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Substance Use as a Mediator of the Association Between Demographics, Suicide Attempt History, and Future Suicide Attempts in Emergency Department Patients

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:45pm

BACKGROUND: Identification of factors that predict and protect against attempted suicide are critical for the development of effective suicide prevention and intervention programs.

AIMS: To examine whether substance use mediates the association between demographic characteristics, suicide attempt history, and reports of a suicide attempt within 12 months after screening positive for active suicidal ideation or behavior during the index emergency department (ED) visit.

METHOD: Data were collected during the first two phases of the Emergency Department Safety Assessment and Follow-up Evaluation (ED-SAFE) study. Data collection included baseline interview; 6- and 12-month chart reviews; and 6-, 12-, 24-, 36-, and 52-week telephone follow-up assessments. Structural equation modeling was used. All p values were two-tailed, with p < .05 considered statistically significant.

RESULTS: Among the 874 subjects, 195 (22%) reported a suicide attempt within 12 months after the index ED visit. Of participants reporting a suicide attempt, 59% were < 40 years old, 59% female, and 76% non-Hispanic White. Associations between race, sex, and suicide attempt 12 months after the index ED visit may be mediated by a combination of alcohol misuse and cocaine use.

CONCLUSION: Findings from the mediation analyses provide insight into the impact of substance use on future suicide attempts in various sociodemographic groups.

Has Boston's 2011 cigar packaging and pricing regulation reduced availability of single-flavoured cigars popular with youth

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:45pm

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated retailer compliance with a cigar packaging and pricing regulation in Boston, Massachusetts, enacted in February 2012, and the regulation's impact on availability of single cigars.

METHODS: Grape-flavoured Dutch Masters (DM) single-packaged cigars were examined as market indicator. At quarterly intervals from October 2011 to December 2014, availability and price of DM single cigars were observed through professional inspector visits to tobacco retailers in Boston (n=2232) and 10 comparison cities (n=3400). Differences in price and availability were examined between Boston and the comparison cities and across Boston neighbourhoods.

RESULTS: The mean price of DM single cigars sold in Boston increased from under $1.50 in 2011 to above $2.50 in 2014, consistent with regulation requirements. Rates of retailer compliance reached 100% within 15 months postpolicy enactment based on observed price, and 97% at 30 months postenactment based on final sale prices. There was a 34.5% net decrease in the percentage of Boston retailers selling single cigars from 2011 to 2014. The number of Boston neighbourhoods with 3 or more retailers selling single cigars per 100 youth residents decreased from 12 in 2011 to 3 in 2014. No change in price or per cent of retailers selling single cigars was observed in the comparison cities in the same period.

CONCLUSIONS: Retailers throughout Boston are in compliance with the regulation. The regulation has been effective in reducing levels and disparities in availability of flavoured single cigars popular with youth across Boston neighbourhoods, regardless of socioeconomic status and racial/ethnic composition.

Successful Strategies for Practice-Based Recruitment of Racial and Ethnic Minority Pregnant Women in a Randomized Controlled Trial: the IDEAS for a Healthy Baby Study

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:45pm

BACKGROUND: Racial/ethnic minority patients are often underrepresented in clinical trials. Efforts to address barriers to participation may improve representation, thus enhancing our understanding of how research findings apply to more diverse populations.

METHODS: The IDEAS (Information, Description, Education, Assistance, and Support) for a Healthy Baby study was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an intervention to reduce barriers to using publicly reported quality data for low-income, racial/ethnic minority women. We used strategies grounded in a health equity framework to address barriers to recruitment and retention in three domains: preparation, process, and patient-centeredness. "Preparation" included teaching study staff about health inequities, role-playing skills to develop rapport and trust, and partnering with clinic staff. "Processes" included use of electronic registration systems to pre-screen potential candidates and determine when eligible participants were in clinic and an electronic database to track patients through the study. Use of a flexible protocol, stipends, and consideration of literacy levels promoted "patient-centeredness."

RESULTS: We anticipated needing to recruit 800 women over 18 months to achieve a completion goal of 650. Using the recruitment and retention strategies outlined above, we recruited 746 women in 15 months, achieving higher recruitment (87.1 %) and retention rates (97.3 %) than we had anticipated.

DISCUSSION: These successful recruitment and retention strategies used for a large RCT promoted inclusivity and accessibility. Researchers seeking to recruit racial and ethnic minority pregnant women in similar settings may find the preparation, process, and patient-centered strategies used in this study applicable for their own studies.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01784575 , 1R21HS021864-01.

A multidisciplinary approach to vascular surgery procedure coding improves coding accuracy, work relative value unit assignment, and reimbursement

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:45pm

BACKGROUND: Vascular surgery procedural reimbursement depends on accurate procedural coding and documentation. Despite the critical importance of correct coding, there has been a paucity of research focused on the effect of direct physician involvement. We hypothesize that direct physician involvement in procedural coding will lead to improved coding accuracy, increased work relative value unit (wRVU) assignment, and increased physician reimbursement.

METHODS: This prospective observational cohort study evaluated procedural coding accuracy of fistulograms at an academic medical institution (January-June 2014). All fistulograms were coded by institutional coders (traditional coding) and by a single vascular surgeon whose codes were verified by two institution coders (multidisciplinary coding). The coding methods were compared, and differences were translated into revenue and wRVUs using the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule. Comparison between traditional and multidisciplinary coding was performed for three discrete study periods: baseline (period 1), after a coding education session for physicians and coders (period 2), and after a coding education session with implementation of an operative dictation template (period 3). The accuracy of surgeon operative dictations during each study period was also assessed. An external validation at a second academic institution was performed during period 1 to assess and compare coding accuracy.

RESULTS: During period 1, traditional coding resulted in a 4.4% (P = .004) loss in reimbursement and a 5.4% (P = .01) loss in wRVUs compared with multidisciplinary coding. During period 2, no significant difference was found between traditional and multidisciplinary coding in reimbursement (1.3% loss; P = .24) or wRVUs (1.8% loss; P = .20). During period 3, traditional coding yielded a higher overall reimbursement (1.3% gain; P = .26) than multidisciplinary coding. This increase, however, was due to errors by institution coders, with six inappropriately used codes resulting in a higher overall reimbursement that was subsequently corrected. Assessment of physician documentation showed improvement, with decreased documentation errors at each period (11% vs 3.1% vs 0.6%; P = .02). Overall, between period 1 and period 3, multidisciplinary coding resulted in a significant increase in additional reimbursement ($17.63 per procedure; P = .004) and wRVUs (0.50 per procedure; P = .01). External validation at a second academic institution was performed to assess coding accuracy during period 1. Similar to institution 1, traditional coding revealed an 11% loss in reimbursement ($13,178 vs $14,630; P = .007) and a 12% loss in wRVU (293 vs 329; P = .01) compared with multidisciplinary coding.

CONCLUSIONS: Physician involvement in the coding of endovascular procedures leads to improved procedural coding accuracy, increased wRVU assignments, and increased physician reimbursement.

Smoking Cessation in a Chronic Pancreatitis Population

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:45pm

OBJECTIVES: Smoking is a known risk factor for developing chronic pancreatitis and accelerates disease progression. Smoking cessation remains an important treatment recommendation, but little is known about its effects. This study evaluated smoking cessation in this population and its impact on quality of life.

METHODS: Twenty-seven smokers with chronic pancreatitis participated in a smoking cessation program incorporating the QuitWorks program and individual counseling. Their smoking cessation rates were compared with a control population (n = 200) consisting of inpatients without chronic pancreatitis who smoked. Smokers were also compared with nonsmokers (n = 25) with chronic pancreatitis in terms of quality-of-life indicators.

RESULTS: In 27 patients, 0 had quit smoking at 6 months, 1 at 12 months, and 0 patients at 18 months. There was a 19% quit rate in the control population at the 6-month period. Smokers had a worse quality of life, higher rates of depression and anxiety, and worse coping skills than nonsmokers.

CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation in the chronic pancreatitis population is extremely challenging, as shown by our 0% quit rate after 18 months. Given that smokers with chronic pancreatitis also experience a worse quality of life, it becomes even more important to stress the importance of smoking cessation in these patients.

Rapid Inflammasome Activation following Mucosal SIV Infection of Rhesus Monkeys

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:45pm

The earliest events following mucosal HIV-1 infection, prior to measurable viremia, remain poorly understood. Here, by detailed necropsy studies, we show that the virus can rapidly disseminate following mucosal SIV infection of rhesus monkeys and trigger components of the inflammasome, both at the site of inoculation and at early sites of distal virus spread. By 24 hr following inoculation, a proinflammatory signature that lacked antiviral restriction factors was observed in viral RNA-positive tissues. The early innate response included expression of NLRX1, which inhibits antiviral responses, and activation of the TGF-beta pathway, which negatively regulates adaptive immune responses. These data suggest a model in which the virus triggers specific host mechanisms that suppress the generation of antiviral innate and adaptive immune responses in the first few days of infection, thus facilitating its own replication. These findings have important implications for the development of vaccines and other strategies to prevent infection.

Mitoxantrone-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Acute Myeloid Leukemia-A Velocity Vector Imaging Analysis

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:45pm

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this investigation was to: (1) determine incidence and predictors of mitoxantrone-induced early cardiotoxicity and (2) study left ventricular mechanics before and after receiving mitoxantrone.

METHOD AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analyzed 80 subjects diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who underwent chemotherapy with bolus high-dose mitoxantrone. Echocardiographic measurements were taken at baseline and at a median interval of 55 days after receiving mitoxantrone. Thirty-five (44%) of the patients developed clinically defined early cardiotoxicity, 29 (36%) of which developed heart failure. There was a significant decrease in the ejection fraction (EF) not only in the cardiotoxicity group (17.6 +/- 14.8%, P < 0.001) but also in the noncardiotoxicity group (5.3 +/- 8.4%, P < 0.001). Decrease in global longitudinal strain (GLS) (-3.7 +/- 4.5, P < 0.001 vs. -2.4 +/- 4.3, P = 0.01) and global circumferential strain (GCS) (-5.6 +/- 9, P = 0.003 vs. -5.3 +/- 8.7, P < 0.001) was significant in both the cardiotoxicity and noncardiotoxicity group, respectively. A multivariate model including baseline left ventricular end-systolic diameter, baseline pre-E/A ratio, and baseline pre-E/e' ratio was found to be the best-fitted model for prediction of mitoxantrone-induced early clinical cardiotoxicity.

CONCLUSION: High-dose mitoxantrone therapy is associated with an excellent remission rate but with a significantly increased risk of clinical and subclinical early cardiotoxicity and heart failure. Mitoxantrone-induced systolic dysfunction is evident from reduction in EF, increase in Tei index, and significant reduction in GLS and GCS. Baseline impaired ventricular relaxation evident from higher E/e' ratio and lower E/A ratio independently predicts increased risk of mitoxantrone-induced early cardiotoxicity.

Risk of Infection Associated With Subsequent Biologic Agent Use After Rituximab: Results From a National Rheumatoid Arthritis Patient Registry

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:45pm

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the time between the last rituximab infusion and initiation of a different biologic agent influenced infection risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

METHODS: Patients with RA who newly initiated rituximab within the Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America registry were included if they switched to a nonrituximab biologic agent and had > /=1 followup visit within 12 months of switching. Patients were categorized by duration of time between their last rituximab infusion and initiation of a subsequent biologic agent (< /=5 months, 6-11 months, and > /=12 months). The primary outcome was time to first infectious event. Adjusted Cox regression models estimated the association between time to starting a subsequent biologic agent and infection.

RESULTS: A total of 44 overall infections (7 serious, 37 nonserious) were reported during the 12-month followup in the 215 patients included in this analysis (104 switched at < /=5 months, 67 at 6-11 months, and 44 at > /=12 months). Median (interquartile range) time to infection was 4 (2-5) months. Infection rates per patient-year in the < /=5-month, 6-11-month, and > /=12-month groups were 0.34 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.22-0.52), 0.30 (95% CI 0.17-0.52), and 0.41 (95% CI 0.22-0.77), respectively. After adjustment, time to switch to a subsequent biologic agent was not associated with infection, which remained unchanged when number and rate of rituximab retreatments were included in the models.

CONCLUSION: In this real-world cohort of patients with RA, infection rates ranged from 0.30 to 0.41 per patient-year, with no significant difference in the rate between patients who initiated a subsequent biologic agent earlier versus later after rituximab treatment.

Preoperative Pain and Function: Profiles of Patients Selected for Total Knee Arthroplasty

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:45pm

BACKGROUND: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an effective treatment to relieve pain and restore function in patients with advanced knee osteoarthritis. TKA utilization is growing rapidly, and the appropriateness of current TKA use is of great interest. We examined patient-reported preoperative pain and function profiles to understand symptom severity at the time of TKA decision.

METHODS: Data were from the Function and Outcomes Research for Comparative Effectiveness in Total Joint Replacement. We included patients undergoing primary, unilateral TKAs between 2011 and 2014 for osteoarthritis and had data on the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) pain and Short-Form 36-item Physical Component Summary (PCS) score. We compared patient profiles across groupings by symptoms: (1) little pain and high function (KOOS > /=70, PCS > /=40); (2) little pain but poor function (KOOS > /=70, PCS < 40); (3) high pain but high function (KOOS < 70, PCS > /=40); and (4) high pain and poor function (KOOS < 70, PCS < 40).

RESULTS: Of 6936 patients, 77% had high pain and poor function (group 4), 19% had high pain "or" poor function (groups 2-3), and 5% had little pain and high function before TKA (group 1). In group 1, 86% were constantly aware of their knee problem, 48% reported pain daily yet 5% experienced severe or extreme pain on stairs, and 1% pain in bed. Over half had a lot of limitations in vigorous activities. Compared with group 4, group 1 were older, less obese, more educated, and included more men and people reporting being healthy, less disabled, and happy (P < .05 for all).

CONCLUSION: Most patients undergoing TKAs had significant pain and/or poor function. Our results provide critical information given the current debate of potentially inappropriate TKA utilization in the United States.

How well do patients and providers agree on the severity of dyspnea

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:45pm

BACKGROUND: Understanding the severity of patients' dyspnea is critical to avoid under- or overtreatment of patients with acute cardiopulmonary conditions.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the agreement between dyspnea assessment by patients and healthcare providers and to explore which factors contribute to discordance in assessment.

DESIGN, SETTINGS AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective study of patients hospitalized for acute cardiopulmonary diseases at an urban teaching hospital.

INTERVENTION AND MEASUREMENTS: A numerical rating scale (0-10) was used to assess dyspnea severity as perceived by patients and assessed by providers. Agreement was defined as a score within +/-1 between patient and healthcare provider; differences of > /=2 points were considered over- or underestimations. The relationship between patient self-perceived dyspnea severity and provider rating was assessed using a weighted kappa coefficient.

RESULTS: Of the 138 patients enrolled, 33% had a diagnosis of heart failure, 30% chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 13% pneumonia; median age was 72 years, and 57% were women. In all, 96 patient-physician and 138 patient-nurses pairs were included in the study. The kappa coefficient for agreement was 0.11 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01 to 0.21) between patients and physicians and 0.18 (95% CI: 0.12 to 0.24) between patients and nurses. Physicians underestimated patients' dyspnea 37.9% of the time and overestimated it 25.8% of the time, whereas nurses underestimated it 43.5% of the time and overestimated it 12.4% of the time. Admitting diagnosis was the only patient factor associated with discordance.

CONCLUSIONS: Agreement between patient perception of dyspnea and healthcare providers' assessment is low. Future studies should prospectively test whether routine assessment of dyspnea results in better patient outcomes.

S6K-STING interaction regulates cytosolic DNA-mediated activation of the transcription factor IRF3

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:44pm

Cytosolic DNA-mediated activation of the transcription factor IRF3 is a key event in host antiviral responses. Here we found that infection with DNA viruses induced interaction of the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTOR downstream effector and kinase S6K1 and the signaling adaptor STING in a manner dependent on the DNA sensor cGAS. We further demonstrated that the kinase domain, but not the kinase function, of S6K1 was required for the S6K1-STING interaction and that the TBK1 critically promoted this process. The formation of a tripartite S6K1-STING-TBK1 complex was necessary for the activation of IRF3, and disruption of this signaling axis impaired the early-phase expression of IRF3 target genes and the induction of T cell responses and mucosal antiviral immunity. Thus, our results have uncovered a fundamental regulatory mechanism for the activation of IRF3 in the cytosolic DNA pathway.

Dietary Patterns and Fractures in Postmenopausal Women: Results From the Women's Health Initiative

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:44pm

IMPORTANCE: Considerable efforts have been undertaken to relate single nutrients to bone health. To this point, results are inconsistent. Suboptimal single nutrient intake does not occur in isolation but rather reflects a poor diet quality.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between adherence to a diet quality index constructed on the basis of dietary recommendations or existing healthy dietary patterns and fractures in postmenopausal women.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Post hoc analysis was conducted of longitudinal data from 40 clinical centers throughout the United States included in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational study. Participants in the prospective cohort included 93676 women who were eligible for the WHI if they were aged 50 to 79 years. Recruitment was conducted from October 1, 1993, to December 31, 1998, with the study ending August 29, 2014. The WHI food frequency questionnaire was used to derive nutrient and food intake at baseline. Diet quality and adherence were assessed by scores on the alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED), a 9-category measure of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern; the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), a 100-point measure of 12 food components; the 11-item Alternate Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010); or the 8-component Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet score.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Outcome measures included incident total and hip fractures. Hazard ratios (HRs) by quintiles of dietary index scores were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses.

RESULTS: Of the 93676 participants, 90014 were included in the analysis (mean [SD] age, 63.6 [7.4]) years. During a median follow-up time of 15.9 years, there were 2121 cases of hip fractures and 28718 cases of total fractures. Women scoring in the highest quintile (Q5) of the aMED index had a lower risk for hip fractures (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.97), with an absolute risk reduction of 0.29% and a number needed to treat of 342 (95% CI, 249-502). No association between the aMED score and total fractures was observed (Q5 HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.95-1.07). Higher HEI-2010 or DASH scores tended to be inversely related to hip fracture risk, but the results were nonsignificant (Q5 HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.75-1.02; and Q5 HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.75-1.06, respectively). The AHEI-2010 score was associated with neither hip nor total fractures.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower risk for hip fractures. These results support that a healthy dietary pattern may play a role in maintaining bone health in postmenopausal women.

The Association Between Psychiatric Disorders and Frequent Indoor Tanning

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:44pm

Limited research has explored psychiatric disorders associated with indoor tanning and tanning dependence. In a study conducted in 2006 of students at a large university in the northeastern United States, 90 of 229 (39%) who had used indoor tanning facilities met criteria for tanning dependence,a tanning pattern highly resistant to intervention. Given that tanners report mood and physical appearance as reasons for tanning, psychological disorders, such as seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), may be common among this population. Past research found that 12 of 27 (44%) frequent indoor tanners met criteria for SAD compared with 14 of 56 (25%) nontanners. Other studies have found that stress in general is predictive of tanning dependence,and tanners have been shown to report lower levels of stress after tanning. Ashrafioun and Bonarreported that 57 of 165 (35%) tanners who met criteria for tanning dependence also met criteria for BDD, compared with 77 of 368 (21%) tanners who did not meet these criteria. In the study described here, we assessed the prevalence of SAD, clinically elevated stress, and BDD among a sample of women who frequently use indoor tanning, and we examined bivariate associations between tanning dependence and these psychological conditions.

The US Food and Drug Administration's Proposed Rule to Increase Regulation of Indoor Tanning Devices

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:44pm

Tanning bed use, particularly among teen girls and young adult women, has become a modern-day epidemic in the past 20 years. Numerous studies have established the link between indoor tanning use and skin cancer, including melanoma. Reducing the harms of indoor tanning is one of 5 goals outlined in the 2014 US Surgeon General’s “Call to Action to Prevent Skin Cancer.”Consistent with the Call to Action, on December 22, 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a proposed rule with the following restrictions for sunlamp products (ie, indoor tanning beds and booths): (1) to ban their use among individuals younger than 18 years; (2) to require prospective users to sign a risk acknowledgment certification; and (3) to provide user manuals to customers and tanning facility operators on request.

A national survey of disease-specific knowledge in patients with an abdominal aortic aneurysm

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:44pm

OBJECTIVE: Patient education is a fundamental responsibility of medical providers caring for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). We sought to evaluate and quantify AAA-specific knowledge in patients under AAA surveillance and in patients who have undergone AAA repair.

METHODS: In 2013, 1373 patients from 6 U.S. institutions were mailed an AAA-specific quality of life and knowledge survey. Of these patients, 1008 (73%) returned completed surveys for analysis. The knowledge domain of the survey consisted of nine questions. An AAA knowledge score was calculated for each patient based on the proportion of questions answered correctly. The score was then compared according to sex, race, and education level. Surveillance and repaired patients were also compared.

RESULTS: Among 1008 survey respondents, 351 were under AAA surveillance and 657 had AAA repair (endovascular repair, 414; open, 179; unknown, 64). The majority of patients (85%) reported that their "doctor's office" was their most important source of AAA information. The "Internet" and "other written materials" were each reported as the most important source of information 5% of the time with "other patients" reported 2% of the time. The mean AAA knowledge score was 47% (range 0%-100%; standard deviation, 23%) with a broad variation in percentage correct between questions. Thirty-two percent of respondents did not know that larger AAA size increases rupture risk, and 64% did not know that AAA runs in families. Only 15% of patients answered six or more of the nine questions correctly, and 23% of patients answered two or fewer questions correctly. AAA knowledge was significantly greater in men compared with women, whites compared with nonwhites, high school graduates compared with nongraduates, and surveillance compared with repaired patients.

CONCLUSIONS: In a national survey of AAA-specific knowledge, patients demonstrated poor understanding of their condition. This may contribute to anxiety and uninformed decision making. The need for increased focus on education by vascular providers is a substantial unmet need.

Gout Prophylaxis Evaluated According to the 2012 American College of Rheumatology Guidelines: Analysis from the CORRONA Gout Registry

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:44pm

OBJECTIVE: To analyze prophylaxis using the CORRONA (COnsortium of Rheumatology Researchers Of North America) Gout Registry according to the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) guidelines, and to evaluate whether differences in disease characteristics influenced prophylaxis.

METHODS: All patients with gout in the CORRONA Gout Registry between November 1, 2012, and November 26, 2013, were included. They were divided into 2 groups: "receiving prophylaxis" versus "not receiving prophylaxis" at the time of enrollment. Patients having a flare at time of visit were excluded. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression models were performed to evaluate the factors associated with prophylaxis.

RESULTS: There were 1049 patients with gout available for analysis. There were 441 patients (42%) receiving prophylaxis and 608 (58%) not receiving prophylaxis. The most common drugs used for prophylaxis were colchicine (78%) and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (32%). Prophylaxis drug combination was used by 45 patients (10.2%). Patients in the "receiving prophylaxis" group were more likely to have a gout duration of < /= 1 year (n = 68, p < 0.001), > /= 1 flare in the year previous to enrollment (p < 0.001), > /= 1 healthcare uses in the last year [Emergency Department (p = 0.029); outpatient visit to primary care, rheumatologist, or urgent care clinic (p < 0.001)], have tophi (p < 0.001), report pain > 3 (p = 0.001), and have disease activity > 10 (p < 0.001) compared with patients in the "not receiving prophylaxis" group.

CONCLUSION: Forty-two percent of patients with gout in the CORRONA Gout Registry were receiving prophylaxis. Prophylaxis was significantly more common in patients with a higher disease burden and activity, which is in agreement with the ACR guidelines. Our study highlights disease characteristics influencing prophylaxis and furthers our knowledge on current use of flare prophylaxis.

Dengue Virus (DENV) Neutralizing Antibody Kinetics in Children After Symptomatic Primary and Postprimary DENV Infection

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:44pm

The immune response to dengue virus (DENV) infection is complex and not fully understood. Using longitudinal data from 181 children with dengue in Thailand who were followed for up to 3 years, we describe neutralizing antibody kinetics following symptomatic DENV infection. We observed that antibody titers varied by serotype, homotypic vs heterotypic responses, and primary versus postprimary infections. The rates of change in antibody titers over time varied between primary and postprimary responses. For primary infections, titers increased from convalescence to 6 months. By comparing homotypic and heterotypic antibody titers, we saw an increase in type specificity from convalescence to 6 months for primary DENV3 infections but not primary DENV1 infections. In postprimary cases, there was a decrease in titers from convalescence up until 6 months after infection. Beginning 1 year after both primary and postprimary infections, there was evidence of increasing antibody titers, with greater increases in children with lower titers, suggesting that antibody titers were boosted due to infection and that higher levels of neutralizing antibody may be more likely to confer a sterilizing immune response. These findings may help to model virus transmission dynamics and provide baseline data to support the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

Urinary cadmium and estimated dietary cadmium in the Women's Health Initiative

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:44pm

Cadmium, a heavy metal dispersed in the environment as a result of industrial and agricultural applications, has been implicated in several human diseases including renal disease, cancers, and compromised bone health. In the general population, the predominant sources of cadmium exposure are tobacco and diet. Urinary cadmium (uCd) reflects long-term exposure and has been frequently used to assess cadmium exposure in epidemiological studies; estimated dietary intake of cadmium (dCd) has also been used in several studies. The validity of dCd in comparison with uCd is unclear. This study aimed to compare dCd, estimated from food frequency questionnaires, to uCd measured in spot urine samples from 1,002 participants of the Women's Health Initiative. Using linear regression, we found that dCd was not statistically significantly associated with uCd (beta=0.006, P-value=0.14). When stratified by smoking status, dCd was not significantly associated with uCd both in never smokers (beta=0.006, P-value=0.09) and in ever smokers (beta=0.003, P-value=0.67). Our results suggest that because of the lack of association between estimated dCd and measured uCd, dietary estimation of cadmium exposure should be used with caution in epidemiologic studies.

SSRI-antipsychotic combination in psychotic depression: sertraline pharmacokinetics in the presence of olanzapine, a brief report from the STOP-PD study

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:44pm

OBJECTIVE: We recently reported an unexpected interaction between olanzapine and sertraline in a population being treated for psychotic depression. Contrary to knowledge of cytochrome p450 interactions sertraline increased apparent clearance of olanzapine by 30%. Here we examined the pharmacokinetics of sertraline in the same population. Existing studies suggest that sertraline apparent clearance is significantly increased in male subjects and suggested an age/sex interaction.

METHODS: We studied subjects undergoing combination of sertraline/olanzapine treatment for psychotic depression in the Study of the Pharmacotherapy of Psychotic Depression. Nonlinear mixed effect modelling software was used to examine the sertraline pharmacokinetics, evaluating age, sex, race, and olanzapine exposure as covariates.

RESULTS: Eighty-seven subjects (median age 62 years, 28 male subjects, 11 African-Americans) provided 138 samples for sertraline concentration. Olanzapine exposure had a 14.8-fold range. A one compartment model with combined residual error described the sertraline concentration data adequately. Half-life and sex effect on sertraline apparent clearance (males averaging 50% higher (p < 0.005); 96.6 l/h vs 64.8 in female subjects) were similar to previous reports. No other covariate (age, race or olanzapine exposure) had a significant impact on apparent clearance, and no age/sex interaction emerged.

CONCLUSION: Sertraline pharmacokinetics were similar to historical descriptions in populations not taking antipsychotics. Unlike our unexpected finding that sertraline increases olanzapine apparent clearance, olanzapine exposure had no impact on sertraline pharmacokinetics.

Update on Smoking Cessation: E-Cigarettes, Emerging Tobacco Products Trends, and New Technology-Based Interventions

Mon, 03/06/2017 - 9:44pm

Tobacco use disorders (TUDs) continue to be overly represented in patients treated in mental health and addiction treatment settings. It is the most common substance use disorder (SUD) and the leading cause of health disparities and increased morbidity/mortality amongst individuals with a psychiatric disorder. There are seven Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medications and excellent evidence-based psychosocial treatment interventions to use in TUD treatment. In the past few years, access to and use of other tobacco or nicotine emerging products are on the rise, including the highly publicized electronic cigarette (e-cigarette). There has also been a proliferation of technology-based interventions to support standard TUD treatment, including mobile apps and web-based interventions. These tools are easily accessed 24/7 to support outpatient treatment. This update will review the emerging products and counter-measure intervention technologies, including how clinicians can integrate these tools and other community-based resources into their practice.