and hepatic veins (14%-84%). Classical BCS presents with acute abdominal pain, ascites, and hepatomegaly. HVC-BCS presents with chronic abdominal pain and abdominal wall varices. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are the most common etiology of classical BCS (16%-62%) with the JAK2V617-F mutation found in 26%-52%. In HVC-BCS, MPN are found in 4%-5%, and the JAK2V617-F mutation in 2%-5%. Classical BCS responds well to medical management alone and 1(st) line management of HVC-BCS involves percutaneous recanalization, with few managed with medical management alone.
CONCLUSION: Systematic review of recent data suggests that classical BCS and HVC-BCS may be two clinically different disorders that involve the disruption of hepatic venous outflow.
Academic-industry collaborations are an emerging format of translational stroke research. Next to classic contract research models, a multitude of collaboration models has been developed, some of which even allowing for multinational or intercontinental research programs. This development has recently been paralleled by first successful attempts to overcome the translational stroke research road block, such as the unprecedented success of novel endovascular approaches or the advent of the multicenter preclinical trial concept. While the first underlines the role of the industry as a major innovation driver in stroke research, the latter will require enrollment of industrial partners for optimal output. Moreover, academic-industry partnerships are invaluable to bridge the translational "valley of death" as well as funding gaps in times of dwindling public funding and declining high risk capital investments. However, these collaborations are also subject to relevant challenges because interests, values, and aims often significantly differ between cademia and industry. Here, we describe common academic-industry collaboration models as well as associated benefits and challenges in the stroke research arena. We also suggest strategies for improved planning, implementation, guidance, and utilization of academic-industry collaborations to the maximum mutual benefit.
Patient delay in seeking care for heart attack symptoms: findings from focus groups conducted in five U.S. regions
BACKGROUND: Patient delay in seeking health care for heart attack symptoms is a continuuing problem in the United States.
METHODS: Investigators conducted focus groups (N = 34; 207 participants) in major U.S. regions (NE, NW, SE, SW, MW) as formative evaluation to develop a multi-center randomized community trial (the REACT Project). Target groups included adults with previous heart attacks, those at higher risk for heart attack, and bystanders to heart attacks. There were also subgroups reflecting gender and ethnicity (African-American, Hispanic-American, White).
FINDINGS: Patients, bystanders, and those at higher risk expected heart attack symptoms to present as often portrayed in the movies, that is, as sharp, crushing chest pain rather than the more common onset of initially ambiguous but gradually increasing discomfort. Patients and those at higher risk also unrealistically judge their personal risk as low, understand little about the benefits of rapid action, are generally unaware of the benefits of using EMS/9-1-1 over alternative transport, and appear to need the "permission" of health care providers or family to act. Moreover, participants reported rarely discussing heart attack symptoms and appropriate responses in advance with health care providers, spouses, or family members. Women often described heart attack as a "male problem," an important aspect of their underestimation of personal risk. African-American participants were more likely to describe negative feelings about EMS/9-1-1, particularly whether they would be transported to their hospital of choice.
CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to reduce patient delay need to address expectations about heart attack symptoms, educate about benefits and appropriate actions, and provide legitimacy for taking specific health care-seeking actions. In addition, strategy development must emphasize the role of health care providers in legitimizing the need and importance of taking rapid action in the first place.
Ultrasound-guided Intralesional Bleomycin Injection (IBI) for Treatment of Cutaneous Hemangiomas and Vascular Malformations
Purpose: To report the therapeutic outcome of ultrasound-guided intralesional injection of bleomycin in the treatment of cutaneous hemangiomas and vascular malformations.
Material & Methods: The medical records of patients with cutaneous hemangiomas and vascular malformations treated with the intralesional injection of bleomycin under ultrasound guidance between August 2009 and June 2013 at the Indus Hospital, Karachi were reviewed retrospectively using a computerized medical record information management system. Data were extracted using a pre-coded performa that included patient demographics, type and location of lesion, number of treatments, presenting/pre- and post-treatment clinical symptoms (pain, swelling, heaviness, size, discoloration), ultrasound appearance and vascularity, and post-treatment side effects. The dose range of bleomycin was 0.5-1.0 mg/kg, but not exceeding 15 mg in a single session. A maximum of four treatments were given in any given patient except for one, who presented with recurrence after a year of complete resolution. Therapeutic outcome was determined using review of ultrasound images and recorded clinical assessment. Treatment response was categorized as: (i) complete resolution [more than 90% reduction]; (ii) substantial reduction [more than 50% reduction]; (iii) mild reduction [25% reduction]; or, (iv) no improvement [ < 10% reduction].
Results: A total of 30 patients (16 female, 14 male), ranging in age from 8 months to 48 years (mean age 10.2 years), were treated from 2009 to 2013. There were 23 hemangiomas. Seven were vascular malformations, of which five were lymphatic malformations and two were venous malformations. Twenty-eight lesions were located in the head and neck region, and two were peripheral.. In 24 of the 30 patients (76%), treatment had been completed. In six patients (21%) treatment was ongoing at the time of this report. Seventeen of the 23 hemangiomas (74%) were completely resolved clinically and on ultrasound, five (22%) showed substantial improvement and one (4%) showed mild improvement. In five of the seven vascular malformations (71%) lymphatic malformations resolved completely, and two (29%) venous malformations showed substantial improvement. Of the 13 patients presenting with discoloration, there was complete resolution in one (7.7%), marked reduction in 11 (84.6%) and mild reduction in one (7.7%). Of seven patients presenting with pain, there was complete resolution in two (28.6%), marked reduction in two (28.6%), mild reduction in two (28.6%), and no improvement in one (14.3%). There were no pulmonary complications.
Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided intralesional injection of bleomycin is an option to consider for the treatment of certain types of cutaneous hemangiomas and vascular malformations. Prospective studies should be undertaken to understand the various factors contributing to therapeutic success.
Promoter-enhancer looping at the PPARγ2 locus during adipogenic differentiation requires the Prmt5 methyltransferase
PPARγ2 is a critical lineage-determining transcription factor that is essential for adipogenic differentiation. Here we report characterization of the three-dimensional structure of the PPARγ2 locus after the onset of adipogenic differentiation and the mechanisms by which it forms. We identified a differentiation-dependent loop between the PPARγ2 promoter and an enhancer sequence 10 kb upstream that forms at the onset of PPARγ2 expression. The arginine methyltransferase Prmt5 was required for loop formation, and overexpression of Prmt5 resulted in premature loop formation and earlier onset of PPARγ2 expression. Kinetic studies of regulatory factor interactions at the PPARγ2 promoter and enhancer revealed enhanced interaction of Prmt5 with the promoter that preceded stable association of Prmt5 with enhancer sequences. Prmt5 knockdown prevented binding of both MED1, a subunit of Mediator complex that facilitates enhancer-promoter interactions, and Brg1, the ATPase of the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme required for PPARγ2 activation and adipogenic differentiation. The data indicate a dynamic association of Prmt5 with the regulatory sequences of the PPARγ2 gene that facilitates differentiation-dependent, three-dimensional organization of the locus. In addition, other differentiation-specific, long-range chromatin interactions showed Prmt5-dependence, indicating a more general role for Prmt5 in mediating higher-order chromatin connections in differentiating adipocytes.
Comparison of RNA isolation and associated methods for extracellular RNA detection by high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that function in RNA silencing and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. miRNAs in biofluids are being used for clinical diagnosis as well as disease prediction. Efficient and reproducible isolation methods are crucial for extracellular RNA detection. To determine the best methodologies for miRNA detection from plasma, the performance of four RNA extraction kits, including an in-house kit, were determined with miScript miRNA assay technology; all were measured using a high-throughput quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) platform (BioMark System) with 90 human miRNA assays. In addition, the performances of complementary DNA (cDNA) and preamplification kits for TaqMan miRNA assays and miScript miRNA assays were compared using the same 90 miRNAs on the BioMark System. There were significant quantification cycle (Cq) value differences for the detection of miRNA targets between isolation kits. cDNA, preamplification, and qPCR performances were also varied. In summary, this study demonstrates differences among RNA isolation methods as measured by reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR. Importantly, differences were also noted in cDNA and preamplification performance using TaqMan and miScript. The in-house kit performed better than the other three kits. These findings demonstrate significant variability between isolation and detection methods for low-abundant miRNA detection from biofluids.
OBJECTIVE: Parents who have a child newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes (T1D) must quickly learn daily diabetes self-management. An RCT was conducted using human patient simulation (HPS) to enhance parents learning diabetes self-management with children with new-onset T1D. The purpose of this study was to describe parents' perspectives of using HPS to augment diabetes education.
METHODS: A qualitative descriptive design was used with open-ended in-depth interviews of parents (n=49) post-intervention. Qualitative directed content analysis was used.
RESULTS: The majority of parents were positive about learning with HPS. Although a few parents said the HPS was "hokey" or "creepy," most reported the visual and hands-on learning was realistic and very beneficial. Seeing a seizure increased their fear although they would have panicked if they had not had that learning experience, and it helped build their diabetes self-management confidence. Recommendations included teaching others with the HPS (grandparents, siblings, babysitters, and school nurses).
CONCLUSION: HPS-enhanced education is an acceptable and viable option that was generally well-received by parents of children with new-onset T1D.
PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: The technique should be studied with parents of children with other chronic illnesses to see if the benefits found in this study are applicable to other settings.
The Family Options psychiatric rehabilitation intervention targets families where a parent is living with or in recovery from a serious mental illness (e.g., major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders). The Family Options intervention grew out of the efforts of providers, researchers, and parents themselves to provide supports to parents and their family members at Employment Options, Inc., a community-based, recovery-oriented agency located in Marlborough, Massachusetts, USA. The aim of the intervention is to support family members in achieving their desired level of well-being and functioning, and to enhance their social supports and resources, both formal and informal. This chapter will provide (1) our rationale for intervention development; (2) an overview of the Family Options model; (3) a description of services provided; (4) a perspective on the roles of key players, including parent peers, in meeting families' needs; (5) steps in the intervention; and (6) preliminary data regarding outcomes. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this work for providers, administrators, and policymakers.
Our goal is to help providers, working with adults living with mental illnesses who are parents, to promote recovery and resilience in all family members. Providers may be working in a traditional mental health setting, providing specialized services like supported employment or housing, or working together with parents in an intervention targeted specifically to meeting their needs, like Family Options. Promoting parents' mental health will have positive impact on all family members, especially their children. The resources in this guide are drawn from over 20 years of research and practice, and the lived experiences of parents, children and family members.
Feasibility Study for Demonstration of Supported Education to Promote Educational Attainment and Employment among Individuals with Serious Mental Illness: Final Report
The project focused on answering a series of research questions about Supported Education program composition, implementation, service context, the experiences of individuals involved in Supported Education programs, available Supported Education data sources and ongoing evaluations, Supported Education policies, financing, and gaps in the Supported Education knowledge base. This final project report includes chapters describing the results from each task, as well as a final synthesis chapter that identifies future Supported Education needs and opportunities.
Prepared for Office of Disability, Aging and Long-Term Care Policy, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Autocrine VEGF signaling is critical for sustaining prostate and other cancer stem cells (CSCs), and it is a potential therapeutic target, but we observed that CSCs isolated from prostate tumors are resistant to anti-VEGF (bevacizumab) and anti-VEGFR (sunitinib) therapy. Intriguingly, resistance is mediated by VEGF/neuropilin signaling, which is not inhibited by bevacizumab and sunitinib, and it involves the induction of P-Rex1, a Rac GEF, and consequent Rac1-mediated ERK activation. This induction of P-Rex1 is dependent on Myc. CSCs isolated from the PTEN(pc-/-) transgenic model of prostate cancer exhibit Rac1-dependent resistance to bevacizumab. Rac1 inhibition or P-Rex1 downregulation increases the sensitivity of prostate tumors to bevacizumab. These data reveal that prostate tumors harbor cells with stem cell properties that are resistant to inhibitors of VEGF/VEGFR signaling. Combining the use of available VEGF/VEGFR-targeted therapies with P-Rex1 or Rac1 inhibition should improve the efficacy of these therapies significantly.
BACKGROUND: Half of US pregnancies are unintended. Understanding risk factors is important for reducing unintended pregnancy rates.
AIM: We examined a novel risk factor for unintended pregnancies, impulsivity. We hypothesized that non-planning impulsivity, but not motor or attentional impulsivity, would be related to pregnancy intention.
METHODS: Pregnant women (N = 116) completed self-report measures during their second or third trimester. Impulsivity was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15); subscales measured motor, attentional and non-planning impulsivity (subscale range: 5-20). On each subscale, high impulsivity was indicated by a score of ≥11. Pregnancy intention was assessed by asking women whether they were trying to become pregnant at the time of conception (yes or no). Crude and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models estimated the cross-sectional association between impulsivity and unplanned pregnancy.
RESULTS: Thirty-four percent of women reported that their current pregnancy was unplanned, and 32% had high non-planning impulsivity. Fifty-one percent of women with high non-planning impulsivity reported an unplanned pregnancy versus 25% of women with low impulsivity. Women with high non-planning impulsivity had 3.53 times the odds of unplanned pregnancy compared to women with low non-planning impulsivity (adjusted OR =3.53, 95% CI: 1.23-10.14). Neither motor (adjusted OR =0.55, 95% CI: 0.10-2.90) nor attentional (adjusted OR =0.84, 95% CI: 0.25-2.84) impulsivity were related to pregnancy intentionality.
CONCLUSIONS: High non-planning impulsivity may be a risk factor for unplanned pregnancy. Further research should explore whether increasing the use of long-acting reversible contraceptives or integrating if-then planning into contraceptive counseling among women with higher non-planning impulsivity can lower unplanned pregnancy rates.
Introduction: Half of pregnancies in the United States are unintended. We examine a novel risk factor for unintended pregnancies, impulsivity. We hypothesize that women with higher nonplanning impulsivity will be more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy.
Methods: The parent study was a prospective cohort study of 125 pregnant women examining the association between impulsivity and weight gain during pregnancy. At an in-person study visit, women completed self-report measures via a secure web form. The 15-item Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-15) measures impulsivity using subjective statements about the respondent’s behavior with 4 response options: rarely/never, occasionally, often, and almost always/always. Three subscales with 5 questions each measure attention, motor, and nonplanning impulsivity. We categorized women as being less impulsive (subscale score of 5-10) versus more impulsive (11-20). We chose this cutoff as a score of 10 indicates responses of “never/rarely” or “occasionally”, representing lower impulsivity. Pregnancy intention was measured by asking women “When you got pregnant, were you trying to get pregnant?” (yes or no).
Results: 34% reported that the current pregnancy was unplanned. 10% of women had high motor impulsivity, 21% high attention impulsivity, and 32% high nonplanning impulsivity. Women who were aged 18-24, obese, less educated, not married, of a lower socioeconomic status, and multigravid were more likely to have higher nonplanning impulsivity. 51% with high nonplanning impulsivity reported unplanned pregnancy compared to 25% (low nonplanning impulsivity). Women with high nonplanning impulsivity had 3.53 times the odds of unplanned pregnancy compared to women with low nonplanning impulsivity (adjusted for other 2 subscales and confounders; 95% CI: 1.23-10.14). Neither motor nor attention impulsivity was associated with pregnancy intention.
Conclusions: Women with higher levels of nonplanning impulsivity are at higher risk of having unplanned pregnancies. The 5-item nonplanning subscale of the BIS-15 may help to identify women with high nonplanning impulsivity clinically; women could complete this brief measure prior to office visits, and these scores could direct contraception counseling. Contraception that requires little maintenance and no decision-making at the time of sexual encounters, such as long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), may potentially lower unplanned pregnancy rates among more impulsive women. Further research should focus on creating a framework to identify these women, implementing a screening tool in the clinical setting, and to explore whether increasing LARC use in this population can lower unplanned pregnancy rates.
A Pilot Study of Deaf Trauma Survivors’ Experiences: Early Traumas Unique to Being Deaf in a Hearing World
Conducting semi-structured American Sign Language interviews with 17 Deaf trauma survivors, this pilot study explored Deaf individuals’ trauma experiences and whether these experiences generally align with trauma in the hearing population. Most commonly reported traumas were physical assault, sudden unexpected deaths, and “other” very stressful events. Although some “other” events overlap with traumas in the general population, many are unique to Deaf people (e.g., corporal punishment at oral/aural school if caught using sign language, utter lack of communication with hearing parents). These findings suggest that Deaf individuals may experience developmental traumas distinct to being raised in a hearing world. Such traumas are not captured by available trauma assessments, nor are they considered in evidence-based trauma treatments.
Diabetes Is Associated with Worse Clinical Presentation in Tuberculosis Patients from Brazil: A Retrospective Cohort Study
BACKGROUND: The rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) worldwide, especially in developing countries, and the persistence of tuberculosis (TB) as a major public health issue in these same regions, emphasize the importance of investigating this association. Here, we compared the clinical profile and disease outcomes of TB patients with or without coincident DM in a TB reference center in Brazil.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a TB patient cohort (treatment naive) of 408 individuals recruited at a TB primary care center in Brazil between 2004 and 2010. Data on diagnosis of TB and DM were used to define the groups. The study groups were compared with regard to TB disease presentation at diagnosis as well as to clinical outcomes such as cure and mortality rates upon anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT) initiation. A composite score utilizing clinical, radiological and microbiological parameters was used to compare TB severity between the groups.
RESULTS: DM patients were older than non-diabetic TB patients. In addition, diabetic individuals more frequently presented with cough, night sweats, hemoptysis and malaise than those without DM. The overall pattern of lung lesions assessed by chest radiographic examination was similar between the groups. Compared to non-diabetic patients, those with TB-diabetes exhibited positive acid-fast bacilli in sputum samples more frequently at diagnosis and at 30 days after ATT initiation. Notably, higher values of the TB severity score were significantly associated with TB-diabetes comorbidity after adjustment for confounding factors. Moreover, during ATT, diabetic patients required more frequent transfers to TB reference hospitals for complex clinical management. Nevertheless, overall mortality and cure rates were indistinguishable between the study groups.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings reinforce the idea that diabetes negatively impacts pulmonary TB severity. Our study argues for the systematic screening for DM in TB reference centers in endemic areas.