Identification of serine 24 as the unique site on the transferrin receptor phosphorylated by protein kinase C
Addition of tumor-promoting phorbol diesters to [32P]phosphate-labeled A431 human epidermoid carcinoma cells caused an increase in the phosphorylation state of the transferrin receptor. The A431 cell transferrin receptor was also found to be a substrate for protein kinase C in vitro. Tryptic phosphopeptide mapping of the transferrin receptor resolved the same two phosphopeptides (X and Y) after either protein kinase C phosphorylation in vitro or treatment of labeled A431 cells with phorbol diesters. [32P]Phosphoserine was the only labeled phosphoamino acid detected. Phosphopeptide X was shown to be an incomplete tryptic digestion product which could be further digested with trypsin to generate the limit tryptic phosphopeptide (Y). Radiosequence analysis of [32P]phosphopeptide Y demonstrated that the [32P]phosphoserine was the second residue from amino terminus of the peptide. This receptor phosphopeptide was found to co-migrate with the synthetic peptide Phe-Ser(P)-Leu-Ala-Arg (where Ser(P) is phosphoserine) during reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography and two-dimensional thin layer electrophoresis and chromatography. The peptide Phe-Ser(P)-Leu-Ala-Arg is an expected tryptic fragment of the cytoplasmic domain of the transferrin receptor corresponding to residues 23-27. We conclude that the major site of protein kinase C phosphorylation of the transferrin receptor in vivo and in vitro is serine 24. This phosphorylation site is located within the intracellular domain of the transferrin receptor, 38 residues away from the predicted transmembrane domain.
Several guanine nucleotide analogs, in one series of which a hydrogen on the 2-amino group is replaced with the p-n-butylphenyl group (BuPGNP derivatives), were used to probe the GTP binding domain of bovine transducin. The order of apparent binding affinities in a series of nucleoside 5'-triphosphates was GTP gamma S greater than GTP approximately BuPGTP greater than dGTP approximately ITP much greater than ATP, values which were 30-100 times higher than affinities of the corresponding 5'-diphosphates. A derivative bearing a 6-aminohexylamino group on the gamma-phosphate, BuPGTP X C6, had a 60-fold lower affinity compared to BuPGTP. In contrast, the p-n-butylphenyl substituent on the 2-amino group had little effect on the binding affinity relative to GTP. Substitutions at the 2-amino group had little effect on either the hydrolysis of the derivatives by the GTPase activity associated with the alpha-subunit of transducin or the activation of cGMP phosphodesterase. The results indicate that the GTP binding domain of transducin is similar in tertiary structure to the corresponding domain of EF-Tu. The 5'-phosphates of GTP are oriented in the binding site of transducin so that the bulky C6 group of BuPGTP X C6 dramatically interferes with binding. The 2-amino group on the guanine ring is probably located at the periphery of the binding site, with the p-n-butylphenyl substituent of BuPGTP facing outward and only weakly interacting with the protein. BuPGTP should be an excellent parent compound for development of novel probes of G-protein interactions with other cellular proteins involved in receptor signal transduction.
Transducin inhibition of light-dependent rhodopsin phosphorylation: evidence for beta gamma subunit interaction with rhodopsin
Rhodopsin kinase was purified from bovine retina rod outer segments as a 62-64-kDa protein that phosphorylated purified rhodopsin reconstituted into egg phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine liposomes. A competition binding assay in which transducin competes with rhodopsin kinase for binding sites on rhodopsin was used to assess the interaction of purified transducin subunits with rhodopsin. Preincubation of purified holotransducin with rhodopsin, in the absence of guanosine triphosphate, blocked the ability of the kinase to phosphorylate rhodopsin. Transducin-dependent inhibition of phosphorylation was relieved when guanosine 5'-(3-O-thio)triphosphate was present during the preincubation. Resolved alpha and beta gamma transducin subunits, in the absence of guanosine triphosphate, were each capable of specifically blocking phosphorylation of rhodopsin. A maximally effective concentration of T alpha or T beta gamma (1 microM) subunits inhibited phosphorylation of rhodopsin (0.23 microM) 45-65%. A similar concentration of reconstituted transductin (T alpha and T beta gamma) or native holotransducin (T alpha beta gamma) inhibited phosphorylation greater than 98%. The results indicate that rhodopsin must have a binding site for T beta gamma as well as a binding site for T alpha, and each subunit influences the recognition of bleached rhodopsin by rhodopsin kinase.
Mapping of the carboxyl terminus within the tertiary structure of transducin's alpha subunit using the heterobifunctional cross-linking reagent, 125I-N-(3-iodo-4-azidophenylpropionamido-S-(2-thiopyridyl) cysteine
A heterobifunctional cross-linking reagent, 125I-N-(3-iodo-4-azidophenylpropionamido-S-(2-thiopyridyl) cysteine (125-ACTP), has been synthesized. 125I-ACTP has been used to derivative reduced sulfhydryls of the retinal G protein, transducin (Gt), to form a mixed disulfide bond under mild, nondenaturing conditions (pH 7.4, 4 degrees C). The resulting disulfide was easily cleaved using reducing reagents. A 200-fold molar excess of 125I-ACTP relative to Gt resulted in the incorporation of 1-1.3 mol of the 125I-N-(3-iodo-4-azidophenylpropionamido)cysteine moiety of ACTP into Gt alpha. In contrast to 125I-ACTP, dithionitrobenzoate and dithiopyridone derivatized six sulfhydryls in native Gt. Incubation of a 10-fold molar excess of 125I-ACTP relative to Gt resulted in the derivatization of 0.75-0.9 and 0.1 mol of reduced sulfhydryls/mol Gt alpha and beta, respectively. Gt gamma was not derivatized by 125I-ACTP. Thus, Gt alpha was preferentially derivatized by 125I-ACTP. Tryptic digestion and amino acid sequencing of Gt alpha indicated that both Cys-347 near the carboxyl terminus and Cys-210 between the second and third consensus sequences forming the GTP-binding site were derivatized by 125I-ACTP in a ratio of approximately 70 and 30%, respectively. Thus, both Cys-210 and Cys-347 are labeled, even though derivatization by 125I-ACTP does not exceed 1 mol of SH/mol Gt alpha. It appears that derivatization of one sulfhydryl, either Cys-210 or Cys-347, excludes labeling of the second cysteine either by steric hindrance or induced conformational change making the second cysteine inaccessible to 125I-ACTP. Consistent with this finding was the observation that pertussis toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of Cys-347 inhibited 125I-ACTP derivatization of Cys-210. Derivatization of Gt alpha at either Cys-210 or Cys-347 by 125I-ACTP inhibited rhodopsin-catalyzed guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)triphosphate binding to Gt, mimicking the effect of ADP-ribosylation of Cys-347 by pertussis toxin. ACTP contains a radioiodinated phenylazide moiety which, upon activation, can cross-link the derivatized cysteine to an adjacent polypeptide domain. Following reduction of the disulfide, the [125I] iodophenyl moiety will be transferred to the azide-inserted polypeptide. When photoactivation of the phenylazide moiety of 125I-ACTP after sulfhydryl derivatization was performed, insertion of the Cys-347 which contains Cys-210, was found.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
Oligosaccharyltransferase activity is associated with a protein complex composed of ribophorins I and II and a 48 kd protein
Oligosaccharyltransferase catalyzes the N-linked glycosylation of asparagine residues on nascent polypeptides in the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). A protein complex composed of 66, 63, and 48 kd subunits copurified with oligosaccharyltransferase from canine pancreas. The 66 and 63 kd subunits were shown by protein immunoblotting to be identical to ribophorin I and II, two previously identified RER glycoproteins that colocalize with membrane-bound ribosomes. The transmembrane segment of ribophorin I was found to be homologous to a recently proposed dolichol recognition consensus sequence. Based on a revision of the consensus sequence, we propose a model for the interaction of dolichol with the glycosyltransferases that catalyze the assembly and transfer of lipid-linked oligosaccharides.
Allosteric regulation provides a molecular mechanism for preferential utilization of the fully assembled dolichol-linked oligosaccharide by the yeast oligosaccharyltransferase
The oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) preferentially utilizes the fully assembled dolichol-linked oligosaccharide Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol as the donor for N-linked glycosylation of asparagine residues in N-X-T/S consensus sites in newly synthesized proteins. A wide variety of assembly intermediates (Glc(0-2)Man(0-9)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol) can serve as the donor substrate for N-linked glycosylation of peptide acceptor substrates in vitro or of nascent glycoproteins in mutant cells that are defective in donor substrate assembly. A kinetic mechanism that can account for the selection of the fully assembled donor substrate from a complex mixture of dolichol-linked oligosaccharides (OS-PP-Dol) has not been elucidated. Here, the steady-state kinetic properties of the OST were reinvestigated using a proteoliposome assay system consisting of the purified yeast enzyme, near-homogeneous preparations of a dolichol-linked oligosaccharide (Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol or Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol) and an (125)I-labeled tripeptide as the acceptor substrate. The K(m) of the OST for the acceptor tripeptide was only slightly enhanced when Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol was the donor substrate relative to when Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol was the donor substrate. Evaluation of the kinetic data for both donor substrates showed deviations from typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Sigmoidal saturation curves, Lineweaver-Burk plots with upward curvature, and apparent Hill coefficients of about 1.4 suggested a substrate activation mechanism involving distinct regulatory (activator) and catalytic binding sites for OS-PP-Dol. Results of competition experiments using either oligosaccharide donor as an alternative substrate were also consistent with this hypothesis. We propose that binding of either donor substrate to the activator site substantially enhances Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol occupancy of the enzyme catalytic site via allosteric activation.
In eukaryotic cells, polypeptides are N glycosylated after passing through the membrane of the ER into the ER lumen. This modification is effected cotranslationally by the multimeric oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) enzyme. Here, we report the first cross-linking of an OST subunit to a nascent chain that is undergoing translocation through, or integration into, the ER membrane. A photoreactive probe was incorporated into a nascent chain using a modified Lys-tRNA and was positioned in a cryptic glycosylation site (-Q-K-T- instead of -N-K-T-) in the nascent chain. When translocation intermediates with nascent chains of increasing length were irradiated, nascent chain photocross-linking to translocon components, Sec61alpha and TRAM, was replaced by efficient photocross-linking solely to a protein identified by immunoprecipitation as the STT3 subunit of the OST. No cross-linking was observed in the absence of a cryptic sequence or in the presence of a competitive peptide substrate of the OST. As no significant nascent chain photocross-linking to other OST subunits was detected in these fully assembled translocation and integration intermediates, our results strongly indicate that the nascent chain portion of the OST active site is located in STT3.
Oligosaccharyltransferase isoforms that contain different catalytic STT3 subunits have distinct enzymatic properties
Oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) is an integral membrane protein that catalyzes N-linked glycosylation of nascent proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Although the yeast OST is an octamer assembled from nonhomologous subunits (Ost1p, Ost2p, Ost3p/Ost6p, Ost4p, Ost5p, Wbp1p, Swp1p, and Stt3p), the composition of the vertebrate OST was less well defined. The roles of specific OST subunits remained enigmatic. Here we show that genomes of most multicellular eukaryotes encode two homologs of Stt3p and mammals express two homologs of Ost3p. The Stt3p and Ost3p homologs are assembled together with the previously described mammalian OST subunits (ribophorins I and II, OST48, and DAD1) into complexes that differ significantly in enzymatic activity. Tissue and cell type-specific differences in expression of the Stt3p homologs suggest that the enzymatic properties of oligosaccharyltransferase are regulated in eukaryotes to respond to alterations in glycoprotein flux through the secretory pathway and may contribute to tissue-specific glycan heterogeneity.
The diversity of dolichol-linked precursors to Asn-linked glycans likely results from secondary loss of sets of glycosyltransferases
The vast majority of eukaryotes (fungi, plants, animals, slime mold, and euglena) synthesize Asn-linked glycans (Alg) by means of a lipid-linked precursor dolichol-PP-GlcNAc2Man9Glc3. Knowledge of this pathway is important because defects in the glycosyltransferases (Alg1-Alg12 and others not yet identified), which make dolichol-PP-glycans, lead to numerous congenital disorders of glycosylation. Here we used bioinformatic and experimental methods to characterize Alg glycosyltransferases and dolichol-PP-glycans of diverse protists, including many human pathogens, with the following major conclusions. First, it is demonstrated that common ancestry is a useful method of predicting the Alg glycosyltransferase inventory of each eukaryote. Second, in the vast majority of cases, this inventory accurately predicts the dolichol-PP-glycans observed. Third, Alg glycosyltransferases are missing in sets from each organism (e.g., all of the glycosyltransferases that add glucose and mannose are absent from Giardia and Plasmodium). Fourth, dolichol-PP-GlcNAc2Man5 (present in Entamoeba and Trichomonas) and dolichol-PP- and N-linked GlcNAc2 (present in Giardia) have not been identified previously in wild-type organisms. Finally, the present diversity of protist and fungal dolichol-PP-linked glycans appears to result from secondary loss of glycosyltransferases from a common ancestor that contained the complete set of Alg glycosyltransferases.
Mapping the interaction of the STT3 subunit of the oligosaccharyl transferase complex with nascent polypeptide chains
Many secretory and membrane proteins are N-glycosylated by the oligosaccharyl transferase complex during their translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Several experimental observations suggest that the highly conserved STT3 subunit contains the active site of the oligosaccharyl transferase. Here, we report a detailed study of the interaction between the active site of the STT3 protein and nascent polypeptide chains using an in vitro photocrosslinking technique. Our results show that the addition of a glycan moiety in a stretch of approximately 15 residues surrounding a QK(*)T cross-linking site impairs the interaction between the nascent chain and STT3.
The evolution of N-glycan-dependent endoplasmic reticulum quality control factors for glycoprotein folding and degradation
Asn-linked glycans (N-glycans) play important roles in the quality control (QC) of glycoprotein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen and in ER-associated degradation (ERAD) of proteins by cytosolic proteasomes. A UDP-Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase glucosylates N-glycans of misfolded proteins, which are then bound and refolded by calreticulin and/or calnexin in association with a protein disulfide isomerase. Alternatively, an alpha-1,2-mannosidase (Mns1) and mannosidase-like proteins (ER degradation-enhancing alpha-mannosidase-like proteins 1, 2, and 3) are part of a process that results in the dislocation of misfolded glycoproteins into the cytosol, where proteins are degraded in the proteasome. Recently we found that numerous protists and fungi contain 0-11 sugars in their N-glycan precursors versus 14 sugars in those of animals, plants, fungi, and Dictyostelium. Our goal here was to determine what effect N-glycan precursor diversity has on N-glycan-dependent QC systems of glycoprotein folding and ERAD. N-glycan-dependent QC of folding (UDP-Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase, calreticulin, and/or calnexin) was present and active in some but not all protists containing at least five mannose residues in their N-glycans and was absent in protists lacking Man. In contrast, N-glycan-dependent ERAD appeared to be absent from the majority of protists. However, Trypanosoma and Trichomonas genomes predicted ER degradation-enhancing alpha-mannosidase-like protein and Mns1 orthologs, respectively, each of which had alpha-mannosidase activity in vitro. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the diversity of N-glycan-dependent QC of glycoprotein folding (and possibly that of ERAD) was best explained by secondary loss. We conclude that N-glycan precursor length has profound effects on N-glycan-dependent QC of glycoprotein folding and ERAD.
N-Glycans of Entamoeba histolytica, the protist that causes amebic dysentery and liver abscess, are of great interest for multiple reasons. E. histolytica makes an unusual truncated N-glycan precursor (Man(5)GlcNAc(2)), has few nucleotide sugar transporters, and has a surface that is capped by the lectin concanavalin A. Here, biochemical and mass spectrometric methods were used to examine N-glycan biosynthesis and the final N-glycans of E. histolytica with the following conclusions. Unprocessed Man(5)GlcNAc(2), which is the most abundant E. histolytica N-glycan, is aggregated into caps on the surface of E. histolytica by the N-glycan-specific, anti-retroviral lectin cyanovirin-N. Glc(1)Man(5)GlcNAc(2), which is made by a UDP-Glc: glycoprotein glucosyltransferase that is part of a conserved N-glycan-dependent endoplasmic reticulum quality control system for protein folding, is also present in mature N-glycans. A swainsonine-sensitive alpha-mannosidase trims some N-glycans to biantennary Man(3)GlcNAc(2). Complex N-glycans of E. histolytica are made by the addition of alpha1,2-linked Gal to both arms of small oligomannose glycans, and Gal residues are capped by one or more Glc. In summary, E. histolytica N-glycans include unprocessed Man(5)GlcNAc(2), which is a target for cyanovirin-N, as well as unique, complex N-glycans containing Gal and Glc.
Cotranslational and posttranslational N-glycosylation of polypeptides by distinct mammalian OST isoforms
Asparagine-linked glycosylation of polypeptides in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum is catalyzed by the hetero-oligomeric oligosaccharyltransferase (OST). OST isoforms with different catalytic subunits (STT3A versus STT3B) and distinct enzymatic properties are coexpressed in mammalian cells. Using siRNA to achieve isoform-specific knockdowns, we show that the OST isoforms cooperate and act sequentially to mediate protein N-glycosylation. The STT3A OST isoform is primarily responsible for cotranslational glycosylation of the nascent polypeptide as it enters the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. The STT3B isoform is required for efficient cotranslational glycosylation of an acceptor site adjacent to the N-terminal signal sequence of a secreted protein. Unlike STT3A, STT3B efficiently mediates posttranslational glycosylation of a carboxyl-terminal glycosylation site in an unfolded protein. These distinct and complementary roles for the OST isoforms allow sequential scanning of polypeptides for acceptor sites to insure the maximal efficiency of N-glycosylation.
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate 2 dimensions of meaning in life--Presence of Meaning (i.e., the perception of your life as significant, purposeful, and valuable) and Search for Meaning (i.e., the strength, intensity, and activity of people's efforts to establish or increase their understanding of the meaning in their lives)--and their role for the well-being of chronically ill patients.
RESEARCH DESIGN: A sample of 481 chronically ill patients (M = 50 years, SD = 7.26) completed measures on meaning in life, life satisfaction, optimism, and acceptance. We hypothesized that Presence of Meaning and Search for Meaning will have specific relations with all 3 aspects of well-being.
RESULTS: Cluster analysis was used to examine meaning in life profiles. Results supported 4 distinguishable profiles (High Presence High Search, Low Presence High Search, High Presence Low Search, and Low Presence Low Search) with specific patterns in relation to well-being and acceptance. Specifically, the 2 profiles in which meaning is present showed higher levels of well-being and acceptance, whereas the profiles in which meaning is absent are characterized by lower levels. Furthermore, the results provided some clarification on the nature of the Search for Meaning process by distinguishing between adaptive (the High Presence High Search cluster) and maladaptive (the Low Presence High Search cluster) searching for meaning in life.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides an initial glimpse in how meaning in life may be related to the well-being of chronically ill patients and the acceptance of their condition. Clinical implications are discussed.
BACKGROUND: The barriers in accessing healthcare for gay, lesbian and bisexuals individuals are not well explored. These challenges as well as a lack of knowledge concerning this understudied group has prompted the Institute of Medicine to create a research agenda to build a foundational understanding of gay, lesbian and bisexual health and the barriers they encounter.1 the primary aim of this study will be to compare the differences in health care access and utilization between gay/lesbian, bisexual and heterosexual individuals using a large, nationally representative dataset of the U.S. population.
METHODS: Data from 2001 to 2012 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was pooled. Using logistic regression, we calculated the unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios of having health insurance, having a routine place and seeing a provider at least one in the past year.
RESULTS: We found that gay men were more likely to have health insurance coverage (ORadj:2.13 95%CI: 1.15,3.92), while bisexual men were at a small disadvantage in having health insurance coverage (ORadj:0.82 95%CI: 0.46,1.46). Bisexual men were more likely to have received health care in the past 12 months (ORadj:3.11 95%CI: 1.74,5.55). Lesbian women were less likely to have health insurance coverage (ORadj-lesbian:0.58 95%CI: 0.34,0.97).
CONCLUSION: This study contributed to the limited knowledge on understanding the health care access and utilization among gay, lesbian and bisexual individuals, which was classified as a high priority by the Institute of Medicine. Expanding health insurance coverage through the Affordable Care Act and Universal Partnership Coverage may reduce the disparities among gay, lesbian and bisexual individuals.
All living creatures change their gene expression program in response to nutrient availability and metabolic demands. Nutrients and metabolites can directly control transcription and activate second-‐messenger systems. In bacteria, metabolites also affect post-‐transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, but there are only a few isolated examples of this regulation in eukaryotes. Here, I present evidence that RNA-‐binding by the stem cell translation regulator Musashi-‐1 (MSI1) is allosterically inhibited by 18-‐22 carbon ω-‐9 monounsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid binds to the N-‐terminal RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) and induces a conformational change that prevents RNA association. Musashi proteins are critical for development of the brain, blood, and epithelium. I identify stearoyl-‐CoA desaturase-‐1 as a MSI1 target, revealing a feedback loop between ω-‐9 fatty acid biosynthesis and MSI1 activity. To my knowledge, this is the first example of an RNA-‐binding protein directly regulated by fatty acid. This finding may represent one of the first examples of a potentially broad network connecting metabolism with post-‐transcriptional regulation.
Impact of COPD on the Mortality and Treatment of Patients Hospitalized with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure (The Worcester Heart Failure Study): A Masters Thesis
Objective: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common comorbidity in patients with heart failure, yet little is known about the impact of this condition in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF), especially from a more generalizable, community-based perspective. The primary objective of this study was to describe the in-hospital and post discharge mortality and treatment of patients hospitalized with ADHF according to COPD status.
Methods: The study population consisted of patients hospitalized with ADHF at all 11 medical centers in central Massachusetts during 4 study years: 1995, 2000, 2002, and 2004.
Results: Of the 9,748 patients hospitalized with ADHF during the years under study, 35.9% had a history of COPD. The average age of this population was 76.1 years, 43.9% were men, and 93.3% were white. At the time of hospital discharge, patients with COPD were less likely to have received evidence-based heart failure medications, including beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers, than patients without COPD. Multivariable adjusted in-hospital death rates were similar for patients with and without COPD. However, among patients who survived to hospital discharge, patients with COPD had a significantly higher risk of dying at 1 (adjusted RR 1.10; 95% CI 1.06, 1.14) and 5-years (adjusted RR 1.40; 95% CI 1.28, 1.42) after hospital discharge than patients who were not previously diagnosed with COPD.
Conclusions: COPD is a common co-morbidity in patients hospitalized with ADHF and is associated with a worse long-term prognosis. Further research is required to understand the complex interactions of these diseases and to ensure that patients with ADHF and COPD receive optimal treatment modalities.
Melanoma in Hong Kong between 1983 and 2002: a decreasing trend in incidence observed in a complex socio-political and economic setting
The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and mortality of cutaneous melanoma (CM) in Hong Kong. The epidemiology, clinical, and pathological features of melanoma in Asians are different from those in the European population, yet there is little in the literature that describes about melanoma in Asians. Data from the Hong Kong Cancer Registry from 1983 to 2002 were collected and reviewed. Population-based data were analyzed, focusing on the mortality and incidence rates over this 20-year period. The mean Hong Kong CM incidence rate between 1983 and 2002 was 0.8/100 000 for men and 0.6/100 000 for women. There was an overall decrease in the incidence of CM in Hong Kong between 1983 and 2002 (P
Pruritus ani as a manifestation of systemic contact dermatitis: resolution with dietary nickel restriction
Pruritus ani is a common distressing problem with numerous possible causes. When locally applied agents trigger irritation or allergic response, skin changes of dermatitis usually accompany the itch. Focal pruritus in the absence of dermatitis is not generally considered to be a manifestation of contact allergy. Furthermore, focal pruritus is not listed among the possible diverse presentations of the systemic delivery of a proven contact allergen. We report a case of a gentleman with a 1.5-year history of treatment-resistant pruritus ani. When patch testing revealed a positive reaction to nickel sulfate, he admitted to daily peanut butter consumption. His symptoms resolved with dietary nickel restriction. Patch testing may be useful in patients with pruritus of the anogenital region, not only to elucidate potential contact exposures contributing to the symptom but also to suggest possible dietary precipitants.