Barriers and Facilitators to Deaf Trauma Survivors’ Help-Seeking Behavior: Lessons for Behavioral Clinical Trials Research: A Master’s Thesis
Deaf individuals experience significant obstacles to participating in behavioral health research when careful consideration is not given to accessibility in the design of study methodology. To inform such considerations, we conducted a secondary analysis of a mixed-methods study that explored 16 Deaf trauma survivors’ help-seeking experiences. Our objective was to identify key findings and qualitative themes from consumers' own words that can be applied to the design of behavioral clinical trials methodology. In many ways, the themes that emerged are what we would expect of any research participant, Deaf or hearing – a need for communication access, empathy, respect, strict confidentiality procedures, trust, and transparency of the research process. However, additional considerations must be made to better recruit, retain, and engage Deaf trauma survivors. We summarize our findings in a “Checklist for Designing Deaf Behavioral Clinical Trials” to operationalize the steps researchers should take to apply Deaf-friendly approaches in their empirical work.
Research Participation Decision-Making Among Youth and Parents of Youth with Chronic Health Conditions: A Dissertation
The purpose and aims of this qualitative descriptive study were to describe how past experiences with research (including communication, information, values and support) may contribute to research fatigue among youth and parents of youth with HIV, CF, and T1D. Eighteen parents and youth were purposively recruited from outpatient subspecialty clinics at a major academic medical center. They took part in qualitative interviews, completed a demographics form, and the Decisional Conflict Scale. Youth participants also completed the Erikson Psychosocial Stage Inventory. Two major themes emerged: blurred lines and hope for the future. Research fatigue was not found in this sample. Results point to challenges with informed consent in settings where research and clinical care are integrated, and suggest that protective factors allow for continued participation without excess burden on youth and parents. Strategies to minimize research fatigue and support engagement in research are offered.
Background: Up to 55% of patients administered ketamine, experience an emergence phenomena (EP) that closely mimics schizophrenia and increases their risk of injury. While genetics accounts for about 50% of severe adverse drug reactions, no studies have investigated genetic association of ketamine-induced EP in healthy patients. Ketamine is metabolized by CYP 2B6 enzymes and CYP 2B^8^ allele significantly alter ketamine metabolism. In addition, ketamine exerts most of its effects by inhibiting the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMADR), and NMDAR genes (GRIN2B) are associated with learning and memory impairment and schizophrenia.
Purpose: To investigate the relationship between CYP2B6*6 and GRIN2B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ketamine-induced emergence phenomena (EP).
Methods: This cross-sectional pharmacogenetic study recruited 75 patients having minor orthopedic, hand, foot, anorectal surgeries from two outpatient surgical centers. EP was measured with the Clinician Administered Dissociative State Scale (CADSS). DNA was genotyped using standard Taqman assays and protocols. Genetic association of CYP2B6*6 and GRIN2B (rs1019385 & rs1806191) SNPs and ketamine induced EP occurrence and severity were tested using multivariate logistic and linear regression, adjusting for age, ketamine dose, duration of anesthesia, and time since ketamine administration.
Results: Forty-seven patients (63%) received ketamine and were genotyped. Nineteen EP cases were identified (CADSS > 4), leaving 28 non-EP controls. For our population, CADSS has an internal consistency reliability Cronbach’s alpha of 0.82, and could reliably distinguish ketamine from non-ketamine cases. Occurrence and severity of EP were not associated with CYP2B6*6 or GRIN2B (p > 0.1). Models removing genotype and containing age, ketamine dose, duration of v anesthesia, and time since ketamine administration significantly predicted EP occurrence (p = 0.001) and severity (p = 0.007). Presence and severity of EP did not affect patient satisfaction with care.
Discussion: Younger age, higher dose and longer duration of anesthesia significantly predicted EP occurrence and severity among our sample. This study provides effect size estimates useful for the design of adequately powered future genetic association studies. The feasibility of recruitment from patients undergoing elective, outpatient surgeries and ease of post-operative EP assessment with CADSS supports our approach. However, the small sample size may have limited about ability to determine significant differences.
Conclusion: Fully powered studies are needed to investigate this important phenomena. Determining factors for anesthesia-related EP symptoms may reduce risks and costs associated with this adverse medication effect.
Ultrasound is an integral part of obstetric practice, and assessment of gestational age (GA) is a central element of obstetric ultrasonography. Sonographic estimation of GA is derived from calculations based on fetal measurements. Numerous equations for GA calculation from fetal biometry have been adopted in routine practice. This study reports a new method of estimating GA in the second and third trimester using interischial distance (IID), the distance between the two ischial primary ossification centers, on fetal ultrasound. Four hundred women with uncomplicated normal singleton pregnancies from 16 weeks to term were examined. Standard fetal obstetric ultrasound was done measuring biparietal diameter (BPD) and femur length (FL) for each fetus. The IID, in millimeters, was correlated with the GA in weeks based upon the BPD and FL individually, and the BPD and FL together. Statistical analysis showed strong correlation between the IID and GA calculated from the FL with correlation coefficient (r =0.989, P < 0.001). Strong linear correlation was also found between the IID and GA based upon BPD and BPD+FL. Further statistical analysis using regression equations also showed that the IID was slightly wider in female fetuses, but this difference was not statistically significant. Resulting from this analysis, we have arrived at an easy-to-use equation: GA Weeks = (IID mm + 8) ±1 week. We feel this method can be especially applicable in the developing world, where midwives may not have access to software for fetal biometry in their basic handheld ultrasound machines. Even more sophisticated machines may not come with loaded software for obstetrics analysis. There are several limitations to this study, discussed below. We recommend further studies correlating the IID with other biometric parameters.