An ability to quantitate the beta cell mass by noninvasive nuclear imaging will be very useful in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diabetes. However, to be successful, radioactivity from the pancreas must not be obscured by the background radioactivity in the abdomen. Pretargeting offers the promise of achieving high target organ to normal tissue ratios. In preparation for pancreas imaging studies by pretargeting using morpholino oligomers (MORF/cMORF), it was necessary to develop a simple and efficient method to radiolabel the cMORF effector. Because we have shown that labeling the cMORF with (111)In via DTPA reduces excretion into the intestines compared to labeling with (99m)Tc via MAG(3), the conjugation of DTPA to cMORF was investigated for (111)In labeling. The amine-derivatized cMORF was conjugated with DTPA using 1-ethyl-3(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) as an alternative to the conventional cyclic anhydride. The conjugation efficiency (represented by the number of DTPA groups attached per cMORF) was investigated by changing the EDC, DTPA, and cMORF molar ratios. Different open columns were considered for the purification of DTPA-cMORF. Before conjugation, each cMORF molecule was confirmed to have an amine by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) assay using the omega-amino butyric acid as positive standard and the non-amine derivatized cMORF as negative standard. The average number of DTPA groups per cMORF was 0.15-0.20 following the conjugation over a cMORF/DTPA molar ratio of 0.5-5 and over a cMORF/EDC molar ratio of 20-60. The conjugation efficiency was lower than expected probably due to steric hindrance. A 1 x 50cm P-4 column using ammonium acetate as eluting buffer provided an adequate separation of DTPA-cMORF from free DTPA. The (111)In labeling efficiency by transchelation from acetate exceeded 95%, thus avoiding the need for postlabeling purification. Despite the lower than expected conjugation efficiency in which no more than one-fifth of the cMORF were DTPA-derivatized, a specific radioactivity of at least 300microCi/microg or 1.90Ci/micromol of cMORF was achieved. In conclusion, a protocol is described for (111)In-DTPA-cMORF that provides the high specific activity favorable to beta cell imaging because of the low mass fraction of beta cells in pancreas (1-2%) and obviates the need for postlabeling purification.
Pretargeting with bivalent effectors capable of bridging antitumor antibodies (affinity enhancement pretargeting) has been reported to provide superior results by affinity enhancement. Phosphorodiamidate morpholinos (MORFs) and other DNA analogues used for pretargeting are ideally suited as bivalent effectors since they are easily synthesized and the distance between binding regions, a determinant of binding, may be adjusted simply by lengthening the chain. We have shown by surface plasmon resonance that bivalent MORFs will provide superior affinity enhancement provided that suitable spacing exists between the binding regions. The goals of this study were to synthesize a bivalent MORF with a MAG(3) group attached for technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) radiolabeling, investigate whether the bivalent MORF showed improved cell accumulation in culture compared to its corresponding monovalent MORF and compare biodistributions in normal mice and in pretargeted tumored mice. An excess of an amine derivatized 18 mer MORF with 6 nonbinding bases for spacing was reacted with Fmoc-l-beta-homoglutamic acid to form duplexes via their carboxylate groups and, after deprotection, conjugated with NHS-MAG(3) to attach the chelator. The anti-CEA antibody MN14 was conjugated with a 12 mer complementary MORF (i.e., cMORF). The binding behavior between radiolabeled monovalent and bivalent MORFs was compared in LS174T tumor cells at 4 degrees C pretargeted with MN14-cMORF. Biodistributions of radiolabeled monovalent and bivalent MORFs at 3 h postadministration were measured in normal mice and in tumor mice pretargeted with MN14-cMORF. In the pretargeted cells in culture, the accumulation of the bivalent MORF was significantly higher than the monovalent MORF (p = 0.002), thus providing strong evidence for affinity enhancement. In normal mice, whole body clearance of the bivalent and monovalent MORFs was equally rapid. In tumored mice, tumor accumulation of the radiolabeled bivalent MORF was significantly higher than that of the monovalent MORF. In conclusion, a bivalent MAG(3)-MORF was successfully synthesized and radiolabeled with (99m)Tc. While a pharmacokinetic effect for the higher tumor accumulations in pretargeted mice of the radiolabeled bivalent MORF cannot be excluded, the results may be best explained by affinity enhancement. Thus two monovalent MORFs were covalently conjugated into a bivalent MORF effector to improve tumor targeting by both pharmacokinetics and affinity enhancement influences.
Combining two or more different imaging modalities in the same agent can be of considerable value in molecular imaging. We describe the use of streptavidin nanoparticle-based complexes as multimodality imaging agents to achieve tumor detection in a mouse model by both fluorescence and nuclear imaging. Up to four biotinylated functionalities can be readily attached to these streptavidin nanoparticles without apparent influence on their properties and with reasonable pharmacokinetics and therefore may be ideally suited for multimodality imaging. By binding a biotinylated anti-Her2 Herceptin antibody to provide tumor targeting, a biotinylated DOTA chelator labeled with (111)ln and a biotinylated Cy5.5 fluorophore to a streptavidin nanoparticle, we demonstrated multimodality imaging in SUM190 (Her2+) tumor bearing mice on both an IVIS fluorescence camera and a NanoSPECT/CT small animal nuclear camera. The imaging results show high tumor accumulation and strong tumor-to-normal tissue contrast by both fluorescence and nuclear imaging. The subsequent biodistribution study confirmed the specific tumor accumulation in that tumor accumulation of radioactivity at 40 h was 21 ID%/g and therefore much higher than all other tissues including liver, heart, kidney, spleen, and muscle that accumulated 8.7, 2.5, 6.9, 7.2, and 1.9 ID%/g, respectively. In conclusion, the streptavidin nanoparticle under development in this laboratory was used effectively for multimodality imaging of tumor in mice by fluorescence and nuclear detection. Presumably, other imaging modalities could also be considered.
Adding a clearing agent to pretargeting does not lower the tumor accumulation of the effector as predicted
Clearing agents are often used in pretargeting despite the potential for decreased tumor accumulation of the effector. However, according to the authors' semiempirical model, a clearing agent should not necessarily decrease tumor accumulation. In this study, the authors have added a clearing step to their model-morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomer (MORF)/complement MORF (cMORF) pretargeting system-to confirm this prediction. The CC49 antibody was conjugated with both biotin and an 18 mer MORF. The influence of avidin on antibody clearance was first evaluated in normal mice in which each animal received 30 mug of MORF-CC49-biotin, 0-70 mug of avidin 1 day later, and 1.2 mug of (9)(9)(m)Tc-cMORF 3 hours later, with sacrifice at 3 hours. Thereafter, a pretargeting study in mice bearing an LS174T tumor was performed at a 34 mug avidin dosage. In normal mice, the blood level of (9)(9)(m)Tc-cMORF fell by 60% at an avidin dosage of 10 mug or higher. In tumored mice, avidin produced a similar reduction in blood but had no influence on tumor level, which remained at 6.30% ID/g as predicted. In conclusion, in addition to the expected reduced effector levels in blood and normal tissues, a reduction in tumor accumulation was avoided when adding a clearing agent as predicted.
Unexpected side products in the conjugation of an amine-derivatized morpholino oligomer with p-isothiocyanate benzyl DTPA and their removal
In connection with pretargeting, an amine-derivatized morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomer (NH(2)-cMORF) was conjugated conventionally with p-isothiocyanate benzyl-DTPA (p-SCN-Bn-DTPA). However, after (111)In radiolabeling, unexpected label instability was observed. To understand this instability, the NH(2)-cMORF and, as control, the native cMORF without the amine were conjugated in the conventional manner. Surprisingly, the (111)In labeling of the native cMORF conjugate was equally effective as that of the NH(2)-cMORF conjugate (>95%) despite the absence of the amine group. Furthermore, heating the radiolabeled NH(2)-cMORF and native cMORF conjugates resulted in a 35% loss and a complete loss of the label, respectively. Since the (111)In labeled DTPA is known to be stable, the instability in both cases must be due to some unstable association of DTPA to the cMORF, presumably unstable association to some endogenous sites in cMORF. Based on this assumption, a postconjugation-prepurification heating step was introduced, and labeling efficiency and stability were again investigated. By introducing the heating step, the side products were dissociated, and after purification and labeling, the NH(2)-cMORF conjugate provided a stable label and high labeling efficiency with no need for postlabeling purification. The biodistribution of this radiolabeled conjugate in normal mice showed significantly lower backgrounds compared with the labeled unstable native cMORF conjugate. In conclusion, the conventional conjugation procedure to attach the p-SCN-Bn-DTPA to NH(2)-cMORF resulted in side product(s) that were responsible for the (111)In label instability. Adding a postconjugation-prepurification heating step dissociated the side products, improved the label stability and lowered tissue backgrounds in mice.
PURPOSE: Phage display was used to select novel peptides that specifically bind the TAG-72 antigen and with properties suitable for imaging TAG-72 positive cancers.
RESULTS: After three rounds of selection against TAG-72 and using two different elution conditions including a long elution, the consensus sequences FRERCDKHPQKCTKFL and DPRHCQKRVLPCPAWL were expressed on phages G3-15 and T3-15 respectively. ELISA, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis and fluorescence microscopy provided evidence that both phages specifically bound TAG-72 in vitro. Both peptides are stable in 37oC serum. By a cell binding competition assay, the IC50 for T3-15 was measured as 0.29 nM and therefore 36-fold higher affinity than G3-15 at 10.32 nM. The biodistribution in mice carrying LS-174T tumors in one thigh were similar for both 99mTc-peptides at 30 min, but at 90 min the 99mTc-T3-15 peptide accumulated almost three times higher in the tumor. The SPECT/CT images were consistent with the biodistribution results.
PROCEDURES: The f88-4/Cys6 phage library and two different elution conditions were used to identify two new higher affinity binding peptides for the TAG-72 antigen. One, was a single brief elution with pH 2.2 glycine buffer, and the second began with the glycine elution but was followed with a longer elution with Tris buffered saline (TBS) at pH 7.4. The phages that bound TAG-72 were evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis using TAG-72 positive LS-174T cells and confirmed by immunofluorescence imaging. The consensus peptides displayed on the selected phages were synthesized and conjugated with NHS-MAG3 for radiolabeling with 99mTc. The IC50 for TAG-72 binding was evaluated by cell binding competition in vitro while binding affinity was evaluated in vivo by necropsy and SPECT/CT imaging in a tumor mouse model.
CONCLUSION: We have identified a peptide with a sub nanomolar inhibition constant for the TAG-72 antigen that may have application in cancer imaging.
In principle, a DNA duplex consisting of an antisense fluorophore-conjugated major strand hybridized to a shorter complementary inhibitor-conjugated minor strand should provide fluorescence only in the tumor after intravenous administration if designed to remain intact except in the presence in tumor of its mRNA target. While we have obtained impressive tumor images in mice using this approach, there remains some background fluorescence. In this study, tissue homogenates of selected mouse organs were incubated with a test duplex and the kinetics of duplex dissociation in normal tissues were measured. In this manner we were able to identify the liver as the likely major source responsible for the duplex dissociation providing this fluorescence background. Thereafter liver homogenates were used to screen a series of duplex candidates with variable-length minor strands, and dissociation was measured by gel electrophoresis. The selected fluorophore/inhibitor duplex with improved stability displayed an insignificant (P > 0.05) background fluorescence after administration to SKH-1 normal mice and apparently without affecting target mRNA binding in vitro in cell culture or in vivo in tumor bearing mice.
Noninvasive measurement of human islet cell mass in pancreas or following islet transplantation by nuclear imaging has yet to be achieved. It has been shown using mouse tumor models that pretargeting imaging strategies are sensitive and can greatly increase target to nontarget signal ratios. The objective now is to demonstrate the specific pretargeting of human islet cells in mice. Our pretargeting strategy uses an anti-human islet cell antibody HPi1, conjugated to a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (MORF) that binds specifically to a (99m)Tc labeled complementary MORF (cMORF). Sensitivity and specificity of the pretargeting were first validated in culture using a human beta cell line (betalox5) and a negative control human cell line (HEK293). Pretargeting was then used to target and visualize these two cell lines and human islets transplanted subcutaneously in NOD-scid IL2rgamma(null) mice. In culture, (99m)Tc accumulation on the betalox5 cells pretargeted by MORF-HPi1 was 100-fold higher than on untreated betalox5 cells or following treatment with native HPi1 and much higher than on the MORF-HPi1 pretargeted control HEK293 cells. Small animal imaging readily localized the transplanted betalox5 cells and human islets, but not the HEK293 cells. Ex vivo counting demonstrated 3-fold higher (99m)Tc accumulation in the transplanted betalox5 cells and human islets than in the control HEK293 cells. The target accumulation was also shown to increase linearly with increased numbers of the implanted betalox5 cells. These results demonstrate specific binding of radioactivity and successful imaging of human betalox5 cells and human islets transplanted in mice. Thus MORF/cMORF pretargeting may be useful to measure noninvasively human islet cell mass within the pancreas or following islet transplantation.
A brief evaluation of tumor imaging in mice with 99mTc-glucarate including a comparison with 18F-FDG
OBJECTIVE: Recently 99mTc-glucarate, a radiolabeled glucose analogue, has been considered as a SPECT alternative to 18F-FDG and PET for non-invasive detection of certain tumors. Thus far there have been few studies on (99m) Tcglucarate for tumor imaging and fewer, if any, studies comparing (99m)Tc-glucarate with 18F-FDG. As a preliminary indication of the properties of (99m)Tc-glucarate as a possible substitute for 18F-FDG in animal studies, we have imaged mice bearing xenografts of four tumor types with (99m)Tc-glucarate and have compared in two mice with one of these tumor types the 99mTc and 18F biodistributions.
METHODS: Two mice bearing SUM190 breast cancer xenografts received 1 mCi of (99m)Tc-glucarate and were imaged on a NanoSPECT/CT small animal camera. One day later, the same animals received 1 mCi of 18F-FDG and were imaged on a MosaicHP PET small animal camera. In addition, 0.5-1 mCi of (99m)Tc-glucarate only was administered to mice bearing xenografts induced by BxPC3 pancreatic cancer cells, HEK-293 renal cell carcinomas cells or HCT-116 colorectal tumor cells. NanoSPECT/CT acquisitions were performed in these mice to evaluate tumor accumulations.
RESULTS: In the SUM190 xenografted mice, the average tumor accumulation was 1.4 % (ID%/cm3) for (99m)Tc-glucarate and 2.1 % (ID%/cm3) for 18F-FDG. While slightly higher than (99m)Tc-glucarate, the tumor accumulation of 18F-FDG was accompanied by higher bone marrow and muscle accumulations at levels that could interfere with the tumor image depending upon location. The whole body clearance of (99m)Tc-glucarate was faster than that of 18F-FDG. Tumor accumulation of (99m)Tc-glucarate varied among tumor types but the tumors were readily visible in all images.
CONCLUSION: In a direct comparison in the same two SUM190 tumored animals, SPECT images obtained with (99m)Tcglucarate compared favorably with PET images obtained with 18F-FDG. Tumor images with 99mTc-glucarate were also positive in three additional tumor mouse models. While further comparison studies are necessary, we conclude that (99m)Tcglucarate may be a more convenient and less expensive alternative to 18F-FDG for tumored mouse studies.
Improving the quantitation accuracy in noninvasive small animal single photon emission computed tomography imaging
INTRODUCTION: Noninvasive imaging of small animals to measure biodistributions and pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled agents is increasingly seen as an effective alternative to external counting of tissues obtained by sacrifice and dissection. However, we have observed important disagreements in measuring the accumulation of (111)In-labeled antibodies in organs such as liver and kidneys when comparing imaging to ex vivo counting in the same animals. This study was conducted to establish whether this discrepancy could be minimized by selecting the region of interest (ROI) in images at the appropriate color threshold and by correcting for the estimated radioactivity within the blood pool of these organs during imaging.
METHODS: Vials with known concentrations of (111)In as phantoms were imaged on a Bioscan NanoSPECT/CT. Thereafter, an (111)In-DTPA-IgG antibody as the test agent was administered intravenously to normal rats, and whole body acquisitions were obtained at 2, 24 or 48 h. Immediately following imaging, the animals were sacrificed, the tissues were removed for ex vivo counting and the radioactivity accumulations were then compared.
RESULTS: The phantom measurements showed that accuracy depended upon setting the correct ROI and that, in turn, depended upon setting the appropriate threshold of the color scale. Under the most unfavorable conditions, this error did not exceed 60%. Compared to the results of ex vivo counting, quantitation by imaging provided high values in liver and kidneys at all three time points by as much as 140%. However, by using the blood radioactivity at the time of sacrifice and the known blood volume in these organs, the disagreement was reduced in all cases to below 25%.
CONCLUSION: In this study, the discrepancy in quantitating organ radioactivity accumulations between noninvasive imaging and necropsy was primarily due to blood pool radioactivity contributing to the in vivo images. The discrepancy may be minimized by subtracting an estimate of this contribution.
Comparing two TAG-72 binding peptides previously identified by phage display as potential imaging agents
AIM: To evaluate the targeting property in vitro and in vivo of two tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 (TAG-72) binding peptides, previously identified in this laboratory by phage selection using different elution conditions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The peptides GGVSCMQTSPVCENNL (A2-6) and NPGTCKDKWEICLLNGG (A3-10) were radiolabeled with technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) using N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-S-acetyl-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (NHS-MAG(3)) as a chelator or were biotinylated. The specificity of the two peptides for the TAG-72 positive LS-174T cancer cells was demonstrated in vitro both by flow cytometry analysis using the biotinylated peptides and by competitive binding using the (99m)Tc-labeled peptides. The in-vivo biodistributions of the peptides were evaluated in TAG-72 positive LS-174T tumor-bearing mice by small-animal single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography imaging.
RESULTS: As evidence of specific binding, both peptides showed a significant increase in percentage binding with increasing peptide concentration by flow cytometry analysis to LS-174T cells, but not to TAG-72 negative HT-29 cells. The (99m)Tc-labeled A2-6 peptide bound LS-174T cells with an inhibition constant at 50% of 46.5 nmol/l compared with 420 nmol/l for the A3-10 peptide. In mice, accumulation of both peptides was highest in kidneys and gallbladder. Tumors were clearly visible by single photon emission computed tomography imaging for both (99m)Tc-labeled peptides through 60 min, although the tumor accumulation was higher for the A3-10 peptide.
CONCLUSION: The A3-10 peptide, with lower, yet reasonable binding affinity compared with the A2-6 peptide, showed sufficiently favorable specific binding and tumor accumulation to be considered further as a potential imaging agent for TAG-72 positive cancers.
Comparing the intracellular fate of components within a noncovalent streptavidin nanoparticle with covalent conjugation
INTRODUCTION: Auger radiotherapy requires adequate tumor delivery and high nuclear accumulation and retention. We hypothesize that the noncovalent nature of a streptavidin/biotin three-component nanoparticle possessing these qualities may be required for dissociation of the radiolabeled oligomer and its accumulation into the cell nucleus.
METHODS: As a test of our hypothesis, the intracellular fate of an antisense oligomer when incubated as the nanoparticle and when incubated while covalently conjugated to the antibody was compared. The three-component noncovalent nanoparticle consisted of streptavidin linking three biotinylated components: a Cy3-labeled anti-RIalpha antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino (MORF) oligomer, a tat transfecting peptide and the anti-Her2 herceptin antibody. The covalent constructs included an anti-RIalpha antisense DNA conjugated to a radiolabeled herceptin and a fluorescent DNA conjugated to native herceptin. Fluorescence microscopy in SK-BR-3 (Her2+) cells was used to evaluate the fate of the fluorescent Cy5.5-DNA and Cy3-MORF, while the subcellular accumulation of the (111)In-labeled herceptin and herceptin-DNA in both SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB-231 (Her2) cells was determined by isolating and counting the nuclear fractions.
RESULTS: Previously, we demonstrated that when incubated as the three-component nanoparticle consisting of herceptin and streptavidin and (99m)Tc-labeled antisense MORF, only the MORF accumulated in the nucleus of Her2+ cells. In this investigation, clear evidence was observed of nuclear accumulation of the antisense oligomer within the noncovalent nanoparticle as before, but when incubated as the covalent construct, by both fluorescence microscopy and nuclear counting, no evidence of nuclear accumulation was observed.
CONCLUSION: The weaker noncovalent biotin-streptavidin bond may be essential for adequate delivery of the radiolabeled antisense oligomer to the nucleus of tumor cells.
While (188)Re has been used successfully in mice for tumor radiotherapy by MORF/cMORF pretargeting, previous radiolabeling of the amine-derivatized cMORF with (90)Y, a longer physical half-life nuclide, was not very successful. After developing a method involving a prepurification heating step during conjugation that increases labeling efficiency and label stability, the biodistribution of (90)Y-DOTA-Bn-SCN-cMORF ((90)Y-DOTA-cMORF) was measured in normal mice and in MORF-CC49 pretargeted mice that bear LS174T tumors. Absorbed radiation doses were then estimated and compared to those estimated for (188)Re. The pharmacokinetics of the (90)Y-DOTA-cMORF in normal mice and in the pretargeted nude mice was similar to that observed previously with (99m)Tc- and (188)Re-MAG(3)-cMORFs. While the (90)Y-DOTA-cMORF cleared rapidly from normal tissues, tumor clearance was very slow and tumor radioactivity accumulation was constant for at least 7 days such that the tumor/blood (T/B) ratio increased linearly from 6 to 25 over this period. Therefore, by extrapolation, normal tissue toxicities following administration of therapeutic doses of (90)Y may be comparable to that observed for (188)Re in which the T/B increased from 5 to 20. In conclusion, radiolabeling of DOTA-cMORF with (90)Y was improved by introducing a prepurification heating step during conjugation. The (90)Y-DOTA-cMORF provided a similar T/B ratio and biodistribution to that of (188)Re-MAG(3)-cMORF and was retained well in the tumor pretargeted with MORF-CC49. Because of the longer physical half-life, the T/NT absorbed radiation dose ratios were improved in most organs and especially in blood.
Pretargeting vs. direct targeting of human betalox5 islet cells subcutaneously implanted in mice using an anti-human islet cell antibody
INTRODUCTION: We previously demonstrated MORF/cMORF pretargeting of human islets and betalox 5 cells (a human beta cell line) transplanted subcutaneously in mice with the anti-human islet antibody, HPi1. We now compare pretargeting with direct targeting in the beta cell transplant model to evaluate the degree to which target/non-target (T/NT) ratios may be improved by pretargeting.
METHODS: Specific binding of an anti-human islet antibody HPi1 to the beta cells transplanted subcutaneously in mice was examined against a negative control antibody. We then compared pretargeting by MORF-HPi1 plus 111In-labeled cMORF to direct targeting by 111In-labeled HPi1.
RESULTS: HPi1 binding to betalox5 human cells in the transplant was shown by immunofluorescence. Normal organ 111In backgrounds by pretargeting were always lower, although target accumulations were similar. More importantly, the transplant to pancreas and liver ratios was, respectively, 26 and 10 by pretargeting as compared to 9 and 0.6 by direct targeting.
CONCLUSIONS: Pretargeting greatly improves the T/NT ratios, and based on the estimated endocrine to exocrine ratio within a pancreas, pretargeting may be approaching the sensitivity required for successful imaging of human islets within this organ.
(99m)Tc-MORF oligomers specific for bacterial ribosomal RNA as potential specific infection imaging agents
PURPOSE: Radiolabeled oligomers complementary to the 16S rRNA in bacteria were investigated as bacterial infection imaging agents.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Identical sequences with backbones phosphorodiamidate morpholino (MORF), peptide nucleic acid (PNA), and phosphorothioate DNA (PS-DNA) were (99m)Tc-labeled and evaluated for binding to bacterial RNA. MORF binding to RNA from Escherichia coli strains SM101 and K12 was 4- and 150-fold higher compared to PNA and PS-DNA, respectively. Subsequently MORF oligomer in fluorescence in situ hybridization showed a stronger signal with study MORF compared to control in fixed preparations of two E. coli strains and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Flow cytometry analysis showed study MORF accumulation to be 8- and 80-fold higher compared to the control in live K. pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Further, fluorescence microscopy showed increased accumulation of study MORF over control in live E. coli and K. pneumonia. Binding of (99m)Tc-study MORF to RNA from E. coli SM101 and K12 was 30.4 and 117.8pmol, respectively, per 10(10) cells. Mice with K. pneumoniae live or heat-killed (sterile inflammation) in one thigh at 90min for both (99m)Tc-study MORF and control showed higher accumulation in target thighs than in blood and all other organs expect for kidneys and small intestine. Accumulation of (99m)Tc-study MORF was significantly higher (p = 0.009) than that of the control in the thigh with sterile inflammation.
CONCLUSION: A (99m)Tc-MORF oligomer complimentary to the bacterial 16S rRNA demonstrated binding to bacterial RNA in vitro with specific accumulation into live bacteria. Radiolabeled MORF oligomers antisense to the bacterial rRNA may be useful to image bacterial infection.
Differentiation between temporary and real non-clearability of biotinylated IgG antibody by avidin in mice
Although an increasing number of antibody conjugates are being used in the clinic, there remain many unmet needs in antibody targeting. Normal tissue background is one of the key issues that limits the therapeutic efficacy and the detection sensitivity. Background reduction coupled with dose increase may provide the required target accumulation of the label or toxin at an acceptable normal tissue background. However, the knowledge about the in vivo interaction between antibody and a clearing agent is currently inadequate for designing a rational clearance regimen or system. The current investigation focuses on the clearability of antibody for background reduction, an important topic to antibody targeting in general. The investigation employs pretargeting as a research tool and avidin as a model clearing agent. By comparing the effects of natural clearance at a longer post-injection time and avidin clearance, we demonstrated that avidin clearance is much more effective. By directly attaching avidin to a biotinylated antibody prior to injection, we found that the biotinylated antibody in blood, once bound to the clearing agent, can be removed from the circulation immediately and completely, while the real non-clearable antibody without biotin stays. The study of multiple avidin injections confirmed that the presence of clearable biotinylated antibodies after an avidin injection is due to their temporary inaccessibility and subsequent return from tissue compartments. The collective clearance efficiency of 91% by three avidin injections indicates a continuous IV infusion would be recommended to remove all of the biotinylated IgG molecules. In conclusion, the use of antibody pretargeting as a tool in this study has improved understanding of the incomplete clearance by avidin and can aid in overcoming this obstacle.
Modality-specific occult intrarenal pseudoaneurysm in a renal allograft and the legacy of catheter angiography
A 69-year-old man with history of end-stage-renal disease (ESRD) underwent successful kidney transplantation from a cadaveric donor in November 2011. However, posttransplant recovery was complicated by delayed graft function and recurrent gross hematuria. Serial Doppler ultrasound (US) of the renal allograft demonstrated a pseudoaneurysm with interval increase in size. However, it could not be visualized with other modalities, including an initial angiogram (postoperative day 49) and a second angiogram (postoperative day 68), followed by surgical exploration (postoperative day 71), which demonstrated complete intra-aneurysmal thrombosis on intraoperative Doppler US. Unfortunately, the patient's hematuria continued and a repeat Doppler US 48 hours later demonstrated a persistent pseudoaneurysm. Therefore, on postoperative day 75, we performed targeted percutaneous intra-aneurysmal thrombin injection under dual image guidance, which showed complete intra-aneurysmal thrombosis on intraprocedural Doppler US. Hematuria recurred the next day. A third angiogram (postoperative day 77) finally illuminated the hidden pseudoaneurysm occult on the first and second angiographic studies (sensitivity [index case] 33%) and surgery. This allowed for successful coil embolization of a subsegmental feeding branch with an excellent outcome. We support a more aggressive management with serial angiography and embolization of the intrarenal symptomatic pseudoaneurysm rather than surgery in renal allograft recipients, with the benefits outweighing the risks.
Increased Risk for Vitamin D Deficiency in Obese Children with Both Celiac Disease and Type 1 Diabetes
Background. It is unknown whether the coexistence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD) increases the risk for vitamin D deficiency.
Aims. To determine the vitamin D status and the risk for vitamin D deficiency in prepubertal children with both T1D and CD compared to controls, TID, and CD.
Subjects and Methods. Characteristics of 62 prepubertal children of age 2–13 y with either CD + T1D (
Full-length HIV-1 RNA plays a central role in viral replication by serving as the mRNA for essential viral proteins and as the genome packaged into infectious virions. Proper RNA trafficking is required for the functions of RNA and its encoded proteins; however, the mechanism by which HIV-1 RNA is transported within the cytoplasm remains undefined. Full-length HIV-1 RNA transport is further complicated when group-specific antigen (Gag) protein is expressed, because a significant portion of HIV-1 RNA may be transported as Gag-RNA complexes, whose properties could differ greatly from Gag-free RNA. In this report, we visualized HIV-1 RNA and monitored its movement in the cytoplasm by using single-molecule tracking. We observed that most of the HIV-1 RNA molecules move in a nondirectional, random-walk manner, which does not require an intact cytoskeletal structure, and that the mean-squared distance traveled by the RNA increases linearly with time, indicative of diffusive movement. We also observed that a single HIV-1 RNA molecule can move at various speeds when traveling through the cytoplasm, indicating that its movement is strongly affected by the immediate environment. To examine the effect of Gag protein on HIV-1 RNA transport, we analyzed the cytoplasmic HIV-1 RNA movement in the presence of sufficient Gag for virion assembly and found that HIV-1 RNA is still transported by diffusion with mobility similar to the mobility of RNAs unable to express functional Gag. These studies define a major mechanism of HIV-1 gene expression and resolve the long-standing question of how the RNA genome is transported to the assembly site.