What are we talking about at the annual meetings of ABCT? An analysis of presentations from 1997-2006
The purpose of this article is to bring a descriptive quantitative evaluation of the content of the conferences for the most recent 10-year period, from 1997 through 2006. In this article we focus on areas covered at the conference dealing with psychopathology research and treatment. The annual convention is a forum where the early conceptualizations of psychopathology, and interventions, have been presented and refined. The diversity of problems is impressive: psychotic disorders; health and somatic concerns; depression and related affective disorders; addictions; eating disorders; disorders associated with advanced age; and anxiety disorders, to name just a few. This analysis was intended to be descriptive, and therefore to stimulate additional discussion among members of ABCT. It is our hope that the presentation of this material highlights the current and changing areas of focus at the conference, and therefore in the field of cognitive and behavior therapy (CBT). It is also our hope that it will stimulate discussion about whether we should continue these trends, direct our attention to areas that are not as well represented at the annual conference, or develop a broad range of "tracks" that effectively covers all the various areas of CBT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
A preview of this chapter is available in Google Books.
Validation of an abbreviated version of the structured interview of reported symptoms in outpatient psychiatric and community settings
This study examined the effectiveness of an abbreviated version of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS-A) in identifying malingered mental illness. The SIRS-A is comprised of 69 items drawn from the SIRS (R. Rogers et al. 1992, SIRS: Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms: Professional Manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.), substantially reducing the administration time. A simulation design was used with three samples; 87 psychiatric outpatients who responded honestly were compared to 29 community-dwelling adults and 24 psychiatric patients instructed to malinger psychopathology. The SIRS-A generated sensitivity comparable to or exceeding that of the SIRS normative data, but specificity was poorer; many genuinely impaired patients were misclassified as malingering. Although these findings suggest the SIRS-A may be an effective means to assess malingering in psychiatric populations, further research assessing the reasons for the elevated false positive rates is necessary.
Therapeutic misconception (TM)-when clinical research participants fail to adequately grasp the difference between participating in a clinical trial and receiving ordinary clinical care-has long been recognized as a significant problem in consent to clinical trials. We suggest that TM does not primarily reflect inadequate disclosure or participants' incompetence. Instead, TM arises from divergent primary cognitive frames. The researchers' frame places the clinical trial in the context of scientific designs for assessing intervention efficacy. In contrast, most participants have a cognitive frame that is personal and focused primarily on their medical problems. To illustrate this, we draw on interview material from both clinical researchers and participants in clinical trials. We suggest that reducing TM requires encouraging subjects to adjust their frame, not just add information to their existing frame. What is necessary is a scientific reframing of participation in a clinical trial.
Sensing of Endogenous Nucleic Acids by the Innate Immune System during Viral Infection: A Dissertation
Innate sensing of nucleic acids lies at the heart of antiviral host defense. However, aberrant activation of innate sensors by host nucleic acids can also lead to the development of autoimmune diseases. Such host nucleic acids can also be released from stressed, damaged or dying cells into the tissue microenvironment. It however remains unclear how the extracellular nucleic acids impacts the quality of the host immune responses against viral infections. Using a mouse model of influenza A virus (IAV) infection, we uncovered an important immune-regulatory pathway that tempers the intensity of the host-response to infection. We found that host-derived DNA from necrotic cells accumulates in the lung microenvironment during IAV infection, and is sensed by the DNA receptor Absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2). AIM2-deficiency resulted in severe immune pathology highlighted by enhanced recruitments of immune cells, and excessive systemic inflammation after IAV challenge, which led to increased morbidity and lethality in IAV-infected mice. Interestingly, these effects of AIM2 were largely independent of its ability to mediate IL-1β maturation through inflammasome complexes. Finally, ablation of accumulated DNA in the lung by transgenic expression of DNaseI in vivo had similar effects. Collectively, our results identify a novel mechanism of cross talk between PRR pathways, where sensing of hostderived nucleic acids limits immune mediated damage to virus infected tissues.
Method of administration of PROMIS scales did not significantly impact score level, reliability, or validity
OBJECTIVES: To test the impact of the method of administration (MOA) on score level, reliability, and validity of scales developed in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS).
STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Two nonoverlapping parallel forms each containing eight items from each of three PROMIS item banks (Physical Function, Fatigue, and Depression) were completed by 923 adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, or rheumatoid arthritis. In a randomized crossover design, subjects answered one form by interactive voice response (IVR) technology, paper questionnaire (PQ), personal digital assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Method equivalence was evaluated through analyses of difference scores, intraclass correlations (ICCs), and convergent/discriminant validity.
RESULTS: In difference score analyses, no significant mode differences were found and all confidence intervals were within the prespecified minimal important difference of 0.2 standard deviation. Parallel-forms reliabilities were very high (ICC = 0.85-0.93). Only one across-mode ICC was significantly lower than the same-mode ICC. Tests of validity showed no differential effect by MOA. Participants preferred screen interface over PQ and IVR.
CONCLUSION: We found no statistically or clinically significant differences in score levels or psychometric properties of IVR, PQ, or PDA administration compared with PC.
Can Streamlined Multicriteria Decision Analysis Be Used to Implement Shared Decision Making for Colorectal Cancer Screening
BACKGROUND: Current US colorectal cancer screening guidelines that call for shared decision making regarding the choice among several recommended screening options are difficult to implement. Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) is an established method well suited for supporting shared decision making. Our study goal was to determine whether a streamlined form of MCDA using rank-order-based judgments can accurately assess patients' colorectal cancer screening priorities.
METHODS: We converted priorities for 4 decision criteria and 3 subcriteria regarding colorectal cancer screening obtained from 484 average-risk patients using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) in a prior study into rank-order-based priorities using rank order centroids. We compared the 2 sets of priorities using Spearman rank correlation and nonparametric Bland-Altman limits of agreement analysis. We assessed the differential impact of using the rank-order-based versus the AHP-based priorities on the results of a full MCDA comparing 3 currently recommended colorectal cancer screening strategies. Generalizability of the results was assessed using Monte Carlo simulation.
RESULTS: Correlations between the 2 sets of priorities for the 7 criteria ranged from 0.55 to 0.92. The proportions of differences between rank-order-based and AHP-based priorities that were more than +/-0.15 ranged from 1% to 16%. Differences in the full MCDA results were minimal, and the relative rankings of the 3 screening options were identical more than 88% of the time. The Monte Carlo simulation results were similar.
CONCLUSIONS: Rank-order-based MCDA could be a simple, practical way to guide individual decisions and assess population decision priorities regarding colorectal cancer screening strategies. Additional research is warranted to further explore the use of these methods for promoting shared decision making.
Trends in the incidence, treatment, and outcomes of acute lower extremity ischemia in the United States Medicare population
OBJECTIVE: Acute lower extremity ischemia (ALI) is a common vascular surgery emergency associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to assess contemporary trends in the incidence of ALI, the methods of treatment, and the associated mortality and amputation rates in the U.S. Medicare population.
METHODS: This was an observational study using Medicare claims data between 1998 and 2009. Outcomes examined included trends in the incidence of ALI; trends in interventions for ALI; and trends in amputation, mortality, and amputation-free survival rates.
RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2009, the incidence of hospitalization for ALI decreased from 45.7 per 100,000 to 26.0 per 100,000 (P for trend < .001). The percentage of patients undergoing surgical intervention decreased from 57.1% to 51.6% (P for trend < .001), whereas the percentage of patients undergoing endovascular interventions increased from 15.0% to 33.1% (P for trend < .001). In-hospital mortality rates decreased from 12.0% to 9.0% (P for trend < .001), whereas 1-year mortality rates remained stable at 41.0% and 42.5% (P for trend not significant). In-hospital amputation rates remained stable at 8.1% and 6.4% (P for trend not significant), whereas 1-year amputation rates decreased from 14.8% to 11.0% (P for trend < .001). In-hospital amputation-free survival after hospitalization for ALI increased from 81.2% to 85.4% (P for trend < .001); however, 1-year amputation-free survival remained unchanged.
CONCLUSIONS: Between 1998 and 2009, the incidence of ALI among the U.S. Medicare population declined significantly, and the percentage of patients treated with endovascular techniques markedly increased. During this time, 1-year amputation rates declined. Furthermore, although in-hospital mortality rates declined after presentation with ALI, 1-year mortality rates remained unchanged.
Copyright © 2014 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessments are increasingly used to evaluate treatment effects and to shape the delivery of value based care. Valid generic and disease specific tools are available for quantifying HRQoL in patients with non-toxic goitre. However, few studies have applied these validated instruments to assess HRQoL in patients with benign non-toxic goitre. Limited evidence suggests that patients with non-toxic goitre have HRQoL impairments in multiple HRQoL domains. While the HRQoL-impact of non-toxic goitre may be small relative to other severely disabling medical conditions, treatment is almost exclusively elected for HRQoL indications. Thus better quantification of HRQoL, particularly at better (or more favorable) levels where many patients score, is essential. Web and mobile technologies have eased the ability to deliver surveys to patients. Routine consideration of HRQoL provides the opportunity to monitor the impact of treatment on the outcomes most meaningful for patients and the opportunity to help shape the delivery of value based health care.
Persistent medication affordability problems among disabled Medicare beneficiaries after Part D, 2006-2011
BACKGROUND: Disabled Americans who qualify for Medicare coverage typically have multiple chronic conditions, are highly dependent on effective drug therapy, and have limited financial resources, putting them at risk for cost-related medication nonadherence (CRN). Since 2006, the Part D benefit has helped Medicare beneficiaries afford medications.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate recent national trends in medication affordability among this vulnerable population, stratified by morbidity burden.
DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: We estimated annual rates of medication affordability among nonelderly disabled participants in a nationally representative survey (2006-2011, n=14,091 person-years) using multivariate logistic regression analyses.
MEASURE: Survey-reported CRN and spending less on other basic needs to afford medicines.
RESULTS: In the 6 years following Part D implementation, the proportion of disabled Medicare beneficiaries reporting CRN ranged from 31.6% to 35.6%, while the reported prevalence of spending less on other basic needs to afford medicines ranged from 17.7% to 21.8%. Across study years, those with multiple chronic conditions had consistently worse affordability problems. In 2011, the prevalence of CRN was 37.3% among disabled beneficiaries with > /= 3 morbidities as compared with 28.1% among those with fewer morbidities; for spending less on basic needs, the prevalence was 25.4% versus 15.7%, respectively. There were no statistically detectable changes in either measure when comparing 2011 with 2007.
CONCLUSIONS: Disabled Medicare beneficiaries continue to struggle to afford prescription medications. There is an urgent need for focused policy attention on this vulnerable population, which has inadequate financial access to drug treatments, despite having drug coverage under Medicare Part D.
OBJECTIVE: To examine self-reported weight discrimination and differences based on race, sex, and BMI in a biracial cohort of community-based middle-aged adults.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants (3,466, mean age = 50 years, mean BMI = 30 kg/m(2)) of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study who completed the 25-year examination of this epidemiological investigation in 2010-2011 were reported. The sample included normal weight, overweight, and obese participants. CARDIA participants are distributed into four race-sex groups, with about half being African-American and half White. Participants completed a self-reported measure of weight discrimination.
RESULTS: Among overweight/obese participants, weight discrimination was lowest for White men (12.0%) and highest for White women (30.2%). The adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) for weight discrimination in those with class 2/3 obesity (BMI > /= 35 kg/m(2)) versus the normal-weight was most pronounced: African American men, 4.59 (1.71-12.34); African American women, 7.82 (3.57-17.13); White men, 6.99 (2.27-21.49); and White women, 18.60 (8.97-38.54). Being overweight (BMI = 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) vs. normal weight was associated with increased discrimination in White women only: 2.10 (1.11-3.96).
CONCLUSIONS: Novel evidence for a race-sex interaction on perceived weight discrimination, with White women more likely to report discrimination at all levels of overweight and obesity was provided. Pychosocial mechanisms responsible for these differences deserve exploration.
Women's health care providers have noted an increased infant mortality rate among Ghanaian immigrants. We conducted focus groups with 17 women in Ghana. We asked them how they maintained their health both before and during pregnancy. When discussing their health, women repeatedly described the conditions or context of their daily lives and the traditional practices that they used to stay healthy. Knowledge of women's lives, the health care system that they previously used, and their cultural practices can be utilized by health care providers to more fully assess their patients and design more culturally appropriate care for this group of women.
Overcoming challenges integrating patient-generated data into the clinical EHR: lessons from the CONtrolling Disease Using Inexpensive IT--Hypertension in Diabetes (CONDUIT-HID) Project
INTRODUCTION: The CONDUIT-HID intervention integrates patients' electronic blood pressure measurements directly into the clinical EHR using Microsoft HealthVault as an intermediary data store. The goal of this paper is to describe generalizable categories of patient and technical challenges encountered in the development and implementation of this inexpensive, commercial off-the-shelf consumer health informatics intervention, examples of challenges within each category, and how the example challenges were resolved prior to conducting an RCT of the intervention.
METHODS: The research team logged all challenges and mediation strategies during the technical development of the intervention, conducted home visits to observe patients using the intervention, and conducted telephone calls with patients to understand challenges they encountered. We then used these data to iteratively refine the intervention.
RESULTS: The research team identified a variety of generalizable categories of challenges associated with patients uploading data from their homes, patients uploading data from clinics because they did not have or were not comfortable using home computers, and patients establishing the connection between HealthVault and the clinical EHR. Specific challenges within these categories arose because: (1) the research team had little control over the device and application design, (2) multiple vendors needed to coordinate their actions and design changes, (3) the intervention use cases were not anticipated by the device and application designers, (4) PHI accessed on clinic computers needed to be kept secure, (5) the research team wanted the data in the clinical EHR to be valid and reliable, (6) patients needed the ability to share only the data they wanted, and (7) the development of some EHR functionalities were new to the organization. While these challenges were varied and complex, the research team was able to successfully resolve each one prior to the start of the RCT.
CONCLUSIONS: By identifying these generalizable categories of challenges, we aim to help others proactively search for and remedy potential challenges associated with their interventions, rather than reactively responding to problems as they arise. We posit that this approach will significantly increase the likelihood that these types of interventions will be successful.
Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of High Blood Pressure: A Population-Based Survey in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Vietnam and hypertension (HTN) is an important and prevalent risk factor for CVD in the adult Vietnamese population. Despite an increasing prevalence of HTN in this country, information about the awareness, treatment, and control of HTN is limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of HTN, and factors associated with these endpoints, in residents of a mountainous province in Vietnam.
METHODS: Data from 2,368 adults (age > /=25 years) participating in a population-based survey conducted in 2011 in Thai Nguyen province were analyzed. All eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and were examined by community health workers using a standardized protocol.
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of HTN in this population was 23%. Older age, male sex, and being overweight were associated with a higher odds of having HTN, while higher educational level was associated with a lower odds of having HTN. Among those with HTN, only 34% were aware of their condition, 43% of those who were aware they had HTN received treatment and, of these, 39% had their HTN controlled.
CONCLUSIONS: Nearly one in four adults in Thai Nguyen is hypertensive, but far fewer are aware of this condition and even fewer have their blood pressure adequately controlled. Public health strategies increasing awareness of HTN in the community, as well as improvements in the treatment and control of HTN, remain needed to reduce the prevalence of HTN and related morbidity and mortality.
Difference in method of administration did not significantly impact item response: an IRT-based analysis from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) initiative
PURPOSE: To test the impact of method of administration (MOA) on the measurement characteristics of items developed in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS).
METHODS: Two non-overlapping parallel 8-item forms from each of three PROMIS domains (physical function, fatigue, and depression) were completed by 923 adults (age 18-89) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, or rheumatoid arthritis. In a randomized cross-over design, subjects answered one form by interactive voice response (IVR) technology, paper questionnaire (PQ), personal digital assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) on the Internet, and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Structural invariance, equivalence of item responses, and measurement precision were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory methods.
RESULTS: Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis supported equivalence of factor structure across MOA. Analyses by item response theory found no differences in item location parameters and strongly supported the equivalence of scores across MOA.
CONCLUSIONS: We found no statistically or clinically significant differences in score levels in IVR, PQ, or PDA administration as compared to PC. Availability of large item response theory-calibrated PROMIS item banks allowed for innovations in study design and analysis.
Re-using Mini-Sentinel data following rapid assessments of potential safety signals via modular analytic programs
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s Mini-Sentinel pilot has created a distributed data system with over 125 million lives and nearly 350 million person-years of observation time. The pilot allows the FDA to use modular analytic programs to assess suspected safety signals quickly. The FDA convened a committee to assess the implications of such rapid assessments on subsequent analyses of the same product-outcome pair using the same data. The committee offers several non-binding recommendations based on the strength of the knowledge of the suspected association before running the analysis: signal generation (an analysis with no prior), signal refinement (an analysis with a weak or moderate prior), and signal evaluation (an analysis with a strong prior). The committee believes that modular programs (MPs) are most useful for signal refinement. If MPs are used for analyses with no or weak/moderate priors, the committee members generally agree that the data may be re-used if certain conditions are met. When there is a strong prior, the committee recommends that a protocol-based assessment be used; Mini-Sentinel data may be analyzed by MPs and re-used only under very uncommon circumstances. The committee agrees that any subsequent assessment of the same product-outcome pair that follows an MP analysis should not be interpreted as independent confirmation of the association, such as would be established via replication of the same product-outcome association in two different populations. Instead, the follow-up assessment should be interpreted as an analysis that has reduced insofar as possible systematic errors that may have been present or residual in the original MP analysis. The committee also discussed how this general framework may apply to two completed rapid assessments of dabigatran and bleeding risk and of olmesartan and celiac disease risk.