OBJECTIVE: Smokers have lower short-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) than non-smokers; however, little is known about the long-term effects of smoking on life expectancy after AMI. This study aimed to quantify the burden of smoking after AMI using life expectancy and years of life lost.
METHODS: We analysed data from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project, a medical record study of 158 349 elderly Medicare patients with AMI and over 17 years of follow-up, to evaluate the age-specific association of smoking with life expectancy and years of life lost after AMI.
RESULTS: Our sample included 23 447 (14.8%) current smokers. Current smokers had lower crude mortality up to 5 years, which was largely explained by their younger age at AMI. After adjustment other patient characteristics, smoking was associated with lower 30-day (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.94) but higher long-term mortality (17-year HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.20) after AMI. Overall, crude life expectancy estimates were lower for current smokers than non-smokers at all ages, which translated into sizeable numbers of life-years lost attributable to smoking. As age at AMI increased, the magnitude of life-years lost due to smoking decreased. After full risk adjustment, the differences in life expectancy between current smokers and non-smokers persisted at all ages.
CONCLUSIONS: Current smoking is associated with lower life expectancy and large numbers of life-years lost after AMI. Our findings lend additional support to smoking cessation efforts after AMI.
Trimethoprim-sulfonamide use during the first trimester of pregnancy and the risk of congenital anomalies
BACKGROUND: Sulfonamide antibacterials are widely used in pregnancy, but evidence about their safety is mixed. The objective of this study was to assess the association between first-trimester sulfonamide exposure and risk of specific congenital malformations.
METHODS: Mother-infant pairs were selected from a cohort of 1.2 million live-born deliveries (2001-2008) at 11 US health plans comprising the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program. Mothers with first-trimester trimethoprim-sulfonamide (TMP-SUL) exposures were randomly matched 1:1 to (i) a primary comparison group (mothers exposed to penicillins and/or cephalosporins) and (ii) a secondary comparison group (mothers with no dispensing of an antibacterial, antiprotozoal, or antimalarial medication during the same time period). The outcomes were cardiovascular abnormalities, cleft palate/lip, clubfoot, and urinary tract abnormalities.
RESULTS: We first identified 7615 infants in the TMP-SUL exposure group, of which 7595 (99%) were exposed to a combination of TMP-SUL and the remaining 1% to sulfonamides alone. After matching (1:1) to the comparator groups and only including those with complete data on covariates, there were 20 064 (n = 6688 per group) in the primary analyses. Overall, cardiovascular defects (1.52%) were the most common and cleft lip/palate (0.10%) the least common that were evaluated. Compared with penicillin/cephalosporin exposure, and no antibacterial exposure, TMP-SUL exposure was not associated with statistically significant elevated risks for cardiovascular, cleft lip/palate, clubfoot, or urinary system defects.
CONCLUSIONS: First-trimester TMP-SUL exposure was not associated with a higher risk of the congenital anomalies studied, compared with exposure to penicillins and/or cephalosporins, or no exposure to antibacterials.