Targeted sequencing in candidate genes for atrial fibrillation: The Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common genetic variants that predispose to atrial fibrillation (AF). It is unclear whether rare and low-frequency variants in genes implicated by such GWAS confer additional risk of AF.
OBJECTIVE: To study the association of genetic variants with AF at GWAS top loci.
METHODS: In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Targeted Sequencing Study, we selected and sequenced 77 target gene regions from GWAS loci of complex diseases or traits, including 4 genes hypothesized to be related to AF (PRRX1, CAV1, CAV2, and ZFHX3). Sequencing was performed in participants with (n = 948) and without (n = 3330) AF from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Massachusetts General Hospital.
RESULTS: One common variant (rs11265611; P = 1.70 x 10(-6)) intronic to IL6R (interleukin-6 receptor gene) was significantly associated with AF after Bonferroni correction (odds ratio 0.70; 95% confidence interval 0.58-0.85). The variant was not genotyped or imputed by prior GWAS, but it is in linkage disequilibrium (r(2) = .69) with the single-nucleotide polymorphism, with the strongest association with AF so far at this locus (rs4845625). In the rare variant joint analysis, damaging variants within the PRRX1 region showed significant association with AF after Bonferroni correction (P = .01).
CONCLUSIONS: We identified 1 common single-nucleotide polymorphism and 1 gene region that were significantly associated with AF. Future sequencing efforts with larger sample sizes and more comprehensive genome coverage are anticipated to identify additional AF-related variants. reserved.
Blog post to AEA365, a blog sponsored by the American Evaluation Association (AEA) dedicated to highlighting Hot Tips, Cool Tricks, Rad Resources, and Lessons Learned for evaluators. The American Evaluation Association is an international professional association of evaluators devoted to the application and exploration of program evaluation, personnel evaluation, technology, and many other forms of evaluation. Evaluation involves assessing the strengths and weaknesses of programs, policies, personnel, products, and organizations to improve their effectiveness.
Librarian Participation in Chart Rounds: Final Results of Two Surveys Measuring the Effectiveness of Librarians Working with Family Medicine Residents in a Clinical Setting
OBJECTIVE: To measure the impact of librarian participation at multi-disciplinary chart rounds at three central Massachusetts health centers affiliated with the University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester Family Medicine residency program.
BACKGROUND: Chart rounds, led by Department of Family Medicine and Community Health faculty preceptors, are held daily at each residency practice site. Family Medicine residents present cases based on patients seen that day. New guidelines for chart rounds were developed by residency leadership in 2007 through a grant from AAMC Regional Medicine-Public Health Education Centers. Based on these guidelines, librarians, behavioral health specialists and pharmacists are invited to participate.
METHODS: In early 2010, residents (n=32) were invited to complete an IRB-approved Likert-scale (1=strongly disagree to 5=strongly agree) survey asking them to evaluate their satisfaction with chart rounds. The survey included three questions focusing on the effectiveness of library participation. Based on the findings of this first survey, initiatives were undertaken to increase librarian impact. These initiatives specifically reached out to PGY1 residents who had scored library participation lower that PGY2 and PGY3 residents. In 2012, a second survey was distributed (n=24) using the same questions. This poster will present results from both surveys specific to librarian involvement. Both sets of results were analyzed using SPSS 17.0.
RESULTS: Results were tabulated for the 2010 survey and the 2012 survey, and were then cross-tabulated to identify changes. The three librarian-related questions posed were -- librarians during rounds: A) changed their [residents] short-term and/or long-term treatment plans; B) helped them locate useful information more efficiently than in the past; and C) helped increase their understanding of identifying and utilizing best-evidence information resources in their practice. Although the sample size was small, following the implementation of the initiatives aimed specifically at first year residents, statistically-significant increases were seen in 2012 survey responses in the first two questions.
DISCUSSION: Librarians from the Lamar Soutter Library at UMass Medical School have been participating in chart rounds for many years; at some centers, even before the formal guidelines were developed in 2007. Through these two surveys, the librarian cohort now have quantitative data demonstrating their effectiveness in these clinical settings.
Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors approximately 100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector-human and vector-parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi.
The IMD pathway signaling plays a pivotal role in the Drosophila defense against bacteria. During the last two decades, significant progress has been made in identifying the components and deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathway, including the means of bacterial sensing and signal transduction. While these findings have contributed to the understanding of the immune signaling in insects, they have also provided new insights in studying the mammalian NF-kappaB signaling pathways. Here, we summarize the current view of the IMD pathway focusing on how it regulates the humoral immune response of Drosophila.
RNA and beta-hemolysin of Group B streptococcus induce IL-1beta by activating NLRP3 inflammasomes in mouse macrophages
The inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta is critical for host responses against many human pathogens. Here, we define Group B streptococcus (GBS)-mediated activation of the Nod-like Receptor-P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in macrophages. NLRP3 activation requires GBS expression of the cytolytic toxin, beta-hemolysin, lysosomal acidification, and leakage. These processes allow the interaction of GBS RNA with cytosolic NLRP3. The present study supports a model in which GBS RNA, along with lysosomal components including cathepsins, leaks out of lysosomes and interacts with NLRP3 to induce IL-1beta production.
Structural basis for membrane recruitment and allosteric activation of cytohesin family Arf GTPase exchange factors
Membrane recruitment of cytohesin family Arf guanine nucleotide exchange factors depends on interactions with phosphoinositides and active Arf GTPases that, in turn, relieve autoinhibition of the catalytic Sec7 domain through an unknown structural mechanism. Here, we show that Arf6-GTP relieves autoinhibition by binding to an allosteric site that includes the autoinhibitory elements in addition to the PH domain. The crystal structure of a cytohesin-3 construct encompassing the allosteric site in complex with the head group of phosphatidyl inositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate and N-terminally truncated Arf6-GTP reveals a large conformational rearrangement, whereby autoinhibition can be relieved by competitive sequestration of the autoinhibitory elements in grooves at the Arf6/PH domain interface. Disposition of the known membrane targeting determinants on a common surface is compatible with multivalent membrane docking and subsequent activation of Arf substrates, suggesting a plausible model through which membrane recruitment and allosteric activation could be structurally integrated.
Saturated free fatty acid (FFA) is implicated in the metabolic response to obesity. In vitro studies indicate that FFA signaling may be mediated by the mixed-lineage protein kinase (MLK) pathway that activates cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Here, we examined the role of the MLK pathway in vivo using a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. The ubiquitously expressed MLK2 and MLK3 protein kinases have partially redundant functions. We therefore compared wild-type and compound mutant mice that lack expression of MLK2 and MLK3. MLK deficiency protected mice against high-fat-diet-induced insulin resistance and obesity. Reduced JNK activation and increased energy expenditure contribute to the metabolic effects of MLK deficiency. These data confirm that the MLK pathway plays a critical role in the metabolic response to obesity.
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited mental retardation and autism, is caused by transcriptional silencing of FMR1, which encodes the translational repressor fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP and cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein (CPEB), an activator of translation, are present in neuronal dendrites, are predicted to bind many of the same mRNAs and may mediate a translational homeostasis that, when imbalanced, results in FXS. Consistent with this possibility, Fmr1(-/y); Cpeb1(-/-) double-knockout mice displayed amelioration of biochemical, morphological, electrophysiological and behavioral phenotypes associated with FXS. Acute depletion of CPEB1 in the hippocampus of adult Fmr1(-/y) mice rescued working memory deficits, demonstrating reversal of this FXS phenotype. Finally, we find that FMRP and CPEB1 balance translation at the level of polypeptide elongation. Our results suggest that disruption of translational homeostasis is causal for FXS and that the maintenance of this homeostasis by FMRP and CPEB1 is necessary for normal neurologic function.
The cJun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is a key mediator of metabolic stress responses caused by consuming a high-fat diet, including the development of obesity. To test the role of JNK, we examined diet-induced obesity in mice with targeted ablation of Jnk genes in the anterior pituitary gland. These mice exhibited an increase in the pituitary expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), an increase in the blood concentration of thyroid hormone (T4), increased energy expenditure, and markedly reduced obesity compared with control mice. The increased amount of pituitary TSH was caused by reduced expression of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (Dio2), a gene that is required for T4-mediated negative feedback regulation of TSH expression. These data establish a molecular mechanism that accounts for the regulation of energy expenditure and the development of obesity by the JNK signaling pathway.
An infant born to a woman with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection began receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) 30 hours after birth owing to high-risk exposure. ART was continued when detection of HIV-1 DNA and RNA on repeat testing met the standard diagnostic criteria for infection. After therapy was discontinued (when the child was 18 months of age), levels of plasma HIV-1 RNA, proviral DNA in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, and HIV-1 antibodies, as assessed by means of clinical assays, remained undetectable in the child through 30 months of age. This case suggests that very early ART in infants may alter the establishment and long-term persistence of HIV-1 infection.
In embryonic stem cells (ESCs), the Tip60 histone acetyltransferase activates genes required for proliferation and silences genes that promote differentiation. Here we show that the class II histone deacetylase Hdac6 co-purifies with Tip60-p400 complex from ESCs. Hdac6 is necessary for regulation of most Tip60-p400 target genes, particularly those repressed by the complex. Unlike differentiated cells, where Hdac6 is mainly cytoplasmic, Hdac6 is largely nuclear in ESCs, neural stem cells (NSCs), and some cancer cell lines, and interacts with Tip60-p400 in each. Hdac6 localizes to promoters bound by Tip60-p400 in ESCs, binding downstream of transcription start sites. Surprisingly, Hdac6 does not appear to deacetylate histones, but rather is required for Tip60-p400 binding to many of its target genes. Finally, we find that, like canonical subunits of Tip60-p400, Hdac6 is necessary for robust ESC differentiation. These data suggest that Hdac6 plays a major role in the modulation of Tip60-p400 function in stem cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01557.001.
The C. elegans CSR-1 argonaute pathway counteracts epigenetic silencing to promote germline gene expression
Organisms can develop adaptive sequence-specific immunity by reexpressing pathogen-specific small RNAs that guide gene silencing. For example, the C. elegans PIWI-Argonaute/piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway recruits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) to foreign sequences to amplify a transgenerational small-RNA-induced epigenetic silencing signal (termed RNAe). Here, we provide evidence that, in addition to an adaptive memory of silenced sequences, C. elegans can also develop an opposing adaptive memory of expressed/self-mRNAs. We refer to this mechanism, which can prevent or reverse RNAe, as RNA-induced epigenetic gene activation (RNAa). We show that CSR-1, which engages RdRP-amplified small RNAs complementary to germline-expressed mRNAs, is required for RNAa. We show that a transgene with RNAa activity also exhibits accumulation of cognate CSR-1 small RNAs. Our findings suggest that C. elegans adaptively acquires and maintains a transgenerational CSR-1 memory that recognizes and protects self-mRNAs, allowing piRNAs to recognize foreign sequences innately, without the need for prior exposure.
During interphase, Rab11-GTPase-containing endosomes recycle endocytic cargo. However, little is known about Rab11 endosomes in mitosis. Here, we show that Rab11 localizes to the mitotic spindle and regulates dynein-dependent endosome localization at poles. We found that mitotic recycling endosomes bind gamma-TuRC components and associate with tubulin in vitro. Rab11 depletion or dominant-negative Rab11 expression disrupts astral microtubules, delays mitosis, and redistributes spindle pole proteins. Reciprocally, constitutively active Rab11 increases astral microtubules, restores gamma-tubulin spindle pole localization, and generates robust spindles. This suggests a role for Rab11 activity in spindle pole maturation during mitosis. Rab11 depletion causes misorientation of the mitotic spindle and the plane of cell division. These findings suggest a molecular mechanism for the organization of astral microtubules and the mitotic spindle through Rab11-dependent control of spindle pole assembly and function. We propose that Rab11 and its associated endosomes cocontribute to these processes through retrograde transport to poles by dynein.
Approximately 70% of KRAS-positive colorectal cancers (CRCs) have a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) characterized by aberrant DNA hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing of many genes. The factors involved in, and the mechanistic basis of, CIMP is not understood. Among the CIMP genes are the tumor suppressors p14(ARF), p15(INK4B), and p16(INK4A), encoded by the INK4-ARF locus. In this study, we perform an RNA interference screen and identify ZNF304, a zinc-finger DNA-binding protein, as the pivotal factor required for INK4-ARF silencing and CIMP in CRCs containing activated KRAS. In KRAS-positive human CRC cell lines and tumors, ZNF304 is bound at the promoters of INK4-ARF and other CIMP genes. Promoter-bound ZNF304 recruits a corepressor complex that includes the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1, resulting in DNA hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing. KRAS promotes silencing through upregulation of ZNF304, which drives DNA binding. Finally, we show that ZNF304 also directs transcriptional silencing of INK4-ARF in human embryonic stem cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02313.001.
In the vertebrate retina, light is detected by the outer segments of photoreceptor rods and cones, which are highly modified cilia. Like other cilia, outer segments have no protein synthetic capacity and depend on proteins made in the cell body for their formation and maintenance. The mechanism of transport into the outer segment is not fully understood but intraflagellar transport (IFT) is thought to be a major mechanism for moving protein from the cell body into the cilium. In the case of photoreceptor cells, the high density of receptors and the disk turnover that occurs daily necessitates much higher rates of transport than would be required in other cilia. In this work, we show that the IFT complex A protein IFT140 is required for development and maintenance of outer segments. In earlier work we found that acute deletion of Ift20 caused opsin to accumulate at the Golgi complex. In this work, we find that acute deletion of Ift140 does not cause opsin to accumulate at the Golgi complex but rather it accumulates in the plasma membrane of the inner segments. This work is a strong support of a model of opsin transport where IFT20 is involved in the movement from the Golgi complex to the base of the cilium. Then, once at the base, the opsin is carried through the connecting cilium by an IFT complex that includes IFT140. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Epstein-barr virus latent membrane protein 1 genetic variability in peripheral blood B cells and oropharyngeal fluids
We report the diversity of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) gene founder sequences and the level of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome variability over time and across anatomic compartments by using virus genomes amplified directly from oropharyngeal wash specimens and peripheral blood B cells during acute infection and convalescence. The intrahost nucleotide variability of the founder virus was 0.02% across the region sequences, and diversity increased significantly over time in the oropharyngeal compartment (P = 0.004). The LMP1 region showing the greatest level of variability in both compartments, and over time, was concentrated within the functional carboxyl-terminal activating regions 2 and 3 (CTAR2 and CTAR3). Interestingly, a deletion in a proline-rich repeat region (amino acids 274 to 289) of EBV commonly reported in EBV sequenced from cancer specimens was not observed in acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM) patients. Taken together, these data highlight the diversity in circulating EBV genomes and its potential importance in disease pathogenesis and vaccine design.
IMPORTANCE: This study is among the first to leverage an improved high-throughput deep-sequencing methodology to investigate directly from patient samples the degree of diversity in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) populations and the extent to which viral genome diversity develops over time in the infected host. Significant variability of circulating EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) gene sequences was observed between cellular and oral wash samples, and this variability increased over time in oral wash samples. The significance of EBV genetic diversity in transmission and disease pathogenesis are discussed.
An inducible program of inflammatory gene expression is central to antimicrobial defenses. This response is controlled by a collaboration involving signal-dependent activation of transcription factors, transcriptional co-regulators, and chromatin-modifying factors. We have identified a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) that acts as a key regulator of this inflammatory response. Pattern recognition receptors such as the Toll-like receptors induce the expression of numerous lncRNAs. One of these, lincRNA-Cox2, mediates both the activation and repression of distinct classes of immune genes. Transcriptional repression of target genes is dependent on interactions of lincRNA-Cox2 with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A/B and A2/B1. Collectively, these studies unveil a central role of lincRNA-Cox2 as a broad-acting regulatory component of the circuit that controls the inflammatory response.
Dr Jeanne Lawrence talks to Caroline Telfer, Commissioning Editor. Dr Jeanne Lawrence is an internationally recognized leader in the study of chromosome regulation by noncoding RNA and nuclear and genome organization. Her research bridges fundamental questions about genome regulation with clinical implications of recent advances in epigenetics. Her interest in chromosome structure and regulation has been a theme throughout her career and she has been honored for her work developing sensitive FISH technology for the detection of single copy genes, as well as RNAs. Her laboratory's publications include the initial demonstration of cell type-specific gene organization with nuclear subdomains; the novel biology of a noncoding RNA, XIST, which coats a whole X-chromosome to induce its silencing; and a new architectural role for a large noncoding RNA to scaffold a nuclear body. Her laboratory's work on epigenetic chromosome regulation in stem cells led to recent studies regarding unanticipated roles of repeat sequences in normal chromosome regulation and deregulation in cancer. Most recently, her laboratory has demonstrated a new approach to translate the basic mechanism of X-chromosome inactivation to correct a chromosomal dosage imbalance in patient-derived cells with trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome). Dr Lawrence has received awards from numerous agencies, including a Research Career Development Award from the National Center for Human Genome Research, career awards from the American Society of Cell Biology, the German Society for Biochemistry, the Muscular Dystrophy Association and a John Merck Fund Translational Research Award. She has served on the NIH National Advisory Council for Human Genome Research, numerous study sections and is currently a monitoring editor for the Journal of Cell Biology. Dr Lawrence has a BA in Biology and Music from Stephens College (MO, USA), a MS in Human Genetics and Genetic Counseling from Rutgers University (NJ, USA) and a PhD in Developmental Biology from Brown University (RI, USA). She is currently a Professor and Interim Chair of the Department of Cell and Developmental Biology at the University of Massachusetts Medical School (MA, USA).
Higher-order unfolding of satellite heterochromatin is a consistent and early event in cell senescence
Epigenetic changes to chromatin are thought to be essential to cell senescence, which is key to tumorigenesis and aging. Although many studies focus on heterochromatin gain, this work demonstrates large-scale unraveling of peri/centromeric satellites, which occurs in all models of human and mouse senescence examined. This was not seen in cancer cells, except in a benign senescent tumor in vivo. Senescence-associated distension of satellites (SADS) occurs earlier and more consistently than heterochromatin foci formation, and SADS is not exclusive to either the p16 or p21 pathways. Because Hutchinson Guilford progeria syndrome patient cells do not form excess heterochromatin, the question remained whether or not proliferative arrest in this aging syndrome involved distinct epigenetic mechanisms. Here, we show that SADS provides a unifying event in both progeria and normal senescence. Additionally, SADS represents a novel, cytological-scale unfolding of chromatin, which is not concomitant with change to several canonical histone marks nor a result of DNA hypomethylation. Rather, SADS is likely mediated by changes to higher-order nuclear structural proteins, such as LaminB1.