On behalf of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, we present a model of obesity management in primary care based on the 5As counseling framework (Assess, Advise, Agree, Assist, and Arrange). Primary care physicians can use the 5As framework to build and coordinate a multidisciplinary team that: 1) addresses patients' psychosocial issues and medical and psychiatric comorbidities associated with obesity treatment failure; 2) delivers intensive counseling that consists of goal setting, self-monitoring, and problem solving; and 3) connects patients with community resources to assist them in making healthy lifestyle changes. This paper outlines reimbursement guidelines and weight-management counseling strategies, and provides a framework for building a multidisciplinary team to maximize the patient's success at weight management.
An Internet-based Controlled Trial Aimed to Improve Osteoporosis Prevention among Chronic Glucocorticoid Users
OBJECTIVE: To address the low prevention and treatment rates for those at risk of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP), we evaluated the influence of a direct-to-patient, Internet-based educational video intervention using "storytelling" on rates of antiosteoporosis medication use among chronic glucocorticoid users who were members of an online pharmacy refill service.
METHODS: We identified members who refilled > /= 5 mg/day of prednisone (or equivalent) for 90 contiguous days and had no GIOP therapy for > /= 12 months. Using patient stories, we developed an online video addressing risk factors and treatment options, and delivered it to members refilling a glucocorticoid prescription. The intervention consisted of two 45-day "Video ON" periods, during which the video automatically appeared at the time of refill, and two 45-day "Video OFF" periods, during which there was no video. Members could also "self-initiate" watching the video by going to the video link. We used an interrupted time series design to evaluate the effectiveness of this intervention on GIOP prescription therapies over 6 months.
RESULTS: Among 3017 members (64.8%) exposed to the intervention, 59% had measurable video viewing time, of which 3% "self-initiated" the video. The GIOP prescription rate in the "Video ON" group was 2.9% versus 2.7% for the "Video OFF" group. There was a nonsignificant trend toward greater GIOP prescription in members who self-initiated the video versus automated viewing (5.7% vs 2.9%, p = 0.1).
CONCLUSION: Among adults at high risk of GIOP, prescription rates were not significantly affected by an online educational video presented at the time of glucocorticoid refill.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01378689.
Metabolic danger signals, uric acid and ATP, mediate inflammatory cross-talk between hepatocytes and immune cells in alcoholic liver disease
Inflammation defines the progression of ALD from reversible to advanced stages. Translocation of bacterial LPS to the liver from the gut is necessary for alcohol-induced liver inflammation. However, it is not known whether endogenous, metabolic danger signals are required for inflammation in ALD. Uric acid and ATP, 2 major proinflammatory danger signals, were evaluated in the serum of human volunteers exposed to a single dose of ethanol or in supernatants of primary human hepatocytes exposed to ethanol. In vitro studies were used to evaluate the role of uric acid and ATP in inflammatory cross-talk between hepatocytes and immune cells. The significance of signaling downstream of uric acid and ATP in the liver was evaluated in NLRP3-deficient mice fed a Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet. Exposure of healthy human volunteers to a single dose of ethanol resulted in increased serum levels of uric acid and ATP. In vitro, we identified hepatocytes as a significant source of these endogenous inflammatory signals. Uric acid and ATP mediated a paracrine inflammatory cross-talk between damaged hepatocytes and immune cells and significantly increased the expression of LPS-inducible cytokines, IL-1beta and TNF-alpha, by immune cells. Deficiency of NLRP3, a ligand-sensing component of the inflammasome recognizing uric acid and ATP, prevented the development of alcohol-induced liver inflammation in mice and significantly ameliorated liver damage and steatosis. Endogenous metabolic danger signals, uric acid, and ATP are involved in inflammatory cross-talk between hepatocytes and immune cells and play a crucial role in alcohol-induced liver inflammation.
Electronic medical records (EMRs) offer the opportunity to streamline the search for patients with possible delirium. The purpose of the current study was to identify words and phrases commonly noted in charts of patients with delirium. The current study included 67 patients (nested within a cohort study of 300 patients) ages 70 and older undergoing major elective surgery with evidence of confusion in their medical charts. Eight keywords or phrases had positive predictive values of 60% to 100% for delirium. Keywords were charted more often in nursing notes than physician notes. A brief list of keywords may serve as a building block for a methodology to screen for possible delirium from charts, with particular attention to nursing notes, for research and real-time clinical decision making.
Are Members of Long-Lived Families Healthier Than Their Equally Long-Lived Peers? Evidence From the Long Life Family Study
BACKGROUND: The Long Life Family Study (LLFS) is a multicenter longitudinal study of exceptional survival among members of long-lived sibships (probands), their offspring, and spouses of either group. For these four "roles", we asked: Does membership in a long-lived family protect against disease?
METHODS: We used 2008-2010 Beneficiary Annual Summary Files from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to compare prevalences of 17 conditions among 781 LLFS participants in Medicare with those of 3,227 non-LLFS matches from the general Medicare population. Analyses accounted for nesting within LLFS families.
RESULTS: Seven conditions were significantly less common among LLFS probands than their matches: Alzheimer's, hip fracture, diabetes, depression, prostate cancer, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Four diseases not strongly linked to mortality (arthritis, cataract, osteoporosis, glaucoma) were significantly more common for LLFS probands. Despite fewer people and less disease in those roles, LLFS offspring and LLFS spouses of either generation also had significantly lower risk for Alzheimer's, diabetes, and heart failure.
CONCLUSIONS: Common, severe mortality-associated diseases are less prevalent among LLFS probands and their offspring than in the general population of aging Americans. Quality-of-life-limiting diseases such as arthritis and cataract are more prevalent, potentially through more diagnosing of milder forms in otherwise healthy and active individuals. LLFS spouses are also relatively healthy. As the younger cohorts age into Medicare and develop more conditions, it will be important to see whether these tentative findings strengthen.
The RNA exosome is a highly conserved exoribonuclease complex that is involved in RNA processing, quality control and turnover regulation. The exosome plays pleiotropic functions by recruiting different cofactors that regulate its target specificity. Recently, the exosome has been implicated in the regulation of immune processes including cytokine production and negative regulation of innate sensing of nucleic acids. Careful regulation of such mechanisms is critical to avoid a breakdown of self-tolerance and the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. This perspective briefly introduces the exosome, its its normal function in RNA biology and summarizes regulatory roles of the RNA exosome in immunity. Finally we discuss how dysregulation of exosome function can lead to autoimmune disease.
Prospective trials investigating the accuracy of SLNB for cN0 (primary surgical therapy) and cN1 patients (neoadjuvant chemotherapy) have not utilized likelihood ratios (LR) to assess the impact of false negative SLNB. This review evaluates the evidence on accuracy of SLNB using STARD and QUADAS-2 (revised) criteria for patients undergoing primary surgical therapy and primary chemotherapy. It utilizes the: (i) Reported rates for pre-test probabilities of node positive disease from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for the cN0 patients (primary surgical therapy) for each T stage; calculates the negative LR from cumulative evidence; and uses the Bayesian nomogram to compute the post-test probability of missing the metastatic axillary node based on negative SLNB. (ii) Reported rates of complete axillary response in ACOSOG-Z1071 trial for cN1 patients to calculate the pre-test probabilities of residual nodal disease for each biological tumor sub-type; calculates the negative LR from ACOSOG-Z1071, and SENTINA trial data; and uses the Bayesian nomogram to compute the post-test probability of missing the residual metastatic axillary node based on negative SLNB. For cN0 disease, the odds of missing axillary disease based on negative SLNB for each T stage are: T1a = 0.7%; T1b = 1.5%; T1c = 3%; T2 = 7%; T3 = 18%. For cN1 disease, the odds of missing residual axillary disease based on negative SLNB for each biological subtype are: HER2neu+ = 8%; Triple negative = 15%; ER+/PR+/HER2neu- = 45%. Negative LR is more accurate and superior to false negative rate for determining the clinical utility of SLNB by taking into account the changing pre-test probability of disease.
The increased use of computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance angiography as the sole imaging modalities prior to infrainguinal bypass has had no effect on outcomes
BACKGROUND: Angiography remains the gold standard imaging modality before infrainguinal bypass. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) have emerged as noninvasive alternatives for preoperative imaging. We sought to examine contemporary trends in the utilization of CTA and MRA as isolated imaging modalities before infrainguinal bypass and to compare outcomes following infrainguinal bypass in patients who underwent CTA or MRA versus those who underwent conventional arteriography.
METHODS: Patients undergoing infrainguinal bypass within the Vascular Study Group of New England were identified (2003-2012). Patients were stratified by preoperative imaging modality: CTA/MRA alone or conventional angiography. Trends in utilization of these modalities were examined and demographics of these groups were compared. Primary end points included primary patency, secondary patency, and major adverse limb events (MALE) at 1 year as determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to evaluate the effect of imaging modality on primary patency, secondary patency, and MALE after adjusting for confounders.
RESULTS: In 3123 infrainguinal bypasses, CTA/MRA alone was used in 462 cases (15%) and angiography was used in 2661 cases (85%). Use of CTA/MRA alone increased over time, with 52 (11%) bypasses performed between 2003 and 2005, 189 (41%) bypasses performed between 2006 and 2009, and 221 (48%) bypasses performed between 2010 and 2012 (P < 0.001). Patients with CTA/MRA alone, compared with patients with angiography, more frequently underwent bypass for claudication (33% vs. 26%, P = 0.001) or acute limb ischemia (13% vs. 5%, P < 0.0001), more frequently had prosthetic conduits (39% vs. 30%, P = 0.001), and less frequently had tibial/pedal targets (32% vs. 40%, P = 0.002). After adjusting for these and other confounders, multivariable analysis demonstrated that the use of CTA/MRA alone was not associated with a significant difference in 1 year primary patency (hazard ratio [HR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-1.16), secondary patency (HR 1.30, 95% CI 0.99-1.72), or MALE (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.89-1.32).
CONCLUSIONS: CTA and MRA are being increasingly used as the sole preoperative imaging modality before infrainguinal bypass. This shift in practice patterns appears to have no measurable effect on outcomes at 1 year.
The 2014 Clinical Prevention and Population Health Curriculum Framework in this issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine is described as a resource for preparing health professionals to achieve the Triple Aim: improving the patient experience of care, reducing the per capita cost of care, and improving the health of the population. The strengths of the Framework in guiding health professions education are described and the consensus-based process that included members from major health professional organizations to develop the Framework is discussed. Links are provided to examples illustrating the Framework’s use in health professions educational settings.
The purpose of our study is to examine postgraduate year PGY-1 resident perceptions of educational and patient care experiences in the medical intensive care unit (MICU) through a survey of 2 groups completing a first year of training before and after the 16-hour rule change.
Identification of Obesity and Cardiovascular Risk in Ethnically and Racially Diverse Populations: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association
The purpose of this scientific statement is to describe the limitations of current simple measures, such as the use of BMI with standard thresholds to identify overweight and obesity, as applied to racial and ethnic minorities. The statement also addresses potential alternatives, as well as the diagnosis of obesity based on multiple risk factors, including race and ethnicity. On the basis of our extensive, systematic review of current literature and in collaboration with the American Heart Association’s (AHA) Obesity Committee of the Council on Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health, we have also made some key recommendations for clinical practice, research, and public health for improved identification of obesity and cardiovascular risks in a racially and ethnically diverse population.
Efficacy and safety results from a Phase 3, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of subcutaneous golimumab in Chinese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate therapy
AIM: The efficacy and safety of golimumab + methotrexate (MTX) were evaluated in Chinese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite MTX therapy.
METHODS: Chinese patients (n = 264) were randomly assigned (1 : 1) to receive subcutaneous injections of placebo + MTX with crossover to golimumab 50 mg + MTX at week 24 (Group 1) or to golimumab 50 mg + MTX (Group 2) every 4 weeks. Group 1 patients with inadequate response entered blinded early escape to golimumab 50 mg + MTX at week 16. At least a 20% improvement in the American College of Rheumatology (ACR20) criteria at week 14 was the primary endpoint. Other assessments included the 28-joint count Disease Activity Score using C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) through week 52. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored through week 56.
RESULTS: ACR20 response at week 14 was significantly higher in Group 2 (40.9% [54/132]) compared with Group 1 (15.9% [21/132]; P < 0.001). Greater proportions of patients in Group 2 compared with Group 1 had a DAS28-CRP response at week 14 (65.2% vs. 30.3%, P < 0.001) or ACR20 response at week 24 (42.4% vs. 15.9%, P < 0.001), and Group 2 had a significantly greater change in HAQ-DI at week 24 (-0.26 vs. 0.15, P < 0.001). After week 24, the proportion of patients achieving ACR20 in Group 1 approached that in Group 2. Through week 16, 23.5% of Group 1 and 26.7% of Group 2 patients reported AEs. Among golimumab + MTX-treated patients, 50.2% and 4.2% had > /= 1 AE or serious AE, respectively, through week 56. No unexpected safety signals were observed.
CONCLUSION: Among MTX-experienced Chinese patients with active RA, a significantly greater proportion of patients receiving golimumab + MTX had improvements in the signs and symptoms of RA compared with MTX monotherapy. Safety findings were consistent with previous studies of golimumab in patients with RA.
Cutting Edge: A Natural Antisense Transcript, AS-IL1alpha, Controls Inducible Transcription of the Proinflammatory Cytokine IL-1alpha
Natural antisense transcripts (NATs) are a class of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that are complementary to other protein-coding genes. Although thousands of NATs are encoded by mammalian genomes, their functions in innate immunity are unknown. In this study, we identified and characterized a novel NAT, AS-IL1alpha, which is partially complementary to IL-1alpha. Similar to IL-1alpha, AS-IL1alpha is expressed at low levels in resting macrophages and is induced following infection with Listeria monocytogenes or stimulation with TLR ligands (Pam3CSK4, LPS, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid). Inducible expression of IL-1alpha mRNA and protein were significantly reduced in macrophages expressing shRNA that target AS-IL1alpha. AS-IL1alpha is located in the nucleus and did not alter the stability of IL-1alpha mRNA. Instead, AS-IL1alpha was required for the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to the IL-1alpha promoter. In summary, our studies identify AS-IL1alpha as an important regulator of IL-1alpha transcription during the innate immune response.
Relationship Between Cerebrovascular Risk, Cognition, and Treatment Outcome in Late-Life Psychotic Depression
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether cerebrovascular risk, executive function, and processing speed are associated with acute treatment outcome of psychotic depression in older adults.
METHODS: The authors analyzed data from 142 persons aged 60 years or older with major depression with psychotic features who participated in a 12-week randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing olanzapine plus sertraline with olanzapine plus placebo. The independent variables were baseline cerebrovascular risk (Framingham Stroke Risk Score), baseline executive function (Stroop interference score and the initiation/perseveration subscale of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale), and baseline processing speed (color and word reading components of the Stroop). The outcome variable was change in severity of depression, measured by the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale total score, during the course of the RCT.
RESULTS: Greater baseline cerebrovascular risk was significantly associated with less improvement in depression severity over time, after controlling for pertinent covariates. Neither executive function nor processing speed predicted outcome.
CONCLUSION: This study suggests an association of cerebrovascular risk, but not executive function or processing speed, with treatment outcome of major depression with psychotic features in older adults.
OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility of collecting, storing, retrieving and analysing necessary information to fulfil a preliminary set of quality indicators (QIs) that have been proposed by an international task force in a large multinational clinical practice database of patients with RA.
METHODS: Data from all 12 487 patients with 46 005 visits in the Measurement of Efficacy of Treatment in the Era of Outcome in Rheumatology database from January 2008 until January 2012 were analysed to test the feasibility of collecting information on 10 QIs: time to diagnosis; frequency of visits; assessment of autoantibodies and radiographs, disease activity and function; disease remission, low disease activity, normal function; time to first DMARD and type of first DMARD. For each QI, two aspects were assessed: information availability and target achievement.
RESULTS: Information was available for < 50% of patients regarding the following QIs: time to diagnosis, assessment of ACPAs or radiographs, time to first DMARD and type of first DMARD. Information was available for function assessment in 49% of visits and 67% of patients and for disease activity assessment in 85% of visits and 86% of patients. Information relevant to the QI frequency of visits was available for all patients. Relevant information to calculate the proportion of patients who achieved a defined target could be obtained for all QIs.
CONCLUSION: Collecting storing, retrieving and analysing the core data necessary to meaningfully assess quality of care is feasible in a multinational, practice-based electronic database.
OBJECTIVE: Pain and smoking are highly prevalent among Veterans. Studies in non-Veteran populations have reported higher pain intensity among current smokers compared with nonsmokers and former smokers. We examined the association of smoking status with reported pain intensity among Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom, Iraqi Freedom, and New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND).
DESIGN: The sample consisted of OEF/OIF/OND Veterans who had at least one visit to Veterans Affairs (2001-2012) with information in the electronic medical record for concurrent smoking status and pain intensity. The primary outcome measure was current pain intensity, categorized as none to mild (0-3); moderate (4-6); or severe ( > /=7); based on a self-reported 11-point pain numerical rating scale. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association of current smoking status with moderate to severe ( > /=4) pain intensity, controlling for potential confounders.
RESULTS: Overall, 50,988 women and 355,966 men Veterans were examined. The sample mean age was 30 years; 66.3% reported none to mild pain; 19.8% moderate pain; and 13.9% severe pain; 37% were current smokers and 16% former smokers. Results indicated that current smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 1.29 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.27-1.31)] and former smoking [OR = 1.02 (95% CI = 1.01-1.05)] were associated with moderate to severe pain intensity, controlling for age, service-connected disability, gender, obesity, substance abuse, mood disorders, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.
CONCLUSIONS: We found an association between current smoking and pain intensity. This effect was attenuated in former smokers. Our study highlights the importance of understanding reported pain intensity in OEF/OIF/OND Veterans who continue to smoke.
Determinants of survival and major amputation after peripheral endovascular intervention for critical limb ischemia
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to analyze periprocedural and 1-year outcomes of peripheral endovascular intervention (PVI) for critical limb ischemia (CLI).
METHODS: We reviewed 1244 patients undergoing 1414 PVIs for CLI (rest pain, 29%; tissue loss, 71%) within the Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) from January 2010 to December 2011. Overall survival (OS), amputation-free survival (AFS), and freedom from major amputation at 1 year were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS: The number of arteries treated during each procedure were 1 (49%), 2 (35%), 3 (12%), and > /=4 (5%). Target arterial segments and TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus classifications were aortoiliac, 27% (A, 48%; B, 28%; C, 12%; and D, 12%); femoral-popliteal, 48% (A, 29%; B, 34%; C, 20%; and D, 17%); and infrapopliteal, 25% (A, 17%; B, 14%; C, 25%; D, 44%). Technical success was 92%. Complications included access site hematoma (5.0%), occlusion (0.3%), and distal embolization (2.4%). Mortality and major amputation rates were 2.8% and 2.2% at 30 days, respectively. Overall percutaneous or open reintervention rate was 8.0% during the first year. At 1-year, OS, AFS, and freedom from major amputation were 87%, 87%, and 94% for patients with rest pain and 80%, 71%, and 81% for patients with tissue loss. Independent predictors of reduced 1-year OS (C index = .74) included dialysis (HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.8-5.1; P < .01), emergency procedure (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.0-6.2; P = .05), age > 80 years (HR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.7-2.8; P < .01), not living at home preoperatively (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8; P < .01), creatinine > 1.8 mg/dL (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.8; P < .01), congestive heart failure (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.2; P < .01), and chronic beta-blocker use (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.9; P = .03), whereas independent preoperative ambulation (HR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9; P = .014) was protective. Independent predictors of major amputation (C index = .69) at 1 year included dialysis (HR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-4.5; P < .01), tissue loss (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7; P = .02), prior major contralateral amputation (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5; P = .02), non-Caucasian race (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9; P = .045), and male gender (HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6; P = .03), whereas smoking (HR, .60; 95% CI, 0.4-1.0; P = .042) was protective.
CONCLUSIONS: Survival and major amputation after PVI for CLI are associated with different patient characteristics. Dialysis dependence is a common predictor that portends especially poor outcomes. These data may facilitate efforts to improve patient selection and, after further validation, enable risk-adjusted outcome reporting for CLI patients undergoing PVI.
OBJECTIVE: The majority of scales to measure family member distress in dementia are designed for community settings and do not capture the unique burdens of the nursing home (NH) environment. We report the psychometric properties of a new Family Distress in Advanced Dementia Scale for use in the NH setting.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional questionnaire of 130 family member health care proxies of NH residents with advanced dementia in 31 Boston-area NHs.
METHODS: Thirty-one initial items were evaluated, measuring the frequency over the past 3 months of sources of distress. Exploratory factor analysis identified domains of distress; Cronbach's alpha was computed for each domain. Associations between the domains and other measures were evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients, including measures of depression (PHQ-9), satisfaction with care (Satisfaction with Care at the End-of-Life in Dementia [SWC-EOLD]), and caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Interview short version).
RESULTS: Factor analysis suggested 3 domains: emotional distress (9 items), dementia preparedness (5 items), and NH relations (7 items). Cronbach's alpha coefficients were 0.82, 0.75, and 0.83 respectively. The PHQ-9 correlated most strongly with the emotional distress factor (r = 0.34), the SWC-EOWD correlated most strongly with the NH relations factor (r = 0.35), as did the Zarit Burden Scale (r = 0.50).
CONCLUSIONS: The Family Distress in Advanced Dementia Scale encompasses 3 domains of distress. This scale represents a much needed tool to assess distress among family members of NH residents with advanced dementia and provides a metric to evaluate interventions in the population.
Upregulation of the inflammatory cascade is a major element both in the progression of steatohepatitis to severe alcoholic hepatitis as well as in the progression of NASH to advanced NASH with fibrosis. The mechanisms underpinning these changes are only partially understood. Activation of the inflammatory cascade requires multiple stimuli and in this report, we discuss the role of inflammasomes that activate IL-1beta as well as the sterile and pathogen-derived danger signals that results in inflammasome activation and inflammation in alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The dynamics of inflammasome activation, the cell types involved and the trigger signals appear to be somewhat different between ASH and NASH. Further studies are needed to dissect the pathology-related differences between these two major forms of steatohepatitis. Clinical and therapeutic implications of inflammasome activation in steatohepatitis are also discussed.
Juvenile Justice, Mental Health, and the Transition to Adulthood: A Review of Service System Involvement and Unmet Needs in the U.S
Although adolescents are the primary focus of juvenile justice, a significant number of young people involved with this system are considered transition age youth (i.e., 16-25 years of age). The aim of this review is to summarize the specific needs of transition age youth with mental health conditions involved with the juvenile justice system, identify the multiple service systems relevant to this group, and offer recommendations for policies and practice. A comprehensive search strategy was used to identify and synthesize the literature. Findings highlight the paucity of research specific to transition age youth. Thus, we also summarized relevant research on justice-involved adolescents, with a focus evaluating its potential relevance in the context of the unique milestones of the transition age, including finishing one's education, setting and working towards vocational goals, and transitioning from ones' family of origin to more independent living situations. Existing programs and initiatives relevant to transition age youth with mental health conditions are highlighted, and nine specific recommendations for policy and practice are offered.