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Standardized Screening for Mental Health Needs of Detained Youths from Various Ethnic Origins: The Dutch Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Second Version (MAYSI-2)

Sun, 05/28/2017 - 6:10pm

In the U.S., the Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Second Version (MAYSI-2) has been shown to be a reliable and valid tool to identify youth with mental health needs upon entry in detention facilities. The present study examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and convergent validity of the Dutch MAYSI-2 administered as part of routine clinical assessments in up to 955 detained male adolescents. Standardized mental health screening questionnaires (Youth Self-Report and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) were used to test the convergent validity of the Dutch MAYSI-2. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the factor structure of the original MAYSI-2 could be replicated with the Dutch MAYSI-2. Internal consistency indices showed that the Dutch MAYSI-2 provides a reliable screening of mental health needs. In addition, the Dutch MAYSI-2 scales were related with conceptually parallel measures of the same targeted mental health needs in the total group. With a few exceptions, the internal consistency and convergent validity was supported across ethnic groups as well. Overall, these results suggest the psychometric properties of the Dutch MAYSI-2 to be promising. Implications and limitations of the current study's findings and directions for future research are discussed.

Has screening mammography become obsolete

Sun, 05/28/2017 - 6:10pm

With so much debate about the value of screening mammography and with the emergence of newer technologies, it seems reasonable to ask whether screening mammography, as we know it, has become obsolete.

Predictors of Gestational Weight Gain among White and Latina Women and Associations with Birth Weight

Sun, 05/28/2017 - 6:10pm

This study examined racial/ethnic differences in gestational weight gain (GWG) predictors and association of first-trimester GWG to overall GWG among 271 White women and 300 Latina women. Rates of within-guideline GWG were higher among Latinas than among Whites (28.7% versus 24.4%, p < 0.016). Adjusted odds of above-guideline GWG were higher among prepregnancy overweight (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.8-6.5) and obese (OR = 4.5, CI = 2.3-9.0) women than among healthy weight women and among women with above-guideline first-trimester GWG than among those with within-guideline first-trimester GWG (OR = 4.9, CI = 2.8-8.8). GWG was positively associated with neonate birth size (p < 0.001). Interventions targeting prepregnancy overweight or obese women and those with excessive first-trimester GWG are needed.

Lethal Means Access and Assessment among Suicidal Emergency Department Patients

Sun, 05/28/2017 - 6:09pm

BACKGROUND: Reducing access to lethal means (especially firearms) might prevent suicide, but counseling of at-risk individuals about this strategy may not be routine. Among emergency department (ED) patients with suicidal ideation or attempts (SI/SA), we sought to describe home firearm access and examine ED provider assessment of access to lethal means.

METHODS: This secondary analysis used data from the Emergency Department Safety Assessment and Follow-up Evaluation, a three-phase, eight-center study of adult ED patients with SI/SA (2010-2013). Research staff surveyed participants about suicide-related factors (including home firearms) and later reviewed the ED chart (including documented assessment of lethal means access).

RESULTS: Among 1,358 patients with SI/SA, 11% (95% CI: 10-13%) reported >/=1 firearm at home; rates varied across sites (range: 6-26%) but not over time. On chart review, 50% (95% CI: 47-52%) of patients had documentation of lethal means access assessment. Frequency of documented assessment increased over study phases (40-60%, P < .001) but was not associated with state firearm ownership rates. Among the 337 (25%, 95% CI: 23-27%) patients discharged to home, 55% (95% CI: 49-60%) had no documentation of lethal means assessment; of these, 13% (95% CI: 8-19%; n = 24) actually had >/=1 firearm at home. Among all those reporting >/=1 home firearm to study staff, only half (50%, 95% CI: 42-59%) had provider documentation of assessment of lethal means access.

CONCLUSIONS: Among these ED patients with SI/SA, many did not have documented assessment of home access to lethal means, including patients who were discharged home and had >/=1 firearm at home.

Sex hormones in women with and without migraine: Evidence of migraine-specific hormone profiles

Sun, 05/28/2017 - 6:09pm

OBJECTIVE: To compare daily sex hormone levels and rates of change between women with history of migraine and controls.

METHODS: History of migraine, daily headache diaries, and daily hormone data were collected in ovulatory cycles of pre- and early perimenopausal women in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Peak hormone levels, average daily levels, and within-woman day-to-day rates of decline over the 5 days following each hormone peak were calculated in ovulatory cycles for conjugated urinary estrogens (E1c), pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone. Comparisons were made between migraineurs and controls using 2-sample t tests on the log scale with results reported as geometric means.

RESULTS: The sample included 114 women with history of migraine and 223 controls. Analyses of within-woman rates of decline showed that E1c decline over the 2 days following the luteal peak was greater in migraineurs for both absolute rate of decline (33.8 [95% confidence interval 28.0-40.8] pg/mgCr vs 23.1 [95% confidence interval 20.1-26.6] pg/mgCr, p = 0.002) and percent change (40% vs 30%, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between migraineurs and controls in absolute peak or daily E1c, pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Secondary analyses demonstrated that, among migraineurs, the rate of E1c decline did not differ according to whether a headache occurred during the cycle studied.

CONCLUSIONS: Migraineurs are characterized by faster late luteal phase E1c decline compared to controls. The timing and rate of estrogen withdrawal before menses may be a marker of neuroendocrine vulnerability in women with migraine.

Share2Quit: Online Social Network Peer Marketing of Tobacco Cessation Systems

Sun, 05/28/2017 - 6:09pm

Introduction: Although technology-assisted tobacco interventions (TATIs) are effective, they are underused due to recruitment challenges. We tested whether we could successfully recruit smokers to a TATI using peer marketing through a social network (Facebook).

Methods: We recruited smokers on Facebook using online advertisements. These recruited smokers (seeds) and subsequent waves of smokers (peer recruits) were provided the Share2Quit peer recruitment Facebook app and other tools. Smokers were incentivized for up to seven successful peer recruitments and had 30 days to recruit from date of registration. Successful peer recruitment was defined as a peer recruited smoker completing the registration on the TATI following a referral. Our primary questions were (1) whether smokers would recruit other smokers and (2) whether peer recruitment would extend the reach of the intervention to harder-to-reach groups, including those not ready to quit and minority smokers.

Results: Overall, 759 smokers were recruited (seeds: 190; peer recruits: 569). Fifteen percent (n = 117) of smokers successfully recruited their peers (seeds: 24.7%; peer recruits: 7.7%) leading to four recruitment waves. Compared to seeds, peer recruits were less likely to be ready to quit (peer recruits 74.2% vs. seeds 95.1%), more likely to be male (67.1% vs. 32.9%), and more likely to be African American (23.8% vs. 10.8%) (p < .01 for all comparisons).

Conclusions: Peer marketing quadrupled our engaged smokers and enriched the sample with not-ready-to-quit and African American smokers. Peer recruitment is promising, and our study uncovered several important challenges for future research.

Implications: This study demonstrates the successful recruitment of smokers to a TATI using a Facebook-based peer marketing strategy. Smokers on Facebook were willing and able to recruit other smokers to a TATI, yielding a large and diverse population of smokers.

Antipsychotic medication utilization in nonpsychiatric hospitalizations

Sun, 05/28/2017 - 6:09pm

BACKGROUND: Although antipsychotics are used for treatment of delirium/agitation in hospitalized patients, their scope of use has not been investigated in a large, multicenter cohort.

OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of use and hospital variation in use of antipsychotics in nonpsychiatric admissions.

DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS: Cohort study of adult, nonpsychiatric admissions to 300 US hospitals contributing data to the Premier database, from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010.

MEASUREMENTS: Antipsychotic exposure defined using pharmacy charges. Potentially excessive dosing defined using guidelines for long-term care facilities.

RESULTS: Our cohort included 2,695,081 admissions (median age, 63 years; 56% female). Antipsychotic exposure occurred in 160,773 (6%) admissions; 102,148 (64%) received atypical antipsychotics, 76,979 (48%) received typical, and 18,354 (11%) received both. Among exposed admissions, 47% received >/=1 potentially excessive daily dose. Among the variables we analyzed, the strongest predictors of antipsychotic receipt were delirium (relative risk [RR]: 2.93, 95% CI: 2.88-2.98) and dementia (RR: 2.78, 95% CI: 2.72-2.83). After adjustment for patient characteristics, patients admitted to hospitals in the highest antipsychotic prescribing quintile were more than twice as likely to be exposed compared to patients admitted to hospitals in the lowest prescribing quintile (RR: 2.56, 95% CI: 2.50-2.61). This relationship was similar across subgroups of admissions with delirium and dementia.

CONCLUSIONS: Antipsychotic medication exposure is common in nonpsychiatric admissions to US hospitals. The observed variation in antipsychotic prescribing was not fully explained by measured patient characteristics, suggesting the possibility of differing hospital prescribing cultures. Additional research and guidelines are necessary to define appropriate use of these potentially harmful medications in the hospital setting.

CRISPR-Cas9 nuclear dynamics and target recognition in living cells

Sun, 05/28/2017 - 6:09pm

The bacterial CRISPR-Cas9 system has been repurposed for genome engineering, transcription modulation, and chromosome imaging in eukaryotic cells. However, the nuclear dynamics of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) guide RNAs and target interrogation are not well defined in living cells. Here, we deployed a dual-color CRISPR system to directly measure the stability of both Cas9 and guide RNA. We found that Cas9 is essential for guide RNA stability and that the nuclear Cas9-guide RNA complex levels limit the targeting efficiency. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching measurements revealed that single mismatches in the guide RNA seed sequence reduce the target residence time from >3 h to as low as time.

Patterns and predictors of engagement in peer support among homeless veterans with mental health conditions and substance use histories

Sun, 05/28/2017 - 6:09pm

OBJECTIVES: Patterns and predictors of engagement in peer support services were examined among 50 previously homeless veterans with co-occurring mental health conditions and substance use histories receiving services from the Veterans Health Administration supported housing program.

METHOD: Veteran peer specialists were trained to deliver sessions focusing on mental health and substance use recovery to veterans for an intended 1-hr weekly contact over 9 months. Trajectories of peer engagement over the study's duration are summarized. A mixed-effects log-linear model of the rate of peer engagement is tested with three sets of covariates representing characteristics of the veterans. These sets were demographics, mental health and substance use status, and indicators of community participation and support.

RESULTS: Data indicate that veterans engaged with peers about once per month rather than the intended once per week. However, frequency of contacts varied greatly. The best predictor of engagement was time, with most contacts occurring within the first 6 months. No other veteran characteristic was a statistically significant predictor of engagement. Older veterans tended to have higher rates of engagement with peer supporters.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Planners of peer support services could consider yardsticks of monthly services up to 6 months. Peer support services need a flexible strategy with varying levels of intensity according to need. Peer support services will need to be tailored to better engage younger veterans. Future research should consider other sources of variation in engagement with peer support such as characteristics of the peer supporters and service content and setting.

New Initiation of Long-Acting Opioids in Long-Stay Nursing Home Residents

Sun, 05/28/2017 - 6:09pm

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of new initiation of long-acting opioids since introduction of national efforts to increase prescriber and public awareness on safe use of transdermal fentanyl patches.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

SETTING: U.S. nursing homes (NHs).

PARTICIPANTS: Medicare-enrolled long-stay NH residents (N = 22,253).

MEASUREMENTS: Minimum Data Set 3.0 was linked with Medicare enrollment, hospital claims, and prescription drug transaction data (January-December 2011) and used to determine the prevalence of new initiation of a long-acting opioid prescribed to residents in NHs.

RESULTS: Of NH residents prescribed a long-acting opioid within 30 days of NH admission (n = 12,278), 9.4% (95% confidence interval = 8.9-9.9%) lacked a prescription drug claim for a short-acting opioid in the previous 60 days. The most common initial prescriptions of long-acting opioids were fentanyl patch (51.9% of opioid-naive NH residents), morphine sulfate (28.1%), and oxycodone (17.2%).

CONCLUSION: New initiation of long-acting opioids-especially fentanyl patches, which have been the subject of safety communications-persists in NHs.

Inflammation in arthritis induces expression of BMP3, an inhibitor of bone formation

Sun, 05/28/2017 - 6:09pm

OBJECTIVES: Inflammation in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) stimulates osteoclast-mediated articular bone erosion and inhibits osteoblast-mediated bone formation, leading to a net loss of bone. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and antagonists of the Wnt signalling pathway have been implicated in the inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and activity in RA, contributing to the erosive process and impairing erosion healing. Importantly, osteoblast differentiation and function are also regulated by the osteogenic bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling pathway, which is antagonized by BMP3. We therefore examined the potential role of BMP3 in inflammatory arthritis.

METHOD: Two murine models of RA, K/BxN serum transfer arthritis (STA) and antigen-induced arthritis (AIA), were used to establish the temporal expression of BMP3 and the cellular sources of BMP3 mRNA and protein in inflammatory arthritis. To determine the effects of inflammation on the expression of BMP3 in osteoblasts, murine calvarial osteoblasts were treated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and BMP3 expression was assessed.

RESULTS: In both murine models of RA, BMP3 mRNA and protein are highly expressed by osteoblasts lining inflammation-bone interfaces late in the course of arthritis. Synovial tissues are not a significant source of BMP3. BMP3 expression is induced in osteocalcin-expressing osteoblasts in vitro following stimulation by tumour necrosis factor (TNF).

CONCLUSIONS: These data implicate BMP3 as a novel factor that may act locally to contribute to the erosive process and inhibit the repair of articular bone in RA through inhibition of osteoblast differentiation and function.

The InterLACE study: Design, data harmonization and characteristics across 20 studies on women's health

Sun, 05/28/2017 - 6:09pm

OBJECTIVES: The International Collaboration for a Life Course Approach to Reproductive Health and Chronic Disease Events (InterLACE) project is a global research collaboration that aims to advance understanding of women's reproductive health in relation to chronic disease risk by pooling individual participant data from several cohort and cross-sectional studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of contributing studies and to present the distribution of demographic and reproductive factors and chronic disease outcomes in InterLACE.

STUDY DESIGN: InterLACE is an individual-level pooled study of 20 observational studies (12 of which are longitudinal) from ten countries. Variables were harmonized across studies to create a new and systematic synthesis of life-course data.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Harmonized data were derived in three domains: 1) socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, 2) female reproductive characteristics, and 3) chronic disease outcomes (cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes).

RESULTS: InterLACE pooled data from 229,054 mid-aged women. Overall, 76% of the women were Caucasian and 22% Japanese; other ethnicities (of 300 or more participants) included Hispanic/Latin American (0.2%), Chinese (0.2%), Middle Eastern (0.3%), African/black (0.5%), and Other (1.0%). The median age at baseline was 47 years (Inter-quartile range (IQR): 41-53), and that at the last follow-up was 56 years (IQR: 48-64). Regarding reproductive characteristics, half of the women (49.8%) had their first menstruation (menarche) at 12-13 years of age. The distribution of menopausal status and the prevalence of chronic disease varied considerably among studies. At baseline, most women (57%) were pre- or peri-menopausal, 20% reported a natural menopause (range 0.8-55.6%) and the remainder had surgery or were taking hormones. By the end of follow-up, the prevalence rates of CVD and diabetes were 7.2% (range 0.9-24.6%) and 5.1% (range 1.3-13.2%), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The scale and heterogeneity of InterLACE data provide an opportunity to strengthen evidence concerning the relationships between reproductive health through life and subsequent risks of chronic disease, including cross-cultural comparisons.

Safety of metamizole: a systematic review of the literature

Sun, 05/28/2017 - 6:09pm

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Metamizole was withdrawn from the market in the United States and several European countries following reports of fatal agranulocytosis among users, but is still available in many countries in Europe, South America and Asia. Over the past several decades, a number of epidemiologic studies have been conducted to quantify the risk of agranulocytosis and other adverse effects associated with metamizole and other non-narcotic analgesics. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the safety of metamizole.

METHODS: Epidemiologic studies published between 1 January 1980 and 15 December 2014 were identified through systematic searches of PubMed and Google Scholar; the reference sections of selected articles were also reviewed to identify potentially relevant studies. Studies included in this review focused on the safety of metamizole, that is on outcomes such as haematologic abnormalities, gastrointestinal bleeding, anaphylaxis and hepatotoxicity. Two study investigators independently reviewed the abstracts and articles to determine relevant studies according to prespecified criteria.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: A total of 22 articles met the criteria for evaluation. The majority of studies that evaluated agranulocytosis indicated an increased risk associated with metamizole, with relative risk (RR) estimates ranging from 1.5 (95% CI, 0.8-2.7) to 40.2 (95% CI, 14.7-113.3). Findings of three case-control studies do not suggest an association between metamizole and aplastic anaemia. Of the five case-control studies that evaluated the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding, four found a statistically significant increased risk associated with metamizole (RR estimates ranging from 1.4 to 2.7). There is insufficient evidence to determine whether metamizole increases the risk of other outcomes (e.g. hepatic effects, anaphylaxis, congenital anomalies). Few studies evaluated the effects of dose, route of administration or duration of therapy.

WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Published studies reported differences in the magnitude of risk of adverse outcomes associated with metamizole use and often had small sample sizes and a number of other limitations that may have biased the results. Further research is needed to better quantify the potential risks associated with metamizole compared to other non-narcotic analgesics.

Independent Contributions of Nocturnal Hot Flashes and Sleep Disturbance to Depression in Estrogen-Deprived Women

Sun, 05/28/2017 - 6:09pm

CONTEXT: Women are at increased risk for mood disturbance during the menopause transition. Hot flashes (HFs), sleep disruption, and fluctuating estradiol levels correlate with menopause-associated depression but co-occur, making cause and effect relationships difficult to disentangle.

OBJECTIVE: Using a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) experimental model, we investigated whether depressive symptoms are associated with HFs and/or are explained by concomitant sleep fragmentation in the absence of estradiol fluctuation.

DESIGN AND INTERVENTION: Depressive symptoms, objective polysomnographic sleep parameters, subjective sleep quality, serum estradiol, and HFs were assessed before and 4 weeks after open-label depot GnRHa (leuprolide 3.75-mg) administration.

SETTING: Academic medical center.

PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-nine healthy nondepressed premenopausal volunteers (mean age, 27.3 years).

RESULTS: Serum estradiol was rapidly and uniformly suppressed. HFs developed in 69% of the subjects. On univariate analysis, worsening of mood was predicted by increases in time in light sleep (stage N1), number of transitions to wake, non-REM arousals, subjective sleep quality, and reductions in perceived sleep efficiency (all P < .045), as well as the number of nighttime (P = .006), but not daytime (P = .28), HFs reported. In adjusted models, the number of nighttime HFs reported, increases in non-REM arousals, time in stage N1, transitions to wake, and reduced sleep quality remained significant predictors of mood deterioration (P

CONCLUSIONS: Depressive symptoms emerged after estradiol withdrawal in association with objectively and subjectively measured sleep disturbance and the number of nighttime, but not daytime, HFs reported. Results suggest that sleep disruption and perceived nighttime HFs both contribute to vulnerability to menopause-associated depressive symptoms in hypoestrogenic women.

Screening for Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors in Older Adults in the Emergency Department

Sun, 05/28/2017 - 6:09pm

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of self-harm, suicidal ideation (SI), and suicide attempts (SA) in older adults in the emergency department (ED), including differences according to age, sex, and race and ethnicity.

DESIGN: Quasi-experimental, multiphase, eight-center study with prospective review of consecutive charts during enrollment shifts (November 2011-December 2014).

SETTING: Eight EDs in seven states, all with protocols for nurses to screen every patient for suicide risk (universal screening).

PARTICIPANTS: Adults (>/=18 years) registered in the ED. MEASUREMENTS: Demographic characteristics; documented screening for self-harm, SI, or SA; and positive self-harm, SI, or SA in those with screening performed.

RESULTS: Of 142,534 visits, 23.3% were of individuals aged 60 and older. Documented screening for self-harm, SI, or SA declined with age, from approximately 81% in younger age groups to a low of 68% in those aged 85 and older. The prevalence of positive screens for self-harm, SI, or SA also declined with age, with peaks in young and middle-age (9.0%) and reaching the lowest point after the age of 75 (1.2%).

CONCLUSION: Documented screening for suicide risk declined with age in this large sample of individuals in the ED. Although the reason for this finding is unclear, at least part of the decline may be related to increasing rates of altered mentation or other individual-level barriers to screening in the older population. These findings support the need for more-detailed examination of the best methods for identifying-and treating-suicide risk in older adults.

Explication and Definition of Mental Health Recovery: A Systematic Review

Sun, 05/28/2017 - 6:08pm

This review assessed the concordance of the literature on recovery with the definition and components of recovery developed by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Each SAMHSA identified recovery component was first explicated with synonyms and keywords and made mutually exclusive by authors. Inter-rater reliability was established on the coding of the presence of 17 recovery components and dimensions in 67 literature reviews on the recovery concept in mental health. The review indicated that concordance varied across SAMHSA components. The components of recovery with greatest concordance were: individualized/person centered, empowerment, purpose, and hope.

Trends in the Magnitude of, and Patient Characteristics Associated With, Multiple Hospital Readmissions After Acute Myocardial Infarction

Sun, 05/28/2017 - 6:08pm

There are limited contemporary data available describing recent trends in the magnitude and characteristics of patients who are rehospitalized multiple times after hospital discharge for an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We reviewed the medical records of 4,480 residents of the Worcester, Massachusetts, metropolitan area, who were discharged from 3 Central Massachusetts medical centers after an AMI in 6 biennial periods from 2001 to 2011 and were followed for all-cause and cause-specific hospital readmissions over the subsequent 6 months. The average age of our study population was 68 years, 89% were white, and 41% were women. Overall, approximately 1 of every 3 patients had a readmission to the hospital within 6 months after hospital discharge for an AMI. The proportion of patients who were readmitted to the hospital 1, 2, or 3 times for any cause within 6 months remained unchanged during the years under study (20%, 8%, and 6%, respectively); 59% of these readmissions were cardiac related. Women, elderly patients, those with multiple chronic conditions, patients with a prolonged index hospitalization, and those who developed heart failure and/or atrial fibrillation during hospitalization were at higher risk for being readmitted multiple times compared with those who were readmitted once. Six-month hospital readmission rates after hospital discharge for an AMI remained stable during the years under study. In conclusion, we identified several groups at higher risk for multiple hospital readmissions who might be targeted for intensified monitoring efforts and tailored educational and treatment approaches.

Which Homeless Veterans Benefit From a Peer Mentor and How

Sun, 05/28/2017 - 6:08pm

OBJECTIVE: Veterans Affairs (VA) is expanding peer support. Research is limited on Veterans' perspective on benefits from peer services. We describe homeless Veteran perceptions of value and examine characteristics associated with benefit. METHOD: From a sample of Veterans in a multisite randomized control trial, we studied addition of peers in VA Primary Care and homeless-oriented primary care clinics. We used qualitative methods to study the perceptions of peer services among a subsample of homeless Veterans. Quantitative methods were used to validate findings in both samples. RESULTS: Sixty-five percent of the subsample and 83% of the full sample benefited from a peer mentor. Participants who benefited had more peer visits and minutes of intervention (p<.05), were more likely to be minority, and were less likely to have posttraumatic stress disorder. CONCLUSION: The majority of Veteran participants in this study benefited from receiving peer mentor intervention. African American Veterans were more likely to benefit and Veterans with PTSD were less likely to benefit. Client endorsement of the peer's role influenced outcomes.