BACKGROUND: Melanoma of the eye is the only potentially fatal ocular malignancy in adults. Until radiation therapy gained wide acceptance in the 1980s, enucleation was the standard treatment for the tumor. Long-term results after proton beam irradiation are now available.
METHODS: We developed risk score equations to estimate probabilities of the 4 principal treatment outcomes-local tumor recurrence, death from metastasis, retention of the treated eye, and vision loss-based on an analysis of 2069 patients treated with proton beam radiation for intraocular melanoma between July 10, 1975, and December 31, 1997. Median follow-up in surviving patients was 9.4 years.
RESULTS: Tumor regrowth occurred in 60 patients, and 95% of tumors (95% confidence interval, 93%-96%) were controlled locally at 15 years. Risk scores were developed for the other 3 outcomes studied. Overall, the treated eye was retained by 84% of patients (95% confidence interval, 80%-87%) at 15 years. The probabilities for vision loss (visual acuity worse than 20/200) ranged from 100% to 20% at 10 years and for death from tumor metastases from 95% to 35% at 15 years, depending on the risk group.
CONCLUSIONS: High-dose radiation treatment was highly effective in achieving local control of intraocular melanomas. In most cases, the eye was salvaged, and functional vision was retained in many patients. The mortality rate was high in an identifiable subset of patients who may benefit from adjuvant therapies directed at microscopic liver metastases.
BACKGROUND: Tumor dimension is an established prognostic factor for metastasis-related death after radiotherapy for uveal melanoma.
OBJECTIVE: To compare various methods of modeling the relationship between tumor dimension and metastatic death.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The analyses were based on a consecutive series of 1204 patients with primary choroidal melanoma treated with proton beam irradiation (70 cobalt-gray equivalent in 5 fractions) at the Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory, Boston, Mass, between January 1985 and December 1998. Largest basal diameter and largest perpendicular basal diameter were recorded at the time of surgical placement of tantalum rings used for tumor localization during proton treatment. The height of the tumor and the axial diameter of the eye were measured by ultrasonography prior to treatment. Using proportional hazards regression, we compared the prognostic influence of different indices of tumor size with estimated risk ratios and death rates according to tumor basal area and largest basal diameter. All estimates were adjusted for other established prognostic factors.
RESULTS: Patients were followed up annually through June 30, 2000. Of the 1204 patients analyzed, 193 died of melanoma metastasis. The median follow-up among survivors was 7.9 years. The 5- and 10-year metastatic death rates were 12.8% and 20.7%, respectively. Among various approaches for modeling tumor dimension, the logarithm of tumor basal area had the highest log-likelihood and performed better than other approaches in 85% of the simulations. Based on this model, the covariate-adjusted rate ratio for any doubling in tumor basal area was 1.92 (95% confidence interval, 1.62-2.28).
CONCLUSION: Tumor basal area is a better prognostic indicator than largest tumor diameter and tumor volume in the prediction of metastatic death after proton beam irradiation for uveal melanoma.
BACKGROUND: Body-composition changes are common in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus. The purpose of the present study was to measure, as a model of wasting in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), longitudinal body-composition changes in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).
METHODS: Twelve juvenile macaques were inoculated with SIVmac239. Immunologic, virologic, somatometric, and dual-energy x-ray-absorptiometry measurements were performed prospectively every 4 weeks for 72 weeks and were compared to measurements taken from 8 uninfected control macaques.
RESULTS: During the first 4 weeks, body-fat percentage decreased in the SIV-infected macaques while lean-tissue percentage increased; during weeks 4-72, these macaques lost a greater percentage of total fat tissue but had more subcutaneous-fat deposition than did the uninfected control macaques. Just prior to death, the SIV-infected macaques that died (n=7) had a greater loss in body-mass index, abdominal fat, fat tissue, and lean tissue, compared with that in SIV-infected macaques that survived (n=5).
CONCLUSIONS: Body-composition changes in SIV-infected juvenile macaques exhibit 3 phases: during acute infection, loss of body weight from fat tissue; a compensation period during which macaques grow, but at a reduced rate; and a terminal phase, during which tissue is lost from all body compartments. The SIV-infected juvenile macaque provides a useful model for the investigation of wasting in AIDS, particularly for pediatric AIDS wasting.
OBJECTIVES: To develop and implement a method to evaluate the quality of medical interpretation in a pediatric outpatient setting and explore the patterns and correlates of errors and failures in translation.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Observational study of a convenience sample of 13 Spanish-speaking families attending pediatric outpatient clinics at an urban teaching hospital, their English-speaking providers, and interpreters. Visits were audiotaped and transcribed. The transcripts were divided into segments consisting of continuous sections of dialogue in a single language, plus any translation of that dialogue, and segments were coded for characteristics of the translation, word count, and the identity of the speakers.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Translation quality on an ordinal scale derived from a set of nominal codes.
RESULTS: We found that 66.1% of segments in which translation should have occurred were translated with substantial errors or omissions or not translated at all. In 29.8% of segments, the interpreter engaged in speech unrelated to interpretation. Quality of interpretation was inversely associated with the word count per segment and, independently, whether the interpreter engaged in speech acts which did not consist of interpretation, which we call "role exchange." We give several examples and qualitative discussion of "role exchange" and show that it not necessarily associated with mistranslation but may have egregious consequences.
CONCLUSIONS: Interpreters who lack appropriate training fail to interpret accurately. Engaging in speech behaviors other than interpreting is associated with a higher rate of errors.
Better physician-patient relationships are associated with higher reported adherence to antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection
BACKGROUND: There is little evidence to support the widely accepted assertion that better physician-patient relationships result in higher rates of adherence with recommended therapies.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether and which aspects of a better physician-patient relationship are associated with higher rates of adherence with antiretroviral therapies for persons with HIV infection.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis.
SETTING: Twenty-two outpatient HIV practices in a metropolitan area.
PARTICIPANTS: Five hundred fifty-four patients with HIV infection taking antiretroviral medications.
MEASUREMENTS: We measured adherence using a 4-item self-report scale (alpha= 0.75). We measured core aspects of physician-patient relationships using 6 previously tested scales (general communication, HIV-specific information, participatory decision making, overall satisfaction, willingness to recommend physician, and physician trust; alpha > 0.70 for all) and 1 new scale, adherence dialogue (alpha= 0.92). For adherence dialogue, patients rated their physician at understanding and solving problems with antiretroviral therapy regimens.
RESULTS: Mean patient age was 42 years, 15% were female, 73% were white, and 57% reported gay or bisexual sexual contact as their primary HIV risk factor. In multivariable models that accounted for the clustering of patients within physicians' practices, 6 of the 7 physician-patient relationship quality variables were significantly (P < .05) associated with adherence. In all 7 models worse adherence was independently associated (P < .05) with lower age, not believing in the importance of antiretroviral therapy, and worse mental health.
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that multiple, mutable dimensions of the physician-patient relationship were associated with medication adherence in persons with HIV infection, suggesting that physician-patient relationship quality is a potentially important point of intervention to improve patients' medication adherence. In addition, our data suggest that it is critical to investigate and incorporate patients' belief systems about antiretroviral therapy into adherence discussions, and to identify and treat mental disorders.
Kinetics of Cryptosporidium parvum-specific cytokine responses in healing and nonhealing murine models of C. parvum infection
Susceptibility or resistance to infection with Cryptosporidium parvum correlates with the ability of mice to produce characteristic panels of cytokines in response to infection. Both adult healing and nonhealing mouse models of cryptosporidiosis were used to study the cell-mediated immune response during the course of C. parvum infection. Mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes from both mouse models were proliferated after ex vivo re-stimulation with C. parvum sporozoite antigen. Study of the cytokine profile from the supernatant of proliferated MLN cells revealed that healing mice produced greater levels of Th1 (IFN-gamma and IL-2) and moderate amounts of Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10) cytokines throughout the course of infection. Whereas, MLN cells from nonhealing mice produced no IFN-gamma, low levels of IL-2 and IL-4, and higher levels of IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10 cytokines. These results suggest that the capacity to produce both Th1 and Th2 cytokines, rather than the presence of Th2 cytokines alone, determines the effective immune response against C. parvum infection.
The effect of micronutrient supplementation on disease progression and death in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected juvenile male rhesus macaques
BACKGROUND: We investigated the impact that micronutrient supplementation has on the progression of simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS).
METHODS: Twenty-four simian immunodeficiency virus-infected juvenile male rhesus macaques were randomized into 2 groups. One group was given certified chow, and the other group was given chow and a supplement that contained 2-3 times the estimated nutritional requirement of micronutrients. Virological, immunological, and body composition measurements were taken every 4 weeks for 120 weeks.
RESULTS: There was no difference between groups in weight gain, body mass index (BMI), crown-heel length, waist circumference, total tissue mass, lean mass, bone mineral content, or bone mineral density. The rhesus macaques on the supplemented diet had a higher death rate (hazard ratio, 2.39; P<.001) than those on the nonsupplemented diet; death in both groups was associated with a higher viral load set point during the early phase of infection. Additionally, higher body weight, BMI, crown-rump length, and lower viral load set point were protective from death in both groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Micronutrient supplementation did not significantly alter the progression of SAIDS with respect to changes in body composition and immunological characteristics. A significantly higher rate of death was observed in rhesus macaques on the supplemented diet.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of a quarterly antibiotic cycling program at two community hospitals and to evaluate its safety and impact on antibiotic use, expenditures, and resistance. DESIGN: Nonrandomized, longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: Two community hospitals, one teaching and one non-teaching. PATIENTS: Adult medical and surgical inpatients requiring empiric antibiotic therapy. INTERVENTION: We developed and implemented a treatment protocol for the empiric therapy of common infections. Between July 2000 and June 2002, antibiotics were cycled quarterly; quinolones, beta-lactam-inhibitor combinations, and cephalosporins were used. Protocol adherence, adverse drug events, nosocomial infections, antibiotic use and expenditures, resistance among clinical isolates, and length of stay were assessed during eight quarters. RESULTS: Physicians adhered to the protocol for more than 96% of 2,494 eligible patients. No increases in nosocomial infections or adverse drug events were attributed to the cycling protocol. Antibiotic acquisition costs increased 31%; there was a 14.7% increase in antibiotic use. Length of stay declined by 1 day. Quarterly variability in the prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci and ceftazidime resistance among combined gram-negative organisms were noted. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of an antibiotic cycling program is feasible in a community hospital setting. No adverse safety concerns were identified. Antibiotic cycling was more expensive, partly due to an increase in antibiotic use to optimize initial empiric therapy. Quarterly antibiogram patterns suggested that antibiotic cycling may have impacted resistance, although the small number of isolates precluded statistical analysis. Further assessment of this approach is necessary to determine its relationship to antimicrobial resistance.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of a second course of proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) in patients with recurrent uveal melanoma. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Thirty-one patients received a second course of PBRT. The mean interval between the first and the second PBRT course was 50.2 months (range, 8-165 months). Most patients (87%) received 70 cobalt Gray equivalent (CGE) for both courses. Visual acuity was 20/200 or better in 30 patients initially and in 22 patients at the second treatment. The mean follow-up time after the second treatment was 50 months (range, 6-164 months). RESULTS: At the time of the last follow-up, 20 patients were classified as having no evidence of disease, defined as tumor regression or an absence of tumor progression. Nine eyes (29%) were enucleated because of local recurrence (n = 5) or intractable pain (n = 4). The 5-year eye retention rate was 55% (95% confidence interval: 25.2-77.4). Six of the 22 patients who retained the eye (27%) had useful vision (20/200 or better). CONCLUSIONS: A second course of PBRT for recurrent uveal melanoma to total doses between 118 and 140 CGE was associated with a relatively good probability of local control and a low enucleation rate. Although most patients lost vision, the majority were able to retain the reirradiated eye. Further evaluation is needed to assess metastasis-free survival of additional proton irradiation vs. enucleation after local recurrence.
Demographic, geographic, and temporal patterns of ambulance runs for suspected opiate overdose in Rhode Island, 1997-20021
We examine ambulance runs for suspected opiate overdose from 1997 to 2002 using a Rhode Island Department of Health database. Of the 8,763 ambulance runs for overdoses, 18.6% were for suspected opiate overdoses. Most cases were males under age 54. Suspected opiate overdoses were more likely to occur in a private residence, were more frequent on Fridays and Saturdays, and peaked in incidence around 9:00 p.m. The incidence rate of suspected opiate overdose by year was similar. The study results may help identify areas for preventive intervention and demonstrate the limitation of using naloxone as a marker of opiate overdose events.
Factors contributing to spontaneous Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques
BACKGROUND: A cohort of SIV-infected macaques had been used to investigate the effect of dietary supplement, immune status, SIV/AIDS disease progression and serum micronutrients levels on spontaneous acquisition of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in SIV-infected macaques. METHODS: Twenty-four SIV-infected macaques were randomized into 2 groups. One group received a vitamin/mineral supplementation and a second group received a placebo. Both groups were examined for E. bieneusi infection. RESULTS: SIV-infected macaques were more prone to acquire E. bieneusi with the progression of SIV/AIDS, and the increased shedding of infectious spores was directly associated with decreased CD4 lymphocyte and increased circulating SIV, in both supplemented and unsupplemented groups of animals. Dietary supplementation, body composition factors and serum micronutrients levels however had no association with the acquisition of E. bieneusi infection in these animals. CONCLUSIONS: Acquisition of E. bieneusi infection is related to SIV disease progression, CD4 counts and viral load but independent of changes in body composition and serum micronutrient levels.
OBJECTIVES: Although risk factors for indoor falls among older individuals have been well studied, little is known about the etiology of outdoor falls. We examined risk factors for outdoor falls among middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: We analyzed data on the most recent fall during the past year among participants aged 45 years and older in the control group (N=2193) of a case-control study of fractures. The study was conducted at 5 Northern California Kaiser Permanente Medical Centers between 1996 and 2001. RESULTS: Falls occurred outdoors more often than indoors among most age groups. Study participants who reported more leisure-time physical activity had a higher risk for outdoor falls, and participants who were in poorer health had a greater risk for indoor falls. Most outdoor falls (73%) were precipitated by environmental factors, such as uneven surfaces and tripping or slipping on objects, and usually occurred on sidewalks, curbs, and streets. Walking (47.3%) was the most common fall-related activity. CONCLUSIONS: Outdoor falls among adults aged 45 years and older were frequently attributable to modifiable environmental factors. With the widespread promotion of active lifestyles among older people, improvements in their outdoor environment are urgently needed.
A diet high in saturated fat and cholesterol accelerates simian immunodeficiency virus disease progression
Several lines of evidence suggest that dietary fat and cholesterol may play a role in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and disease progression. We examined the effect that an atherogenic diet (AD) high in saturated fatty acids and cholesterol has on disease progression and systemic inflammation in the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaque model of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Macaques fed an AD had significantly more rapid disease progression, resulting in an increased risk of SIV-related death compared with that in control macaques (hazard ratio, 5.4 [95% confidence interval, 1.7-17.0]; P<.001). Peak viral load was higher in the AD group compared with control values, but further statistically significant differences were not detected at viral set point. The baseline plasma interleukin-18 level after 6 months of the AD was predictive of disease progression. Our findings may have important implications for HIV-infected individuals, because they suggest that dietary changes and manipulation of lipid metabolism could offer potential benefits by slowing disease progression.
BACKGROUND: Protein C (PC) and antithrombin (AT) activities are decreased in humans with severe sepsis, and persistent changes are associated with decreased survival. In dogs with sepsis, PC and AT have been shown to be decreased at the time of diagnosis. HYPOTHESIS: PC and AT activities change significantly over time in dogs with sepsis and may be related to outcome. ANIMALS: Twelve dogs with naturally occurring sepsis. METHODS: Blood was collected from 12 dogs with sepsis, defined as histopathologic or microbiologic confirmation of infection and two of the following: hypo- or hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, leukopenia, leukocytosis, or >3% bands. The time of 1st sampling was considered day 1 and sampling was repeated every 24 hours for 5 days or until discharge or death. Changes over time were analyzed by ANOVA with repeated measures, and the association between PC and AT and outcome was determined by a 2-equation treatment effects model. RESULTS: Nine dogs and 11 dogs had decreased PC and AT activity on day 1, respectively (mean PC, 66.0 +/- 25.8%; mean AT, 48.1 +/- 16.5%). PC activity significantly decreased from day 1 to day 2 (P= .001), then increased over time. Changes in PC (P < .001) and AT (P < .001) over time were likely associated with outcome with nonsurvivors having lower PC and AT activities than survivors. CONCLUSION: Results of this preliminary study show that PC and AT activities change significantly over time in dogs with sepsis and both are likely related to survival.
Influence of donor cocaine use on outcome after cardiac transplantation: analysis of the United Network for Organ Sharing Thoracic Registry
Heart transplantation from donors with a history of cocaine abuse remains controversial. Therefore, we examined the consequence of donor cocaine-use history on all-cause mortality and the development of coronary artery disease after heart transplantation. Using the United Network for Organ Sharing Thoracic Registry we identified 9,217 first-time heart-only adult transplant recipients between January 1999 and December 2003, and then divided this cohort into sub-groups based on the reported history of donor cocaine use. Multivariate analysis revealed no difference in mortality or development of coronary artery disease at 1 and 5 years between transplant recipients who received an organ from donors with a history of cocaine use when compared with donors having no history of cocaine use.
Immunization with single-cycle SIV significantly reduces viral loads after an intravenous challenge with SIV(mac)239
Strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that are limited to a single cycle of infection were evaluated for the ability to elicit protective immunity against wild-type SIV(mac)239 infection of rhesus macaques by two different vaccine regimens. Six animals were inoculated at 8-week intervals with 6 identical doses consisting of a mixture of three different envelope variants of single-cycle SIV (scSIV). Six additional animals were primed with a mixture of cytoplasmic domain-truncated envelope variants of scSIV and boosted with two doses of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G) trans-complemented scSIV. While both regimens elicited detectable virus-specific T cell responses, SIV-specific T cell frequencies were more than 10-fold higher after boosting with VSV G trans-complemented scSIV (VSV G scSIV). Broad T cell recognition of multiple viral antigens and Gag-specific CD4(+) T cell responses were also observed after boosting with VSV G scSIV. With the exception of a single animal in the repeated immunization group, all of the animals became infected following an intravenous challenge with SIV(mac)239. However, significantly lower viral loads and higher memory CD4(+) T cell counts were observed in both immunized groups relative to an unvaccinated control group. Indeed, both scSIV immunization regimens resulted in containment of SIV(mac)239 replication after challenge that was as good as, if not better than, what has been achieved by other non-persisting vaccine vectors that have been evaluated in this challenge model. Nevertheless, the extent of protection afforded by scSIV was not as good as typically conferred by persistent infection with live, attenuated SIV. These observations have potentially important implications to the design of an effective AIDS vaccine, since they suggest that ongoing stimulation of virus-specific immune responses may be essential to achieving the degree of protection afforded by live, attenuated SIV.
Factors associated with hallux valgus in a population-based study of older women and men: the MOBILIZE Boston Study
OBJECTIVE: To examine potential risk factors for hallux valgus in community-dwelling elders. METHOD: Data from 600 MOBILIZE Boston Study participants (386 women and 214 men) were analyzed. Hallux valgus was defined as >15 degrees angular deviation of the hallux with respect to the first metatarsal bone toward the lesser toes. Associations of hallux valgus with age, body mass index (BMI), race, education, pes planus, foot pain, and in women, history of high heel shoe use, were assessed using sex-specific Poisson regression with robust variance estimation for risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Hallux valgus was present in 58% of women and 25% of men. Higher BMI was inversely associated with presence of hallux valgus in women (P trend=0.001), with the strongest inverse association observed in those with BMI of 30.0 or more compared to those with normal BMI (RR=0.7, 95% CI: 0.5, 0.9). Women, who usually wore high-heeled shoes during ages 20-64 years compared to those who did not, had increased likelihood of hallux valgus (RR=1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.5). Among men, those with BMI between 25.0 and 29.9 had increased likelihood of hallux valgus compared to those with normal BMI (RR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.0, 3.5). Men with pes planus were more likely to have hallux valgus (RR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.3, 3.3) compared to men without pes planus. CONCLUSION: In women, hallux valgus was associated with lower BMI and high heel use during ages 20-64, while in men, associations were observed with higher BMI and pes planus. Our results suggest that the etiologic mechanisms for hallux valgus may differ between men and women. Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND: Poor medication adherence is associated with negative health outcomes. We investigated whether poor medication adherence increases the rate of falls as part of Maintenance of Balance, Independent Living, Intellect, and Zest in the Elderly of Boston (MOBILIZE Boston), a prospective, community-based cohort recruited for the purpose of studying novel risk factors for falls. METHODS: A total of 246 men and 408 women (mean age, 78 years) were followed for the occurrence of falls (median follow-up, 1.8 years). Adherence was assessed by the Morisky scale based on the following four questions: whether an individual ever forgets, is careless at times, stops taking medications when feels better, or stops taking medications when feels worse. Low adherence was defined as a "yes" answer to one or more questions. High adherence was defined as a "no" answer to every question. RESULTS: Forty-eight percent of subjects were classified as having low medication adherence. The rate of falls in the low adherence group was 1.1 falls/person-year (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.3) compared with 0.7 falls/person-year (95% CI: 0.6-0.8) in the high adherence group. After adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, alcohol use, cognitive measures, functional status, depression, and number of medications, low medication adherence was associated with a 50% increased rate of falls compared with high medication adherence (rate ratio = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9; p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Low medication adherence may be associated with an increased rate of falls among older adults. Future studies should confirm this association and explore whether interventions to improve medication adherence might decrease the frequency of falls and other serious health-related outcomes.
BACKGROUND: Heart transplant is a treatment option for selected patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, the prevalence, clinical profile, and outcome of this subgroup of HCM patients are uncertain. Therefore, we sought to determine the occurrence, clinical characteristics, and prognosis of HCM patients who underwent cardiac transplantation in the United States during a 15-year period. METHODS AND RESULTS: Demographic, clinical, and survival outcomes of 26 706 adult (age >/=18 years), heart-only transplant recipients between January 1990 and December 2004 were acquired from the United Network of Organ Sharing Registry. Pretransplant diagnoses were classified as follows: HCM (n=303, 1%) and non-HCM (26 403, 99%), comprising 3 patient subgroups: (1) ischemic cardiomyopathy (n=14 308, 54%), (2) dilated cardiomyopathy (n=11 760, 44%), and (3) restrictive cardiomyopathy (n=335, 1%). Study follow-up began at the time of heart transplant and was 76+/-44 months (mean+/-SD) among survivors. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year overall transplant survival for HCM patients was 85%, 75%, and 61%, respectively, with a trend toward greater survival compared with that of non-HCM transplant patients (82%, 70%, and 49%, respectively; log-rank test, P=0.05). However, propensity-matched, covariate-adjusted, Cox regression model analysis showed better survival over time (P<0.01) among the HCM patients. When HCM posttransplant survival was compared with that in each of the non-HCM patient subgroups, HCM patients had more favorable survival than did those transplanted for ischemic cardiomyopathy (P=0.02). In contrast, HCM posttransplant survival did not differ from that of patients transplanted for restrictive (P=0.08) or dilated (P=0.25) cardiomyopathy. CONCLUSIONS: HCM patients compose a small subset (1%) of the overall population of patients who undergo heart transplantation in the United States. Nonetheless, survival after transplant among HCM patients is comparable to that of patients transplanted for non-HCM cardiovascular diseases, with possible enhanced survival over time.