Adult psychopathic offenders show an increased propensity towards violence, impulsivity, and recidivism. A subsample of youth with elevated psychopathic traits represent a particularly severe subgroup characterized by extreme behavioral problems and comparable neurocognitive deficits as their adult counterparts, including perseveration deficits. Here, we investigate response-locked event-related potential (ERP) components (the error-related negativity [ERN/Ne] related to early error-monitoring processing and the error-related positivity [Pe] involved in later error-related processing) in a sample of incarcerated juvenile male offenders (n=100) who performed a response inhibition Go/NoGo task. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV). The ERN/Ne and Pe were analyzed with classic windowed ERP components and principal component analysis (PCA). Using linear regression analyses, PCL:YV scores were unrelated to the ERN/Ne, but were negatively related to Pe mean amplitude. Specifically, the PCL:YV Facet 4 subscale reflecting antisocial traits emerged as a significant predictor of reduced amplitude of a subcomponent underlying the Pe identified with PCA. This is the first evidence to suggest a negative relationship between adolescent psychopathy scores and Pe mean amplitude.
BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are increasingly in demand for outcomes evaluation by hospitals, administrators, and policymakers. However, assessing total hip arthroplasty (THA) through such instruments is challenging because most existing measures of hip health are lengthy and/or proprietary.
QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The objective of this study was to derive a patient-relevant short-form survey based on the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), focusing specifically on outcomes after THA.
METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated patients with hip osteoarthritis who underwent primary unilateral THA and who had completed preoperative and 2-year postoperative PROMs using our hospital's hip replacement registry. The 2-year followup in this population was 81% (4308 of 5351 patients). Of these, 2371 completed every item on the HOOS before surgery and at 2 years, making them eligible for the formal item reduction analysis. Through semistructured interviews with 30 patients, we identified items in the HOOS deemed qualitatively most important to patients with hip osteoarthritis. The original HOOS has 40 items, the four quality-of-life items were excluded a priori, five were excluded for being redundant, and one was excluded based on patient-relevance surveys. The remaining 30 items were evaluated using Rasch modeling to yield a final six-item HOOS, Joint Replacement (HOOS, JR), representing a single construct of "hip health." We calculated HOOS, JR scores for the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) cohort and validated this new score for internal consistency, external validity (versus HOOS and WOMAC domains), responsiveness to THA, and floor and ceiling effects. Additional external validation was performed using calculated HOOS, JR scores in collaboration with the Function and Outcomes Research for Comparative Effectiveness in Total Joint Replacement (FORCE-TJR) nationally representative joint replacement registry (n = 910).
RESULTS: The resulting six-item PROM (HOOS, JR) retained items only from the pain and activities of daily living domains. It showed high internal consistency (Person Separation Index, 0.86 [HSS]; 0.87 [FORCE]), moderate to excellent external validity against other hip surveys (Spearman's correlation coefficient, 0.60-0.94), very high responsiveness (standardized response means, 2.03 [95% CI, 1.84-2.22] [FORCE]; and 2.38 [95% CI, 2.27-2.49] [HSS]), and favorable floor (0.6%-1.9%) and ceiling (37%-46%) effects. External validity was highest for the HOOS pain (Spearman's correlation coefficient, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.86-0.89] [HSS]; and 0.87 [95% CI, 0.84-0.90] [FORCE]) and HOOS activities of daily living (Spearman's correlation coefficient, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.93-0.95] [HSS]; and 0.94 [95% CI, 0.93-0.96] [FORCE]) domains in the HSS validation cohort and the FORCE-TJR cohort.
CONCLUSIONS: The HOOS, JR provides a valid, reliable, and responsive measure of hip health for patients undergoing THA. This short-form PROM is patient relevant and efficient.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, diagnostic study.
BACKGROUND: Medicare is rapidly moving toward using patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for outcomes assessment and justification of orthopaedic and other procedures. Numerous measures have been developed to study knee osteoarthritis (OA); however, many of these surveys are long, disruptive to clinic flow, and result in incomplete data capture and/or low followup rates. The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome (KOOS) physical function short-form (KOOS-PS), while shorter, ignores pain, which is a primary concern of patients with advanced knee OA.
QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Our objective was to derive and validate a short-form survey focused on the patient with end-stage knee OA undergoing TKA.
METHODS: Using our hospital's knee replacement registry, we retrospectively identified 2291 patients with knee OA who underwent primary unilateral TKA and had completed preoperative and 2-year postoperative PROMs. We assessed 30 items from the 42-item KOOS that were quantitatively most difficult for patients to perform before TKA and qualitatively most relevant to patients with end-stage knee OA. Rasch analysis identified the KOOS, JR, a seven-item instrument, representing a single dimension, which we define as "knee health" because it reflects aspects of pain, symptom severity, and activities of daily living (ADL) including movements or activities that are directly relevant and difficult for patients with advanced knee OA. We assessed the internal consistency, external validity (versus KOOS and WOMAC domains), responsiveness, and floor and ceiling effects of the KOOS, JR. External validation was performed using calculated KOOS, JR scores in collaboration with a nationally representative joint replacement registry, the Function and Outcomes Research for Comparative Effectiveness in Total Joint Replacement (FORCE-TJR).
RESULTS: Internal consistency for the KOOS, JR was high (Person Separation Index, 0.84; and 0.85 [FORCE]), external validity against other validated knee surveys was excellent (Spearman correlation coefficient, rho 0.54-0.91), particularly for the KOOS pain (rho 0.89 [95% CI, 0.88-0.91] Hospital for Special Surgery [HSS]; and 0.91 [95% CI, 0.90-0.93] [FORCE]) and KOOS ADL (rho 0.87 [95% CI, 0.85-0.88] [HSS]; and 0.84 [95% CI, 0.81-0.87] [FORCE]). The KOOS, JR responsiveness (standardized response means, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.70-1.88] [HSS]; and 1.70 [95% CI, 1.54-1.86] [FORCE]) was high and floor 0.4-1.2%) and ceiling (18.8-21.8%) effects were favorable.
CONCLUSIONS: The new short knee PROM, the KOOS, JR, provides a single score representing "knee health" as it combines pain, symptoms, and functional limitations in a single score. This short-form PROM is patient-relevant and efficient.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, diagnostic study.
High Prevalence and Heterogeneity of Diabetes in Patients With TB in South India: A Report from the Effects of Diabetes on Tuberculosis Severity (EDOTS) Study
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported an association of diabetes mellitus (DM) with TB susceptibility. Many studies were retrospective, had weak diagnostic criteria for DM, and did not assess other comorbidities. The Effects of Diabetes on Tuberculosis Severity (EDOTS) study is addressing these limitations with a longitudinal comparison of patients with TB who are classified as diabetic or normoglycemic according to World Health Organization criteria. We report interim findings after enrolling 159 of a planned 300 subjects.
METHODS: A cohort study of patients with TB in South India with DM or normoglycemia defined by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and fasting glucose. Glycohemoglobin (HbA1c), serum creatinine, lipids, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured at enrollment. Patients were monitored monthly during TB treatment, and HbA1c measurement was repeated after 3 months.
RESULTS: Of 209 eligible patients, 113 (54.1%) were classified as diabetic, 44 (21.0%) with impaired glucose tolerance, and 52 (24.9%) as normoglycemic. More patients with diabetes were detected by OGTT than by HbA1c. Diabetes was a newly received diagnosis for 37 (32.7%) in the DM group, and their median HbA1c (6.8%) was significantly lower than in those with previously diagnosed DM (HbA1c, 10.4%). Among 129 patients monitored for 3 months, HbA1c declined in all groups, with the greatest difference in patients with a newly received diagnosis of DM.
CONCLUSIONS: Early EDOTS study results reveal a strikingly high prevalence of glycemic disorders in South Indian patients with pulmonary TB and unexpected heterogeneity within the patient population with diabetes and TB. This glycemic control heterogeneity has implications for the TB-DM interaction and the interpretation of TB studies relying exclusively on HbA1c to define diabetic status.
Impact of residential UV exposure in childhood versus adulthood on skin cancer risk in Caucasian, postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative
BACKGROUND: Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer; however, the relative contribution of ultraviolet (UV) exposure during childhood versus adulthood on skin cancer risk remains unclear.
OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to determine the impact of residential UV, measured by AVerage daily total GLObal solar radiation (AVGLO), exposure during childhood (birth, 15 years) versus adulthood (35, 50 years, and present) on incident non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and malignant melanoma (MM) in postmenopausal women.
METHODS: Women were followed with yearly surveys throughout the duration of their participation in the Women's Health Initiative Observational study, a multicenter study from 1993 to 2005. A total of 56,557 women had data on all observations and were included in the baseline characteristics. The main exposure, residential UV (as measured by AVGLO), was measured by geographic residence during childhood and adulthood. Outcome was risk of incident NMSC and MM.
RESULTS: Over 11.9 years (median follow-up), there were 9,195 (16.3 %) cases of NMSC and 518 (0.92 %) cases of MM. Compared with the reference group (women with low childhood and low adulthood UV), women with low childhood and high adulthood UV had a 21 % increased risk of NMSC (odds ratio 1.21, 95 % confidence interval 1.12, 1.31). Women with high childhood and high adulthood UV had a 19 % increased risk of NMSC (odds ratio 1.19, 95 % confidence interval 1.11, 1.27). Surprisingly, women with high childhood UV and low adulthood UV did not have a significant increase in NMSC risk compared with the reference group (odds ratio 1.08, 95 % confidence interval 0.91, 1.28) in multivariable models. Residential UV exposure in childhood or adulthood was not associated with increased melanoma risk.
CONCLUSION: This study reveals an increase in NMSC risk associated with adulthood residential UV exposure, with no effect for childhood UV exposure.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of meditative interventions for informal caregivers and health professionals
BACKGROUND: Burnout, stress and anxiety have been identified as areas of concern for informal caregivers and health professionals, particularly in the palliative setting. Meditative interventions are gaining acceptance as tools to improve well-being in a variety of clinical contexts, however, their effectiveness as an intervention for caregivers remains unknown.
AIM: To explore the effect of meditative interventions on physical and emotional markers of well-being as well as job satisfaction and burnout among informal caregivers and health professionals.
DESIGN: Systematic review of randomised clinical trials and pre-post intervention studies with meditative interventions for caregivers.
DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched up to November 2013. Of 1561 abstracts returned, 68 studies were examined in full text with 27 eligible for systematic review.
RESULTS: Controlled trials of informal caregivers showed statistically significant improvement in depression (effect size 0.49 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.75)), anxiety (effect size 0.53 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.99)), stress (effect size 0.49 (95% CI 0.21 to 0.77)) and self-efficacy (effect size 0.86 (95% CI 0.5 to 1.23)), at an average of 8 weeks following intervention initiation. Controlled trials of health professionals showed improved emotional exhaustion (effect size 0.37 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.70)), personal accomplishment (effect size 1.18 (95% CI 0.10 to 2.25)) and life satisfaction (effect size 0.48 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.81)) at an average of 8 weeks following intervention initiation.
CONCLUSIONS: Meditation provides a small to moderate benefit for informal caregivers and health professionals for stress reduction, but more research is required to establish effects on burnout and caregiver burden.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate African American-White differences in medical debt among older adults and the extent to which economic and health factors explained these.
METHODS: We used nationally representative data from the 2007 and 2010 US Health Tracking Household Survey (n = 5838) and computed population-based estimates of medical debt attributable to economic and health factors with adjustment for age, gender, marital status, and education.
RESULTS: African Americans had 2.6 times higher odds of medical debt (odds ratio = 2.62; 95% confidence interval = 1.85, 3.72) than did Whites. Health status explained 22.8% of the observed disparity, and income and insurance explained 19.4%. These factors combined explained 42.4% of the observed disparity. In addition, African Americans were more likely to be contacted by a collection agency and to borrow money because of medical debt, whereas Whites were more likely to use savings.
CONCLUSIONS: African Americans incur substantial medical debt compared with Whites, and more than 40% of this is mediated by health status, income, and insurance disparities. Public health implications. In Medicare, low-income beneficiaries, especially low-income African Americans with poor health status, should be protected from the unintended financial consequences of cost-reduction strategies.
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). Arginine derivatives including asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are central to nitric oxide metabolism and nitrosative stress. Whether blood concentrations of arginine derivatives are related to incidence of AF is uncertain.
METHODS AND RESULTS: In 3,310 individuals (mean age 58 +/- 10 years, 54% women) from the community-based Framingham Study, we prospectively examined the relations of circulating levels of ADMA, l-arginine, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and the ratio of l-arginine/ADMA to incidence of AF using proportional hazards regression models. Over a median follow-up time of 10 years, 247 AF cases occurred. Using age- and sex-adjusted regression models, ADMA was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.15 per 1-SD increase in loge-biomarker concentration (95% CI 1.02-1.29, P = .02) for AF, which was no longer significant after further risk factor adjustment (hazard ratio 1.09, 95% CI 0.97-1.23, P = .15). Neither l-arginine nor SDMA was related to new-onset AF. A clinical model comprising clinical risk factors for AF (for age, sex, height, weight, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, current smoking, diabetes, hypertension treatment, myocardial infarction, and heart failure; c statistic = 0.781; 95% CI 0.753-0.808) was not improved by the addition of ADMA (0.782; 95% CI 0.755-0.809).
CONCLUSIONS: Asymmetric dimethylarginine and related arginine derivatives were not associated with incident AF in the community after accounting for other clinical risk factors and confounders. Its role in the pathogenesis of AF needs further refinement.
OBJECTIVE: Despite the increased recognition of the importance of work for social and psychological well-being, the meaning of work for young adults with serious mental health conditions is understudied. This study uses a participatory action research approach to explore the economic, social and psychological significance of work for young adults diagnosed with psychiatric disabilities.
METHOD: We conducted 57 one-hour semistructured interviews with young adults between the ages of 18 to 30 enrolled in 3 well established vocational support programs. NVivo 8 software was used to sort and systematically organize the interview data. RESULTS: Young adults with psychiatric disabilities work in part for financial independence from their family but also for additional reasons. Work provides the opportunity for social engagement and feelings of contributing to society as a whole. For some young adults, work provides the opportunity to enhance their self-esteem, self-confidence, and a positive self-image. For Latino young adults, work provides a way to cope with their mental illness.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Our findings provide pertinent information for vocational rehabilitation services, recovery programs, and even parents on the importance of connecting young adults to jobs that enhance self-esteem and self-efficacy and are in line with their personal interests. Future research is needed to understand potential cultural and age differences in the meaning of work.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome who screen as high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) lose less weight as part of a weight loss intervention than those who screen as low risk.
METHOD: We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized trial comparing 2 weight loss interventions consisting of dietary counseling for adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Participants were screened for sleep apnea using a validated screening questionnaire. Percent weight loss was calculated from weight measured at baseline and intervention end (12 months). Weight loss of 5% or greater was considered clinically significant. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models estimated the association between OSA screening status (high vs. low risk) and percent weight loss and clinically significant weight loss, adjusting for relevant covariates including body mass index and sleep duration.
RESULTS: Nearly half of participants (45.8%) screened as high risk for OSA. Participants who screened as high risk for OSA lost less weight (1.2% +/- 4.2% vs. 4.2% +/- 5.3%) and were less likely to lose 5% or greater (24.4% vs. 75.6%) than participants without OSA.
CONCLUSION: Among adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome, those at high risk for OSA lost less weight in response to a dietary counseling intervention than adults with low risk of OSA. Routine OSA screening should be considered as part of weight loss treatment programs. Additional research is needed to determine how to tailor weight loss treatment for those with high risk for OSA. (PsycINFO Database Record
Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression. Although lincRNAs are expressed in immune cells, their functions in immunity are largely unexplored. Here, we identify an immunoregulatory lincRNA, lincRNA-EPS, that is precisely regulated in macrophages to control the expression of immune response genes (IRGs). Transcriptome analysis of macrophages from lincRNA-EPS-deficient mice, combined with gain-of-function and rescue experiments, revealed a specific role for this lincRNA in restraining IRG expression. Consistently, lincRNA-EPS-deficient mice manifest enhanced inflammation and lethality following endotoxin challenge in vivo. lincRNA-EPS localizes at regulatory regions of IRGs to control nucleosome positioning and repress transcription. Further, lincRNA-EPS mediates these effects by interacting with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L via a CANACA motif located in its 3' end. Together, these findings identify lincRNA-EPS as a repressor of inflammatory responses, highlighting the importance of lincRNAs in the immune system.
Relation of longitudinal changes in body mass index with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk scores in middle-aged black and white adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study
PURPOSE: We assessed whether longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI) are positively associated with changes in 10-year American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk scores in middle-aged blacks compared to whites.
METHODS: Data were from 1691 participants enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study aged 40 years or more in 2000-2001, who had follow-up examinations 5 and 10 years later.
RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity increased from 32.3% in 2000-2001 (mean age: 42.8 years) to 41.7% in 2010-2011, higher in blacks than whites. The corresponding change in 10-year ASCVD risk was significantly higher for blacks (men: 4.5%-9.6%, women: 1.7%-5.0%) than whites (men: 2.4%-5.2%, women: 0.7%-1.6%). In 2010-2011, 57.5% of black men had ASCVD risk scores of 7.5% or more compared to white men (14.7%), black women (17.4%), and white women (1.6%). Although BMI trends were positively associated with 10-year change in ASCVD risk scores (0.07% per 1 kg/m(2) increase), it explained very little variance in risk score trends in all race-sex groups.
CONCLUSIONS: In middle-aged adults, longitudinal changes in BMI had little independent influence on changes in 10-year ASCVD risk scores as its effect may be largely mediated through ASCVD risk factors already accounted for in the risk score.
Evaluating the effectiveness of a patient storytelling DVD intervention to encourage physician-patient communication about nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally-sensitive, patient storytelling intervention to enhance physician-patient communication about NSAID risk.
METHODS: A group randomized trial of 40 medical practices in Alabama was conducted. Patients within intervention practices received a 13-minute DVD that included patient stories related to their experiences with NSAIDs, adverse effects, and importance of communication with their physicians. The proportion of patients who: (1) spoke with their physician about NSAID risk; and (2) used both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) NSAIDS were primary outcomes. Generalized estimating equations for panel data were used for analysis.
RESULTS: Intention-to-treat analyses revealed no significant differences between intervention (n=102) and control (n=106) groups for patients speaking with their physician about NSAID risk or concomitant use of prescription/OTC NSAIDs (Odds Ratio [OR]=1.11, p=0.670; OR=0.87, p=0.632, respectively). For 54% of patients who watched the DVD, per-protocol (PP) analyses trended toward increased odds of patients speaking with their physician about prescription NSAID risk compared to the control group [OR=1.37, p=0.354] and lower odds of concomitant prescription/OTC NSAIDs use [OR=0.79, p=0.486].
CONCLUSIONS: A patient storytelling intervention in DVD format alone may not increase patient-physician interaction.
PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Strategies that facilitate use of patient educational materials delivered by DVD are needed.
INTRODUCTION: Opioid analgesic use is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the US, yet effective treatment programs have a limited ability to detect relapse. The utility of current drug detection methods is often restricted due to their retrospective and subjective nature. Wearable biosensors have the potential to improve detection of relapse by providing objective, real time physiologic data on opioid use that can be used by treating clinicians to augment behavioral interventions.
METHODS: Thirty emergency department (ED) patients who were prescribed intravenous opioid medication for acute pain were recruited to wear a wristband biosensor. The biosensor measured electrodermal activity, skin temperature and locomotion data, which was recorded before and after intravenous opioid administration. Hilbert transform analyses combined with paired t-tests were used to compare the biosensor data A) within subjects, before and after administration of opioids; B) between subjects, based on hand dominance, gender, and opioid use history.
RESULTS: Within subjects, a significant decrease in locomotion and increase in skin temperature were consistently detected by the biosensors after opioid administration. A significant change in electrodermal activity was not consistently detected. Between subjects, biometric changes varied with level of opioid use history (heavy vs. nonheavy users), but did not vary with gender or type of opioid. Specifically, heavy users demonstrated a greater decrease in short amplitude movements (i.e. fidgeting movements) compared to non-heavy users.
CONCLUSION: A wearable biosensor showed a consistent physiologic pattern after ED opioid administration and differences between patterns of heavy and non-heavy opioid users were noted. Potential applications of biosensors to drug addiction treatment and pain management should be studied further.
Recognizing and understanding the potentially powerful roles that religiousness and spirituality (RS) may serve in the prevention and amelioration of disease, as well as symptom management and health related quality of life, significantly enhances research and clinical efforts across many areas of behavioral medicine. This article examines the knowledge established to date and suggests advances that remain to be made. We begin with a brief summary of the current knowledge regarding RS as related to three exemplary health conditions: (a) cardiovascular disease; (b) cancer; and, (c) substance abuse. We then focus on particular concerns for future investigations, emphasizing conceptual issues, possible mediators and moderators of relationships or effects, and methodology. Our discussion is framed by a conceptual model that may serve to guide and organize future investigations. This model highlights a number of important issues regarding the study of links between RS and health: (a) RS comprise many diverse constructs, (b) the mechanisms through which RS may influence health outcomes are quite diverse, and (c) a range of different types of health and health relevant outcomes may be influenced by RS. The multidimensional nature of RS and the complexity of related associations with different types of health relevant outcomes present formidable challenges to empirical study in behavioral medicine. These issues are referred to throughout our review and we suggest several solutions to the presented challenges in our summary. We end with a presentation of barriers to be overcome, along with strategies for doing so, and concluding thoughts.
Index of cardiometabolic health: a new method of measuring allostatic load using electronic health records
OBJECTIVE: We developed a measure of allostatic load from electronic medical records (EMRs), which we named "Index of Cardiometabolic Health" (ICMH).
METHODS: Data were collected from participants' EMRs and a written survey in 2005. We computed allostatic load scores using the ICMH score and two previously described approaches.
RESULTS: We included 1865 employed adults who were 25-59 years old. Although the magnitude of the association was small, all methods of were predictive of SF-12 physical component subscales (all p < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: We found that the ICMH had similar relationships with health-related quality of life as previously reported in the literature.
BACKGROUND: Personal health records (PHRs) have the potential to improve patient self-management for chronic conditions such as diabetes. However, evidence is mixed as to whether there is an association between PHR use and improved health outcomes.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between sustained use of specific patient portal features (Web-based prescription refill and secure messaging-SM) and physiological measures important for the management of type 2 diabetes.
METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort design, including Veterans with diabetes registered for the My Health e Vet patient portal who had not yet used the Web-based refill or SM features and who had at least one physiological measure (HbA1c, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, blood pressure) in 2009-2010 (baseline) that was above guideline recommendations (N=111,686), we assessed portal use between 2010 and 2014. We calculated the odds of achieving control of each measure by 2013 to 2014 (follow-up) by years of using each portal feature, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics associated with portal use.
RESULTS: By 2013 to 2014, 34.13% (38,113/111,686) of the cohort was using Web-based refills, and 15.75% (17,592/111,686) of the cohort was using SM. Users were slightly younger (P < .001), less likely to be eligible for free care based on economic means (P < .001), and more likely to be women (P < .001). In models adjusting for both features, patients with uncontrolled HbA1c at baseline who used SM were significantly more likely than nonusers to achieve glycemic control by follow-up if they used SM for 2 years (odds ratio-OR=1.24, CI: 1.14-1.34) or 3 or more years (OR=1.28, CI: 1.12-1.45). However, there was no significant association between Web-based refill use and glycemic control. Those with uncontrolled blood pressure at baseline who used Web-based refills were significantly more likely than nonusers to achieve control at follow-up with 2 (OR=1.07, CI: 1.01-1.13) or 3 (OR=1.08, CI: 1.02-1.14) more years of Web-based refill use. Both features were significantly associated with improvements in LDL cholesterol levels at follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS: Although rates of use of the refill function were higher within the population, sustained SM use had a greater impact on HbA1c. Evaluations of patient portals should consider that individual components may have differential effects on health improvements.
Social media use and indoor tanning among a national sample of young adult nonHispanic white women: A cross-sectional study
To the Editor: Online social media sites are increasingly used in public health efforts 1 and may represent a valuable avenue to target messages discouraging use of indoor tanning (IT) beds to young women, a group with high levels of engagement in social media and the highest rates of IT.2 This study aimed to examine the association between use of social media sites and IT behavior.
OBJECTIVE: Over the years studies have shown conflicting results about the risk of suicide in psychotic depression (MD-psych). To understand this association, we undertook a comprehensive review of the literature to ascertain whether individuals with MD-psych have higher rates of completed suicides, suicide attempts or suicidal ideation compared to those with non-psychotic depression (MD-nonpsych).
METHODS: We searched Pubmed, PsycINFO and Ovid in English language, from 1946-October 2015. Studies were included if suicidal ideation, attempts or completed suicides were assessed.
RESULTS: During the acute episode of depression, patients with MD-psych have higher rates of suicide, suicide attempts, and suicidal ideation than patients with MD-nonpsych, especially when the patient is hospitalized on an inpatient psychiatric unit. Studies done after the acute episode has resolved are less likely to show this difference, likely due to patients having received treatment.
LIMITATIONS: Diagnostic interviews were not conducted in all studies. Many studies did not report whether psychotic symptoms in MD-psych patients were mood-congruent or mood-incongruent; hence it is unclear whether the type of delusion increases suicide risk. Studies did not describe whether MD-psych patients experienced command hallucinations encouraging them to engage in suicidal behavior. Only 24 studies met inclusion criteria; several of them had small sample size and a quality score of zero, hence impacting validity.
CONCLUSIONS: This review indicates that the seemingly conflicting data in suicide risk between MD-psych and MD-nonpsych in previous studies appears to be related to whether one looks at differences during the acute episode or over the long-term.
A Prospective Evaluation of the Effects of Prevalent Depressive Symptoms on Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated With Biologic Response Modifiers
PURPOSE: Depressive symptoms are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and may affect disease activity and treatment outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine if prevalent depressive symptoms modify biologic treatment response through their effect on RA disease activity.
METHODS: RA patients with depressive symptoms, initiating biologic treatment, were identified from a US RA registry sample. Patients with depression were compared with control subjects (ie, those patients with no reports of depressive symptoms at, or before, initiating therapy) in terms of clinical disease activity index (CDAI) remission and low disease activity (LDA), and the changes in the component measures that comprise this scale at 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Inverse probability weighting was used to account for differences in baseline disease severity, concomitant treatment characteristics, and other possible confounders. Logistic and linear regression models estimated differences in response rates and changes in component disease activity measures.
FINDINGS: Depressive symptoms were associated with a decreased likelihood of CDAI remission at 6 months (odds ratio, 0.43 [95% CI, 0.19-0.96]) but not at 12 months (odds ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.43-1.60]), and there was no effect on CDAI LDA. Adjusted core component measurement changes showed smaller decreases in global assessment ratings in patients with depressive symptoms; these associations were not statistically significant.
IMPLICATIONS: Poorer treatment outcomes among RA patients with depressive symptoms may be a result of higher baseline disease severity. Adjusted estimates indicated symptoms of depression only affected remission at 6 months' follow-up through patient and physician global assessments. Thus, any impact of depressive symptoms during biologic treatment might not be due to a definitive impact on joint swelling and tenderness.