JIP scaffold proteins are implicated in the regulation of protein kinase signal transduction pathways. To test the physiological role of these scaffold proteins, we examined the phenotype of compound mutant mice that lack expression of JIP proteins. These mice were found to exhibit severe defects in N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor function, including decreased NMDA-evoked current amplitude, cytoplasmic Ca(++), and gene expression. The decreased NMDA receptor activity in JIP-deficient neurons is associated with reduced tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2 subunits of the NMDA receptor. JIP complexes interact with the SH2 domain of cFyn and may therefore promote tyrosine phosphorylation and activity of the NMDA receptor. We conclude that JIP scaffold proteins are critically required for normal NMDA receptor function.
The regulation of innate immune responses to pathogens occurs through the interaction of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) with pathogen-associated molecular patterns and the activation of several signaling pathways whose contribution to the overall innate immune response to pathogens is poorly understood. We demonstrate a mechanism of control of murine macrophage responses mediated by TLR1/2 heterodimers through c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) activity. JNK controls tumor necrosis factor alpha production and TLR-mediated macrophage responses to Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, and the TLR1/TLR2-specific agonist PAM(3)CSK(4). JNK1, but not JNK2, activity regulates the expression of the tlr1 gene in the macrophage cell line RAW264.7, as well as in primary CD11b(+) cells. We also show that the proximal promoter region of the human tlr1 gene contains an AP-1 binding site that is subjected to regulation by the kinase and binds two complexes that involve the JNK substrates c-Jun, JunD, and ATF-2. These results demonstrate that JNK1 regulates the response to TLR1/2 ligands and suggest a positive feedback loop that may serve to increase the innate immune response to the spirochete.