At a fundamental level, taxonomy of behavior and behavioral tendencies can be described in terms of approach, avoid, or equivocate (i.e., neither approach nor avoid). While there are numerous theories of personality, temperament, and character, few seem to take advantage of parsimonious taxonomy. The present study sought to implement this taxonomy by creating a questionnaire based on a categorization of behavioral temperaments/tendencies first identified in Buddhist accounts over fifteen hundred years ago. Items were developed using historical and contemporary texts of the behavioral temperaments, described as "Greedy/Faithful", "Aversive/Discerning", and "Deluded/Speculative". To both maintain this categorical typology and benefit from the advantageous properties of forced-choice response format (e.g., reduction of response biases), binary pairwise preferences for items were modeled using Latent Class Analysis (LCA). One sample (n1 = 394) was used to estimate the item parameters, and the second sample (n2 = 504) was used to classify the participants using the established parameters and cross-validate the classification against multiple other measures. The cross-validated measure exhibited good nomothetic span (construct-consistent relationships with related measures) that seemed to corroborate the ideas present in the original Buddhist source documents. The final 13-block questionnaire created from the best performing items (the Behavioral Tendencies Questionnaire or BTQ) is a psychometrically valid questionnaire that is historically consistent, based in behavioral tendencies, and promises practical and clinical utility particularly in settings that teach and study meditation practices such as Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR).
Diagnostic Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mouse Model Using Macrophage-Targeted Gadolinium-Containing Synthetic Lipopeptide Nanoparticles
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Western cultures. The vast majority of cardiovascular events, including stroke and myocardial infarction, result from the rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, which are characterized by high and active macrophage content. Current imaging modalities including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) aim to characterize anatomic and structural features of plaques rather than their content. Previously, we reported that macrophage-targeted delivery of gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent (GBCA-HDL) using high density lipoproteins (HDL)-like particles significantly enhances the detection of plaques in an apolipoprotein (apo) E knockout (KO) mouse model, with an atherosclerotic wall/muscle normalized enhancement ratio (NER) of 120% achieved. These particles are comprised of lipids and synthetic peptide fragments of the major protein of HDL, apo A-I, that contain a naturally occurring modification which targets the particles to macrophages. Targeted delivery minimizes the Gd dose and thus reduces the adverse effects of Gd. The aims of the current study were to test whether varying the GBCA-HDL particle shape and composition can further enhance atherosclerotic plaque MRI and control organ clearance of these agents. We show that the optimized GBCA-HDL particles are efficiently delivered intracellularly to and uptaken by both J774 macrophages in vitro and more importantly, by intraplaque macrophages in vivo, as evidenced by NER up to 160% and higher. This suggests high diagnostic power of our GBCA-HDL particles in the detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. Further, in contrast to discoidal, spherical GBCA-HDL exhibit hepatic clearance, which could further diminish adverse renal effects of Gd. Finally, activated macrophages are reliable indicators of any inflamed tissues and are implicated in other areas of unmet clinical need such as rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis and cancer, suggesting the expanded diagnostic and prognostic use of this method.
A Simple Proteomics-Based Approach to Identification of Immunodominant Antigens from a Complex Pathogen: Application to the CD4 T Cell Response against Human Herpesvirus 6B
Most of humanity is chronically infected with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), with viral replication controlled at least in part by a poorly characterized CD4 T cell response. Identification of viral epitopes recognized by CD4 T cells is complicated by the large size of the herpesvirus genome and a low frequency of circulating T cells responding to the virus. Here, we present an alternative to classical epitope mapping approaches used to identify major targets of the T cell response to a complex pathogen like HHV-6B. In the approach presented here, extracellular virus preparations or virus-infected cells are fractionated by SDS-PAGE, and eluted fractions are used as source of antigens to study cytokine responses in direct ex vivo T cell activation studies. Fractions inducing significant cytokine responses are analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify viral proteins, and a subset of peptides from these proteins corresponding to predicted HLA-DR binders is tested for IFN-gamma production in seropositive donors with diverse HLA haplotypes. Ten HHV-6B viral proteins were identified as immunodominant antigens. The epitope-specific response to HHV-6B virus was complex and variable between individuals. We identified 107 peptides, each recognized by at least one donor, with each donor having a distinctive footprint. Fourteen peptides showed responses in the majority of donors. Responses to these epitopes were validated using in vitro expanded cells and naturally expressed viral proteins. Predicted peptide binding affinities for the eight HLA-DRB1 alleles investigated here correlated only modestly with the observed CD4 T cell responses. Overall, the response to the virus was dominated by peptides from the major capsid protein U57 and major antigenic protein U11, but responses to other proteins including glycoprotein H (U48) and tegument proteins U54 and U14 also were observed. These results provide a means to follow and potentially modulate the CD4 T-cell immune response to HHV-6B.
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder resulting from expansion of CAG repeats in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Previous studies have shown mutant HTT can alter expression of genes associated with dysregulated epigenetic modifications. One of the most widely studied chromatin modifications is trimethylated lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me3). Here, we conducted the first comprehensive study of H3K4me3 ChIP-sequencing in neuronal chromatin from the prefrontal cortex of six HD cases and six non-neurologic controls, and its association with gene expression measured by RNA-sequencing. We detected 2,830 differentially enriched H3K4me3 peaks between HD and controls, with 55% of them down-regulated in HD. Although H3K4me3 signals are expected to be associated with mRNA levels, we found an unexpected discordance between altered H3K4me3 peaks and mRNA levels. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment analysis of the genes with differential H3K4me3 peaks, revealed statistically significantly enriched GO terms only in the genes with down-regulated signals in HD. The most frequently implicated biological process terms are organ morphogenesis and positive regulation of gene expression. More than 9,000 H3K4me3 peaks were located not near any recognized transcription start sites and approximately 36% of these "distal" peaks co-localized to known enhancer sites. Six transcription factors and chromatin remodelers are differentially enriched in HD H3K4me3 distal peaks, including EZH2 and SUZ12, two core subunits of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). Moreover, PRC2 repressive state was significantly depleted in HD-enriched peaks, suggesting the epigenetic role of PRC2 inhibition associated with up-regulated H3K4me3 in Huntington's disease. In summary, our study provides new insights into transcriptional dysregulation of Huntington's disease by analyzing the differentiation of H3K4me3 enrichment.
RNA Sequence Analysis of Human Huntington Disease Brain Reveals an Extensive Increase in Inflammatory and Developmental Gene Expression
Huntington's Disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Transcriptional dysregulation in the human HD brain has been documented but is incompletely understood. Here we present a genome-wide analysis of mRNA expression in human prefrontal cortex from 20 HD and 49 neuropathologically normal controls using next generation high-throughput sequencing. Surprisingly, 19% (5,480) of the 28,087 confidently detected genes are differentially expressed (FDR < 0.05) and are predominantly up-regulated. A novel hypothesis-free geneset enrichment method that dissects large gene lists into functionally and transcriptionally related groups discovers that the differentially expressed genes are enriched for immune response, neuroinflammation, and developmental genes. Markers for all major brain cell types are observed, suggesting that HD invokes a systemic response in the brain area studied. Unexpectedly, the most strongly differentially expressed genes are a homeotic gene set (represented by Hox and other homeobox genes), that are almost exclusively expressed in HD, a profile not widely implicated in HD pathogenesis. The significance of transcriptional changes of developmental processes in the HD brain is poorly understood and warrants further investigation. The role of inflammation and the significance of non-neuronal involvement in HD pathogenesis suggest anti-inflammatory therapeutics may offer important opportunities in treating HD.
Endurance exercise, when performed regularly as part of a training program, leads to increases in whole-body and skeletal muscle-specific oxidative capacity. At the cellular level, this adaptive response is manifested by an increased number of oxidative fibers (Type I and IIA myosin heavy chain), an increase in capillarity and an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. The increase in mitochondrial biogenesis (increased volume and functional capacity) is fundamentally important as it leads to greater rates of oxidative phosphorylation and an improved capacity to utilize fatty acids during sub-maximal exercise. Given the importance of mitochondrial biogenesis for skeletal muscle performance, considerable attention has been given to understanding the molecular cues stimulated by endurance exercise that culminate in this adaptive response. In turn, this research has led to the identification of pharmaceutical compounds and small nutritional bioactive ingredients that appear able to amplify exercise-responsive signaling pathways in skeletal muscle. The aim of this review is to discuss these purported exercise mimetics and bioactive ingredients in the context of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. We will examine proposed modes of action, discuss evidence of application in skeletal muscle in vivo and finally comment on the feasibility of such approaches to support endurance-training applications in humans.
Preclinical studies show that GABA exerts anti-diabetic effects in rodent models of type 1 diabetes. Because little is known about its absorption and effects in humans, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GABA in healthy volunteers. Twelve subjects were subjected to an open-labeled, three-period trial involving sequential oral administration of placebo, 2 g GABA once, and 2 g GABA three times/day for 7 days, with a 7-day washout between each period. GABA was rapidly absorbed (Tmax: 0.5 ~ 1 h) with the half-life (t1/2) of 5 h. No accumulation was observed after repeated oral GABA administration for 7 days. Remarkably, GABA significantly increased circulating insulin levels in the subjects under either fasting (1.6-fold, single dose; 2.0-fold, repeated dose; p < 0.01) or fed conditions (1.4-fold, single dose; 1.6-fold, repeated dose; p < 0.01). GABA also increased glucagon levels only under fasting conditions (1.3-fold, single dose, p < 0.05; 1.5-fold, repeated dose, p < 0.01). However, there were no significant differences in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio and no significant change in glucose levels in these healthy subjects during the study period. Importantly, GABA significantly decreased glycated albumin levels in the repeated dosing period. Subjects with repeated dosing showed an elevated incidence of minor adverse events in comparison to placebo or the single dosing period, most notably transient discomforts such as dizziness and sore throat. However, there were no serious adverse events observed throughout the study. Our data show that GABA is rapidly absorbed and tolerated in human beings; its endocrine effects, exemplified by increasing islet hormonal secretion, suggest potential therapeutic benefits for diabetes.
BACKGROUND: Radiation exposure can lead to detrimental effects in skin microcirculation. The precise relationship between radiation dose received and its effect on cutaneous perfusion still remains controversial. Previously, we have shown that hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is able to demonstrate long-term reductions in cutaneous perfusion secondary to chronic microvascular injury. This study characterizes the changes in skin microcirculation in response to varying doses of ionizing radiation and investigates these microcirculatory changes as a possible early non-invasive biomarker that may correlate with the extent of long-term microvascular damage.
METHODS: Immunocompetent hairless mice (n = 66) were exposed to single fractions of superficial beta-irradiation in doses of 0, 5, 10, 20, 35, or 50 Gy. A HSI device was utilized to measure deoxygenated hemoglobin levels in irradiated and control areas. HSI measurements were performed at baseline before radiation exposure and for the first 3 days post-irradiation. Maximum macroscopic skin reactions were graded, and histological assessment of cutaneous microvascular densities at 4 weeks post-irradiation was performed in harvested tissue by CD31 immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: CD31 immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant correlation (r = 0.90, p < 0.0001) between dose and vessel density reduction at 4 weeks. Using HSI analysis, early changes in deoxygenated hemoglobin levels were observed during the first 3 days post-irradiation in all groups. These deoxygenated hemoglobin changes varied proportionally with dose (r = 0.98, p < 0.0001) and skin reactions (r = 0.98, p < 0.0001). There was a highly significant correlation (r = 0.91, p < 0.0001) between these early changes in deoxygenated hemoglobin and late vascular injury severity assessed at the end of 4 weeks.
CONCLUSION: Radiation dose is directly correlated with cutaneous microvascular injury severity at 4 weeks in our model. Early post-exposure measurement of cutaneous deoxygenated hemoglobin levels may be a useful biomarker for radiation dose reconstruction and predictor for chronic microvascular injury.
Interest in autophagy has exploded over the last decade, with publications highlighting crosstalk with several other cellular processes including secretion, endocytosis, and cell suicide pathways including apoptosis. Autophagy proteins have also been implicated in other cellular processes independently of their roles in autophagy, creating complexities in the interpretation of autophagy (Atg) mutant gene data. Interestingly, this self-eating process is a survival mechanism that can also promote cell death, but when and how autophagy may 'switch' its function is still under debate. Indeed, there are currently many models of how autophagy actually influences cell death. In this review, we highlight some outstanding questions and possible controversies in the autophagy field.
The embryonic vertebrate neural tube is divided along its dorsoventral (DV) axis into eleven molecularly discrete progenitor domains. Each of these domains gives rise to distinct neuronal cell types; the ventral-most six domains contribute to motor circuits, while the five dorsal domains contribute to sensory circuits. Following the initial neurogenesis step, these domains also generate glial cell types-either astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. This DV pattern is initiated by two morphogens-Sonic Hedgehog released from notochord and floor plate and Bone Morphogenetic Protein produced in the roof plate-that act in concentration gradients to induce expression of genes along the DV axis. Subsequently, these DV-restricted genes cooperate to define progenitor domains and to control neuronal cell fate specification and differentiation in each domain. Many genes involved in this process have been identified, but significant gaps remain in our understanding of the underlying genetic program. Here we review recent work identifying members of the Prdm gene family as novel regulators of DV patterning in the neural tube. Many Prdm proteins regulate transcription by controlling histone modifications (either via intrinsic histone methyltransferase activity, or by recruiting histone modifying enzymes). Prdm genes are expressed in spatially restricted domains along the DV axis of the neural tube and play important roles in the specification of progenitor domains, as well as in the subsequent differentiation of motor neurons and various types of interneurons. Strikingly, Prdm proteins appear to function by binding to, and modulating the activity of, other transcription factors (particularly bHLH proteins). The identity of key transcription factors in DV patterning of the neural tube has been elucidated previously (e.g. the nkx, bHLH and pax families), but it now appears that an additional family is also required and that it acts in a potentially novel manner.
OBJECTIVES: The efficacy of tocilizumab (TCZ), an anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, has not previously been evaluated in a population consisting exclusively of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
METHODS: In a double-blind randomised controlled trial (FUNCTION), 1162 methotrexate (MTX)-naive patients with early progressive RA were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) to one of four treatment groups: 4 mg/kg TCZ+MTX, 8 mg/kg TCZ+MTX, 8 mg/kg TCZ+placebo and placebo+MTX (comparator group). The primary outcome was remission according to Disease Activity Score using 28 joints (DAS28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) < 2.6) at week 24. Radiographic and physical function outcomes were also evaluated. We report results through week 52.
RESULTS: The intent-to-treat population included 1157 patients. Significantly more patients receiving 8 mg/kg TCZ+MTX and 8 mg/kg TCZ+placebo than receiving placebo+MTX achieved DAS28-ESR remission at week 24 (45% and 39% vs 15%; p < 0.0001). The 8 mg/kg TCZ+MTX group also achieved significantly greater improvement in radiographic disease progression and physical function at week 52 than did patients treated with placebo+MTX (mean change from baseline in van der Heijde-modified total Sharp score, 0.08 vs 1.14 (p=0.0001); mean reduction in Health Assessment Disability Index, -0.81 vs -0.64 (p=0.0024)). In addition, the 8 mg/kg TCZ+placebo and 4 mg/kg TCZ+MTX groups demonstrated clinical efficacy that was at least as effective as MTX for these key secondary endpoints. Serious adverse events were similar among treatment groups. Adverse events resulting in premature withdrawal occurred in 20% of patients in the 8 mg/kg TCZ+MTX group.
CONCLUSIONS: TCZ is effective in combination with MTX and as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with early RA.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01007435.
Disease is not limited to humans. Rather, humans are but another mammal in a continuum, and as such, often share similar if not identical diseases with other mammalian species. Alopecia areata (AA) is such a disease. Natural disease occurs in humans, nonhuman primates, many domestic animals, and laboratory rodents. However, to be useful as models of human disease, affected animals need to be readily available to the research community, closely resemble the human disease, be easy to work with, and provide reproducible data. To date, the laboratory mouse (most if not all of the C3H substrains) and the Dundee experimental bald rat fit these criteria. Manipulations using full-thickness skin grafts or specific immune cell transfers have improved the models. New mouse models that carry a variety of genetic-based immunodeficiencies can now be used to recapitulate the human immune system and allow for human full-thickness skin grafts onto mice to investigate human-specific mechanistic and therapeutic questions. These models are summarized here including where they can currently be obtained from public access repositories.
Frequent Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations Among Homeless People With Medicaid: Implications for Medicaid Expansion
OBJECTIVES: We examined factors associated with frequent hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits among Medicaid members who were homeless.
METHODS: We included 6494 Massachusetts Medicaid members who received services from a health care for the homeless program in 2010. We used negative binomial regression to examine variables associated with frequent utilization.
RESULTS: Approximately one third of the study population had at least 1 hospitalization and two thirds had 1 or more ED visits. More than 70% of hospitalizations and ED visits were incurred by only 12% and 21% of these members, respectively. Homeless individuals with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders were at greatest risk for frequent hospitalizations and ED visits (e.g., incidence rate ratios [IRRs] = 2.9-13.8 for hospitalizations). Individuals living on the streets also had significantly higher utilization (IRR = 1.5).
CONCLUSIONS: Despite having insurance coverage, homeless Medicaid members experienced frequent hospitalizations and ED visits. States could consider provisions under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (e.g., Medicaid expansion and Health Homes) jointly with housing programs to meet the needs of homeless individuals, which may improve the quality and cost effectiveness of care.
Evaluating the QUIT-PRIMO clinical practice ePortal to increase smoker engagement with online cessation interventions: a national hybrid type 2 implementation study
BACKGROUND: Effective web-assisted tobacco interventions (WATIs) have been underutilized by smokers; moreover, despite practice guideline recommendations, clinical teams do not routinely refer smokers to WATIs. Our goal was to test a clinical practice innovation, an ePortal designed to change practice and patient behavior. Our hypotheses were that the integrated system would result in increased smoker referrals, with an automated follow-up system resulting in more smoker registrations and finally augmentations of the WATI would result in more smokers quitting at 6 months.
METHODS: Practice ePortal Implementation Trial: Practices (n = 174) were randomized to an online practice ePortal with an "e-referral tool" to the WATI (e-referred smokers received automated email reminders from the practice) and with practice feedback reports with patient tracking and practice-to-patient secure messaging versus comparison (a paper "referral prescription"). Implementation success was measured by the number of smokers referred and smokers registering. Clinical Effectiveness Trial: To estimate the effectiveness of the WATI components on 6-month smoking cessation, registered smokers were randomized into three groups: a state-of-the-art tailored WATI control [control], the WATI enhanced with proactive, pushed tailored email motivational messaging (messaging), and the WATI with messaging further enhanced with personal secure messaging with a tobacco treatment specialist and an online support group (personalized).
RESULTS: Practice ePortal Trial results: A total of 4789 smokers were referred. The mean smokers referred per practice was not statistically different by group (ePortal 24.89 (SD 22.29) versus comparison 30.15 (SD 25.45), p = 0.15). The e-referral portal implementation program resulted in nearly triple the rate of smoker registration (31 % of all smokers referred registered online) versus comparison (11 %, p < 0.001). Clinical Effectiveness Trial results: Active smokers randomized to the personalized group had a 6-month cessation rate of 25.2 %, compared with the messaging group (26.7 %) and the control (17 %). Next, when using an inverse probability weighted selection model to account for attrition, those randomized to the two groups that received motivational messaging (messaging or personalized) were more likely to quit than those in the control (p = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: Among all smokers referred, the e-referral resulted in nearly threefold greater registrants (31 %) than paper (11 %). The practice ePortal smokers received multiple reminders (increasing registration opportunities), and the practices could track patient progress. The result was more smokers registering and, thus, more cessation opportunities. Combining the proactive referral and the WATI resulted in higher rates of smoking cessation.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Web-delivered Provider Intervention for Tobacco Control (QUIT-PRIMO) - a randomized controlled trial: NCT00797628 .
BACKGROUND: There are limited data available describing relatively contemporary trends in 30-day rehospitalizations among patients who survive hospitalization after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the community setting. We examined decade-long (2001-2011) trends in, and factors associated with, 30-day rehospitalizations in patients discharged from 3 central Massachusetts hospitals after AMI.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Residents of the Worcester, MA, metropolitan area discharged after AMI from 3 central Massachusetts hospitals on a biennial basis between 2001 and 2011 comprised the study population (N=4810). Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between selected factors and 30-day rehospitalizations. The average age of this population was 69 years, 42% were women, and 92% were white. During the years under study, 18.5% of patients were rehospitalized within 30 days after hospital discharge. Crude 30-day rehospitalization rates decreased from 20.5% in 2001-2003 to 15.8% in 2009-2011. After adjusting for several patient characteristics, there was a reduced odds of being rehospitalized in 2009-2011 (odds ratio 0.74, 95% CI 0.61-0.91) compared with 2001-2003; this trend was slightly attenuated after further adjustment for hospital treatment practices. Female sex, having previously diagnosed heart failure and chronic kidney disease, and the development of in-hospital cardiogenic shock and heart failure were associated with an increased odds of being rehospitalized.
CONCLUSIONS: While the likelihood of subsequent short-term rehospitalizations remained frequent, we observed an encouraging decline during the most recent years under study. Several high-risk groups were identified for purposes of heightened surveillance and intervention efforts to reduce the likelihood of being readmitted.
Lateral diffusion in the membrane and endosomal trafficking both contribute to the addition and removal of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) at postsynaptic sites. However, the spatial coordination between these mechanisms has remained unclear, because little is known about the dynamics of AMPAR-containing endosomes. In addition, how the positioning of AMPAR-containing endosomes affects synapse organization and functioning has never been directly explored. Here, we used live-cell imaging in hippocampal neuron cultures to show that intracellular AMPARs are transported in Rab11-positive recycling endosomes, which frequently enter dendritic spines and depend on the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton. By using chemically induced dimerization systems to recruit kinesin (KIF1C) or myosin (MyosinV/VI) motors to Rab11-positive recycling endosomes, we controlled their trafficking and found that induced removal of recycling endosomes from spines decreases surface AMPAR expression and PSD-95 clusters at synapses. Our data suggest a mechanistic link between endosome positioning and postsynaptic structure and composition.
Cotton rat immune responses to virus-like particles containing the pre-fusion form of respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein
BACKGROUND: Virus-like particles (VLPs) based on Newcastle disease virus (NDV) core proteins, M and NP, and containing two chimera proteins, F/F and H/G, composed of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion protein (F) and glycoprotein (G) ectodomains fused to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the NDV F and HN proteins, respectively, stimulate durable, protective anti-RSV neutralizing antibodies in mice. Furthermore, immunization of mice with a VLP containing a F/F chimera protein with modifications previously reported to stabilize the pre-fusion form of the RSV F protein resulted in significantly improved neutralizing antibody titers over VLPs containing the wild type F protein. The goal of this study was to determine if VLPs containing the pre-fusion form of the RSV F protein stimulated protective immune responses in cotton rats, a more RSV permissive animal model than mice.
METHODS: Cotton rats were immunized intramuscularly with VLPs containing stabilized pre-fusion F/F chimera protein as well as the H/G chimera protein. The anti-RSV F and RSV G antibody responses were determined by ELISA. Neutralizing antibody titers in sera of immunized animals were determined in plaque reduction assays. Protection of the animals from RSV challenge was assessed. The safety of the VLP vaccine was determined by monitoring lung pathology upon RSV challenge of immunized animals.
RESULTS: The Pre-F/F VLP induced neutralizing titers that were well above minimum levels previously proposed to be required for a successful vaccine and titers significantly higher than those stimulated by RSV infection. In addition, Pre-F/F VLP immunization stimulated higher IgG titers to the soluble pre-fusion F protein than RSV infection. Cotton rats immunized with Pre-F/F VLPs were protected from RSV challenge, and, importantly, the VLP immunization did not result in enhanced respiratory disease upon RSV challenge.
CONCLUSIONS: VLPs containing the pre-fusion RSV F protein have characteristics required for a safe, effective RSV vaccine.
Health evaluation and referral assistant: a randomized controlled trial to improve smoking cessation among emergency department patients
BACKGROUND: Computer technologies hold promise for implementing tobacco screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT). This study aims to evaluate a computerized tobacco SBIRT system called the Health Evaluation and Referral Assistant (HERA).
METHODS: Smokers (n = 421) presenting to an emergency department were randomly assigned to the HERA or a minimal-treatment Control and were followed for 3 months. Analyses compared smoking cessation treatment provider contact, treatment initiation, treatment completion, and smoking behavior across condition using univariable comparisons, generalized estimating equations (GEE), and post hoc Chi square analyses.
RESULTS: HERA participants were more likely to initiate contact with a treatment provider but did not differ on treatment initiation, quit attempts, or sustained abstinence. Subanalyses revealed HERA participants who accepted a faxed referral were more likely to initiate treatment but were not more likely to stop smoking.
CONCLUSIONS: The HERA promoted initial contact with a smoking cessation provider and the faxed referral further promoted treatment initiation, but it did not lead to improved abstinence.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01153373.
NEMO Prevents Steatohepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Inhibiting RIPK1 Kinase Activity-Mediated Hepatocyte Apoptosis
IkappaB kinase/necrosis factor kappaB (IKK/NF-kappaB) signaling exhibits important yet opposing functions in hepatocarcinogenesis. Mice lacking NEMO in liver parenchymal cells (LPC) spontaneously develop steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) suggesting that NF-kappaB prevents liver disease and cancer. Here, we show that complete NF-kappaB inhibition by combined LPC-specific ablation of RelA, c-Rel, and RelB did not phenocopy NEMO deficiency, but constitutively active IKK2-mediated NF-kappaB activation prevented hepatocellular damage and HCC in NEMO(LPC-KO) mice. Knock-in expression of kinase inactive receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) prevented hepatocyte apoptosis and HCC, while RIPK1 ablation induced TNFR1-associated death domain protein (TRADD)-dependent hepatocyte apoptosis and liver tumors in NEMO(LPC-KO) mice, revealing distinct kinase-dependent and scaffolding functions of RIPK1. Collectively, these results show that NEMO prevents hepatocarcinogenesis by inhibiting RIPK1 kinase activity-driven hepatocyte apoptosis through NF-kappaB-dependent and -independent functions.
A Small Molecule Inhibitor of ITK and RLK Impairs Th1 Differentiation and Prevents Colitis Disease Progression
In T cells, the Tec kinases IL-2-inducible T cell kinase (ITK) and resting lymphocyte kinase (RLK) are activated by TCR stimulation and are required for optimal downstream signaling. Studies of CD4(+) T cells from Itk(-/-) and Itk(-/-)Rlk(-/-) mice have indicated differential roles of ITK and RLK in Th1, Th2, and Th17 differentiation and cytokine production. However, these findings are confounded by the complex T cell developmental defects in these mice. In this study, we examine the consequences of ITK and RLK inhibition using a highly selective and potent small molecule covalent inhibitor PRN694. In vitro Th polarization experiments indicate that PRN694 is a potent inhibitor of Th1 and Th17 differentiation and cytokine production. Using a T cell adoptive transfer model of colitis, we find that in vivo administration of PRN694 markedly reduces disease progression, T cell infiltration into the intestinal lamina propria, and IFN-gamma production by colitogenic CD4(+) T cells. Consistent with these findings, Th1 and Th17 cells differentiated in the presence of PRN694 show reduced P-selectin binding and impaired migration to CXCL11 and CCL20, respectively. Taken together, these data indicate that ITK plus RLK inhibition may have therapeutic potential in Th1-mediated inflammatory diseases.