The protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are SAM-dependent enzymes that catalyze the mono- and dimethylation of peptidyl arginine residues. PRMT1 is the founding member of the PRMT family, and this isozyme is responsible for methylating approximately 85% of the arginine residues in mammalian cells. Additionally, PRMT1 activity is aberrantly upregulated in heart disease and cancer. As a part of a program to develop isozyme-specific PRMT inhibitors, we recently described the design and synthesis of C21, a chloroacetamidine bearing histone H4 tail analogue that acts as an irreversible PRMT1 inhibitor. Given the covalent nature of the interaction, we set out to develop activity-based probes (ABPs) that could be used to characterize the physiological roles of PRMT1. Herein, we report the design, synthesis, and characterization of fluorescein-conjugated C21 (F-C21) and biotin-conjugated C21 (B-C21) as PRMT1-specific ABPs. Additionally, we provide the first evidence that PRMT1 activity is negatively regulated in a spatial and temporal fashion.
Peptidylarginine deiminases, or PADs, convert arginine residues to the non-ribosomally encoded amino acid citrulline in a variety of protein substrates. PAD4 is expressed in granulocytes and is essential for the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) via PAD4-mediated histone citrullination. Citrullination of histones is thought to promote NET formation by inducing chromatin decondensation and facilitating the expulsion of chromosomal DNA that is coated with antimicrobial molecules. Numerous stimuli have been reported to lead to PAD4 activation and NET formation. However, how this signaling process proceeds and how PAD4 becomes activated in cells is largely unknown. Herein, we describe the various stimuli and signaling pathways that have been implicated in PAD4 activation and NET formation, including the role of reactive oxygen species generation. To provide a foundation for the above discussion, we first describe PAD4 structure and function, and how these studies led to the development of PAD-specific inhibitors. A comprehensive survey of the receptors and signaling pathways that regulate PAD4 activation will be important for our understanding of innate immunity, and the identification of signaling intermediates in PAD4 activation may also lead to the generation of pharmaceuticals to target NET-related pathogenesis.
Potential role of peptidylarginine deiminase enzymes and protein citrullination in cancer pathogenesis.
The peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) are a family of posttranslational modification enzymes that catalyze the conversion of positively charged protein-bound arginine and methylarginine residues to the uncharged, nonstandard amino acid citrulline. This enzymatic activity is referred to as citrullination or, alternatively, deimination. Citrullination can significantly affect biochemical pathways by altering the structure and function of target proteins. Five mammalian PAD family members (PADs 1-4 and 6) have been described and show tissue-specific distribution. Recent reviews on PADs have focused on their role in autoimmune diseases. Here, we will discuss the potential role of PADs in tumor progression and tumor-associated inflammation. In the context of cancer, increasing clinical evidence suggests that PAD4 (and possibly PAD2) has important roles in tumor progression. The link between PADs and cancer is strengthened by recent findings showing that treatment of cell lines and mice with PAD inhibitors significantly suppresses tumor growth and, interestingly, inflammatory symptoms. At the molecular level, transcription factors, coregulators, and histones are functional targets for citrullination by PADs, and citrullination of these targets can affect gene expression in multiple tumor cell lines. Next generation isozyme-specific PAD inhibitors may have therapeutic potential to regulate both the inflammatory tumor microenvironment and tumor cell growth.
Synthesis and screening of a haloacetamidine containing library to identify PAD4 selective inhibitors.
Protein arginine deiminase activity (PAD) is increased in cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and ulcerative colitis. Although the link between abnormal PAD activity and disease is clear, the relative contribution of the individual PADs to human disease is not known; there are 5 PAD isozymes in humans. Building on our previous development of F- and Cl-amidine as potent pan-PAD irreversible inhibitors, we describe herein a library approach that was used to identify PAD-selective inhibitors. Specifically, we describe the identification of Thr-Asp-F-amidine (TDFA) as a highly potent PAD4 inactivator that displays > /=15-fold selectivity for PAD4 versus PAD1 and > /=50-fold versus PADs 2 and 3. This compound is active in cells and can be used to inhibit PAD4 activity in cellulo. The structure of the PAD4.TDFA complex has also been solved, and the structure and mutagenesis data indicate that the enhanced potency is due to interactions between the side chains of Q346, R374, and R639. Finally, we converted TDFA into a PAD4-selective ABPP and demonstrated that this compound, biotin-TDFA, can be used to selectively isolate purified PAD4 in vitro. In total, TDFA and biotin-TDFA represent PAD4-selective chemical probes that can be used to study the physiological roles of this enzyme.
The protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the mono- and dimethylation of arginine residues in a variety of proteins. Although these enzymes play important roles in a variety of cellular processes, aberrant PRMT activity is associated with several disease states, including heart disease and cancer. In an effort to guide the development of inhibitors targeting individual PRMTs, we initiated studies to characterize the molecular mechanisms of PRMT catalysis. Herein, we report studies on the kinetic mechanism of PRMT6. Initial velocity, product inhibition, and dead-end analog inhibition studies with the AcH4-21 and R1 peptides, as well as their monomethylated versions, indicate, in contrast to a previous report, that PRMT6 utilizes a rapid equilibrium random mechanism with dead-end EAP and EBQ complexes.
Human protein N-terminal acetyltransferase hNaa50p (hNAT5/hSAN) follows ordered sequential catalytic mechanism: combined kinetic and NMR study.
N(alpha)-acetylation is a common protein modification catalyzed by different N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs). Their essential role in the biogenesis and degradation of proteins is becoming increasingly evident. The NAT hNaa50p preferentially modifies peptides starting with methionine followed by a hydrophobic amino acid. hNaa50p also possesses N(epsilon)-autoacetylation activity. So far, no eukaryotic NAT has been mechanistically investigated. In this study, we used NMR spectroscopy, bisubstrate kinetic assays, and product inhibition experiments to demonstrate that hNaa50p utilizes an ordered Bi Bi reaction of the Theorell-Chance type. The NMR results, both the substrate binding study and the dynamic data, further indicate that the binding of acetyl-CoA induces a conformational change that is required for the peptide to bind to the active site. In support of an ordered Bi Bi reaction mechanism, addition of peptide in the absence of acetyl-CoA did not alter the structure of the protein. This model is further strengthened by the NMR results using a catalytically inactive hNaa50p mutant.
Felty's syndrome autoantibodies bind to deiminated histones and neutrophil extracellular chromatin traps.
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that autoantigen modifications by peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PAD-4) increase immunoreactivity.
METHODS: We assembled sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Felty's syndrome (FS), and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitides (AAVs), as well as sera from control subjects without autoimmune diseases. The sera were tested for binding to activated neutrophils, deiminated histones, and neutrophil extracellular chromatin traps (NETs). IgG binding to lipopolysaccharide-activated neutrophils was assessed with confocal microscopy, and binding to in vitro-deiminated histones was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. In addition, we quantitated histone deimination in freshly isolated neutrophils from the blood of patients and control subjects.
RESULTS: Increased IgG reactivity with activated neutrophils, particularly binding to NETs, was paralleled by preferential binding to deiminated histones over nondeiminated histones by ELISA in a majority of sera from FS patients but only in a minority of sera from SLE and RA patients. Immunoblotting revealed autoantibody preference for deiminated histones H3, H4, and H2A in most FS patients and in a subset of SLE and RA patients. In patients with AAVs, serum IgG preferentially bound nondeiminated histones over deiminated histones. Increased levels of deiminated histones were detected in neutrophils from RA patients.
CONCLUSION: Circulating autoantibodies in FS are preferentially directed against PAD-4-deiminated histones and bind to activated neutrophils and NETs. Thus, increased reactivity with modified autoantigens in FS implies a direct contribution of neutrophil activation and the production of NET-associated nuclear autoantigens in the initiation or progression of FS.
Probing adenylation: using a fluorescently labelled ATP probe to directly label and immunoprecipitate VopS substrates.
The bacterial effector VopS from Vibrio parahaemolyticus modifies host Rho GTPases to prevent downstream signalling, which leads to cell rounding and eventually apoptosis. While previous studies have used [alpha-(32)P] ATP for studying this enzyme, we sought to develop a non-radioactive chemical probe of VopS function. To guide these studies, the kinetic parameters were determined for a variety of nucleotides and the results indicated that the C6 position of adenosine was amenable to modification. Since Fl-ATP is a commercially available ATP analogue that is fluorescently tagged at the C6 position, we tested it as a VopS substrate, and the results show that VopS uses Fl-ATP to label Cdc42 in vitro and in MCF7 whole cell extracts. The utility of this probe was further demonstrated by immunoprecipitating Fl-ATP labeled Cdc42 as well as several novel substrate proteins. The proteins, which were identified by LC-MS/MS, include the small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42 as well as several proteins that are potential VopS substrates and may be important for V. parahaemolyticus pathology. In total, these studies identify Fl-ATP as a valuable chemical probe of protein AMPylation.
BACKGROUND: The peptidylarginine deiminases (PADIs) convert positively charged arginine residues to neutrally charged citrulline on protein substrates in a process that is known as citrullination or deimination. Previous reports have documented roles for histone citrullination in chromatin remodeling and gene regulation in several tissue types, however, a potential role for histone citrullination in chromatin-based activities during early embryogenesis has not been investigated.
RESULTS: In the present study, we tested by laser scanning confocal indirect immunofluorescence microscopy whether specific arginine residues on the histone H3 and H4 N-terminal tails (H4R3, H3R2 + 8 + 17, and H3R26) were citrullinated in mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Results showed that all of the tested residues were deiminated with each site showing a unique localization pattern during early development. Given these findings, we next tested whether inhibition of PADI activity using the PADI-specific inhibitor, Cl-amidine, may affect embryonic development. We found that treatment of pronuclear stage zygotes with Cl-amidine reduces both histone H3 and H4 tail citrullination and also potently blocks early cleavage divisions in vitro. Additionally, we found that the Cl-amidine treatment reduces acetylation at histone H3K9, H3K18, and H4K5 while having no apparent effect on the repressive histone H3K9 dimethylation modification. Lastly, we found that treatment of zygotes with trichostatin A (TSA) to induce hyperacetylation also resulted in an increase in histone citrullination at H3R2 + 8 + 17.
CONCLUSIONS: Given the observed effects of Cl-amidine on embryonic development and the well documented correlation between histone acetylation and transcriptional activation, our findings suggest that histone citrullination may play an important role in facilitating gene expression in early embryos by creating a chromatin environment that is permissive for histone acetylation.
Citrullination of proteins: a common post-translational modification pathway induced by different nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo.
AIM: Rapidly expanding manufacture and use of nanomaterials emphasize the requirements for thorough assessment of health outcomes associated with novel applications. Post-translational protein modifications catalyzed by Ca(2+)-dependent peptidylargininedeiminases have been shown to trigger immune responses including autoantibody generation, a hallmark of immune complexes deposition in rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess if nanoparticles are able to promote protein citrullination.
MATERIALS and METHODS: Human A549 and THP-1 cells were exposed to silicon dioxide, carbon black or single-walled carbon nanotubes. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to respirable single-walled carbon nanotubes. Protein citrullination, peptidylargininedeiminases activity and target proteins were evaluated.
RESULTS: The studied nanoparticles induced protein citrullination both in cultured human cells and mouse lung tissues. Citrullination occurred via the peptidylargininedeiminase-dependent mechanism. Cytokeratines 7, 8, 18 and plectins were identified as intracellular citrullination targets.
CONCLUSION: Nanoparticle exposure facilitated post-translational citrullination of proteins.
Peptidylarginine deiminase 2-catalyzed histone H3 arginine 26 citrullination facilitates estrogen receptor alpha target gene activation.
Cofactors for estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) can modulate gene activity by posttranslationally modifying histone tails at target promoters. Here, we found that stimulation of ERalpha-positive cells with 17beta-estradiol (E2) promotes global citrullination of histone H3 arginine 26 (H3R26) on chromatin. Additionally, we found that the H3 citrulline 26 (H3Cit26) modification colocalizes with ERalpha at decondensed chromatin loci surrounding the estrogen-response elements of target promoters. Surprisingly, we also found that citrullination of H3R26 is catalyzed by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) 2 and not by PAD4 (which citrullinates H4R3). Further, we showed that PAD2 interacts with ERalpha after E2 stimulation and that inhibition of either PAD2 or ERalpha strongly suppresses E2-induced H3R26 citrullination and ERalpha recruitment at target gene promoters. Collectively, our data suggest that E2 stimulation induces the recruitment of PAD2 to target promoters by ERalpha, whereby PAD2 then citrullinates H3R26, which leads to local chromatin decondensation and transcriptional activation.
Protein arginine deiminases (PADs) catalyze the hydrolysis of peptidyl arginine to form peptidyl citrulline. Abnormally high PAD activity is observed in a host of human diseases, but the exact role of protein citrullination in these diseases and the identities of specific citrullinated disease biomarkers remain unknown, largely because of the lack of readily available chemical probes to detect protein citrullination. For this reason, we developed a citrulline-specific chemical probe, rhodamine-phenylglyoxal (Rh-PG), which we show can be used to investigate protein citrullination. This methodology is superior to existing techniques because it possesses higher throughput and excellent sensitivity. Additionally, we demonstrate that this probe can be used to determine the kinetic parameters for a number of protein substrates, monitor drug efficacy, and identify disease biomarkers in an animal model of ulcerative colitis that displays aberrantly increased PAD activity.
D-amino acid based protein arginine deiminase inhibitors: Synthesis, pharmacokinetics, and in cellulo efficacy.
The protein arginine deiminases (PADs) are known to play a crucial role in the onset and progression of multiple inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. However, it is not known how each of the five PAD isozymes contributes to disease pathogenesis. As such, potent, selective, and bioavailable PAD inhibitors will be useful chemical probes to elucidate the specific roles of each isozyme. Since D-amino amino acids often possess enhanced in cellulo stability, and perhaps unique selectivities, we synthesized a series of D-amino acid analogs of our pan-PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine, hypothesizing that this change would provide inhibitors with enhanced pharmacokinetic properties. Herein, we demonstrate that d-Cl-amidine and d-o-F-amidine are potent and highly selective inhibitors of PAD1. The pharmacokinetic properties of d-Cl-amidine were moderately improved over those of l-Cl-amidine, and this compound exhibited similar cell killing in a PAD1 expressing, triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. These inhibitors represent an important step in our efforts to develop stable, bioavailable, and highly selective inhibitors for all of the PAD isozymes.
BACKGROUND: We have recently reported that the expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PADI2) is regulated by EGF in mammary cancer cells and appears to play a role in the proliferation of normal mammary epithelium; however, the role of PADI2 in the pathogenesis of human breast cancer has yet to be investigated. Thus, the goals of this study were to examine whether PADI2 plays a role in mammary tumor progression, and whether the inhibition of PADI activity has anti-tumor effects.
METHODS: RNA-seq data from a collection of 57 breast cancer cell lines was queried for PADI2 levels, and correlations with known subtype and HER2/ERBB2 status were evaluated. To examine PADI2 expression levels during breast cancer progression, the cell lines from the MCF10AT model were used. The efficacy of the PADI inhibitor, Cl-amidine, was tested in vitro using MCF10DCIS cells grown in 2D-monolayers and 3D-spheroids, and in vivo using MCF10DCIS tumor xenografts. Treated MCF10DCIS cells were examined by flow-cytometry to determine the extent of apoptosis and by RT2 Profiler PCR Cell Cycle Array to detect alterations in cell cycle associated genes.
RESULTS: We show by RNA-seq that PADI2 mRNA expression is highly correlated with HER2/ERBB2 (p = 2.2 x 106) in luminal breast cancer cell lines. Using the MCF10AT model of breast cancer progression, we then demonstrate that PADI2 expression increases during the transition of normal mammary epithelium to fully malignant breast carcinomas, with a strong peak of PADI2 expression and activity being observed in the MCF10DCIS cell line, which models human comedo-DCIS lesions. Next, we show that a PADI inhibitor, Cl-amidine, strongly suppresses the growth of MCF10DCIS monolayers and tumor spheroids in culture. We then carried out preclinical studies in nude (nu/nu) mice and found that Cl-amidine also suppressed the growth of xenografted MCF10DCIS tumors by more than 3-fold. Lastly, we performed cell cycle array analysis of Cl-amidine treated and control MCF10DCIS cells, and found that the PADI inhibitor strongly affects the expression of several cell cycle genes implicated in tumor progression, including p21, GADD45alpha, and Ki67.
CONCLUSION: Together, these results suggest that PADI2 may function as an important new biomarker for HER2/ERBB2+ tumors and that Cl-amidine represents a new candidate for breast cancer therapy.
The induction of microRNA-16 in colon cancer cells by protein arginine deiminase inhibition causes a p53-dependent cell cycle arrest.
Protein Arginine Deiminases (PADs) catalyze the post-translational conversion of peptidyl-Arginine to peptidyl-Citrulline in a calcium-dependent, irreversible reaction. Evidence is emerging that PADs play a role in carcinogenesis. To determine the cancer-associated functional implications of PADs, we designed a small molecule PAD inhibitor (called Chor-amidine or Cl-amidine), and tested the impact of this drug on the cell cycle. Data derived from experiments in colon cancer cells indicate that Cl-amidine causes a G1 arrest, and that this was p53-dependent. In a separate set of experiments, we found that Cl-amidine caused a significant increase in microRNA-16 (miRNA-16), and that this increase was also p53-dependent. Because miRNA-16 is a putative tumor suppressor miRNA, and others have found that miRNA-16 suppresses proliferation, we hypothesized that the p53-dependent G1 arrest associated with PAD inhibition was, in turn, dependent on miRNA-16 expression. Results are consistent with this hypothesis. As well, we found the G1 arrest is at least in part due to the ability of Cl-amidine-mediated expression of miRNA-16 to suppress its' G1-associated targets: cyclins D1, D2, D3, E1, and cdk6. Our study sheds light into the mechanisms by which PAD inhibition can protect against or treat colon cancer.
The N-termini of 80-90% of human proteins are acetylated by the N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs), NatA-NatF. The major NAT complex, NatA, and particularly the catalytic subunit hNaa10 (ARD1) has been implicated in cancer development. For example, knockdown of hNaa10 results in cancer cell death and the arrest of cell proliferation. It also sensitized cancer cells to drug-induced cytotoxicity. Human NatE has a distinct substrate specificity and is essential for normal chromosome segregation. Thus, NAT inhibitors may potentially be valuable anticancer therapeutics, either directly or as adjuvants. Herein, we report the design and synthesis of the first inhibitors targeting these enzymes. Using the substrate specificity of the enzymes as a guide, we synthesized three bisubstrate analogues that potently and selectively inhibit the NatA complex (CoA-Ac-SES4; IC50 = 15.1 muM), hNaa10, the catalytic subunit of NatA (CoA-Ac-EEE4; Ki = 1.6 muM), and NatE/hNaa50 (CoA-Ac-MLG7; Ki* = 8 nM); CoA-Ac-EEE4 is a reversible competitive inhibitor of hNaa10, and CoA-Ac-MLG7 is a slow tight binding inhibitor of hNaa50. Our demonstration that it is possible to develop NAT selective inhibitors should assist future efforts to develop NAT inhibitors with more drug-like properties that can be used to chemically interrogate in vivo NAT function.
The post-translational modification of histones has significant effects on overall chromatin function. One such modification is citrullination, which is catalyzed by the protein arginine deiminases (PADs), a unique family of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of peptidyl-arginine to form peptidyl-citrulline on histones, fibrinogen, and other biologically relevant proteins. Overexpression and/or increased PAD activity is observed in several diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, lupus, Parkinson's disease, and cancer. This review discusses the important structural and mechanistic characteristics of the PADs, as well as recent investigations into the role of the PADs in increasing disease severity in RA and colitis and the importance of PAD activity in mediating neutrophil extracellular trap formation through chromatin decondensation. Lastly, efforts to develop PAD inhibitors with excellent potency, selectivity and in vivo efficacy are discussed, highlighting the most promising inhibitors. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 99: 155-163, 2013.
NETs are a source of citrullinated autoantigens and stimulate inflammatory responses in rheumatoid arthritis.
The early events leading to the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain unclear, but formation of autoantibodies to citrullinated protein antigens (ACPAs) is considered a key pathogenic event. Neutrophils isolated from patients with various autoimmune diseases display enhanced neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, a phenomenon that exposes autoantigens in the context of immunostimulatory molecules. We investigated whether aberrant NETosis occurs in RA, determined its triggers, and examined its deleterious inflammatory consequences. Enhanced NETosis was observed in circulating and RA synovial fluid neutrophils compared to neutrophils from healthy controls and from patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Further, netting neutrophils infiltrated RA synovial tissue, rheumatoid nodules, and skin. NETosis correlated with ACPA presence and levels and with systemic inflammatory markers. RA sera and immunoglobulin fractions from RA patients with high levels of ACPA and/or rheumatoid factor significantly enhanced NETosis, and the NETs induced by these autoantibodies displayed distinct protein content. Indeed, during NETosis, neutrophils externalized the citrullinated autoantigens implicated in RA pathogenesis, and anti-citrullinated vimentin antibodies potently induced NET formation. Moreover, the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-17A (IL-17A) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induced NETosis in RA neutrophils. In turn, NETs significantly augmented inflammatory responses in RA and OA synovial fibroblasts, including induction of IL-6, IL-8, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. These observations implicate accelerated NETosis in RA pathogenesis, through externalization of citrullinated autoantigens and immunostimulatory molecules that may promote aberrant adaptive and innate immune responses in the joint and in the periphery, and perpetuate pathogenic mechanisms in this disease.
Recent evidence suggests that enhanced neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation activates plasmacytoid dendritic cells and serves as a source of autoantigens in SLE. We propose that aberrant NET formation is also linked to organ damage and to the premature vascular disease characteristic of human SLE. Here, we demonstrate enhanced NET formation in the New Zealand mixed 2328 (NZM) model of murine lupus. NZM mice also developed autoantibodies to NETs as well as the ortholog of human cathelicidin/LL37 (CRAMP), a molecule externalized in the NETs. NZM mice were treated with Cl-amidine, an inhibitor of peptidylarginine deiminases (PAD), to block NET formation and were evaluated for lupus-like disease activity, endothelial function, and prothrombotic phenotype. Cl-amidine treatment inhibited NZM NET formation in vivo and significantly altered circulating autoantibody profiles and complement levels while reducing glomerular IgG deposition. Further, Cl-amidine increased the differentiation capacity of bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells, improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and markedly delayed time to arterial thrombosis induced by photochemical injury. Overall, these findings suggest that PAD inhibition can modulate phenotypes crucial for lupus pathogenesis and disease activity and may represent an important strategy for mitigating cardiovascular risk in lupus patients.
Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) have emerged as attractive therapeutic targets for heart disease and cancers. PRMT5 is a particularly interesting target because it is overexpressed in blood, breast, colon, and stomach cancers and promotes cell survival in the face of DNA damaging agents. As the only known member of the PRMT enzyme family to catalyze the formation of mono- and symmetrically dimethylated arginine residues, PRMT5 is also mechanistically unique. As a part of a program to characterize the mechanisms and regulation of the PRMTs and develop chemical probes targeting these enzymes, we characterized the substrate specificity, processivity, and kinetic mechanism of bacterially expressed Caenorhabditis elegans PRMT5 (cPRMT5). In this report, we demonstrate that distal positively charged residues contribute to substrate binding in a synergistic fashion. Additionally, we show that cPRMT5 catalyzes symmetric dimethylation in a distributive fashion. Finally, the results of initial velocity, product, and dead-end inhibition studies indicate that cPRMT5 uses a rapid equilibrium random mechanism with dead-end EAP and EBQ complexes. In total, these studies will guide PRMT5 inhibitor development and lay the foundation for studying how the activity of this medically relevant enzyme is regulated.