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HIV-1 and the Nucleolus: A Role for Nucleophosmin/NPM1 in Viral Replication: A Dissertation

Fri, 01/24/2014 - 6:46pm

The nucleolus is a plurifunctional organelle with dynamic protein exchange involved in diverse aspects of cell biology. Additionally, the nucleolus has been shown to have a role in the replication of numerous viruses, which includes HIV-1. Several groups have reported HIV-1 vRNA localization within the nucleolus. Moreover, it has been demonstrated the HIV-1 Rev protein localizes to the nucleolus and interacts with nucleolar proteins, including NPM1. Despite evidence for a nucleolar involvement during replication, a functional link has not been demonstrated. I investigated whether introncontaining vRNAs have a Rev-mediated nucleolar localization step prior to export. Furthermore, I examined whether NPM1 mediates Rev nucleolar localization, participates in Rev function, and/or post-transcriptional events during viral replication. I used coupled RNA fluorescence in situhybridization and indirect immunofluorescence to visualize intron-containing vRNA relative to the nucleolus in the absence or presence of Rev expression. An RNAi-based approach was used to examine the role of NPM1 in Rev function and viral replication in cell lines and primary human macrophages. My research findings support a model for a Rev-independent nucleolar localization step of introncontaining vRNA prior to export. Intriguingly, my results also suggest NPM1 does not participate in Rev nucleolar localization or Rev-mediated vRNA export, as previously proposed. Rather, my findings support a novel role for NPM1, the cytoplasmic localization and utilization of a select class of Rev-dependent vRNAs. Collectively, my findings provide novel insight for a functional role of the nucleolus and NPM1 in HIV-1 replication, which enhances our current understanding of HIV-1 biology.

piRNA Biogenesis and Transposon Silencing in Drosophila: A Dissertation

Fri, 01/24/2014 - 6:46pm

piRNAs guide PIWI proteins to silence transposons in animal germ cells. In Drosophila, the heterochromatic piRNA clusters transcribe piRNA precursors to be transported into nuage, a perinuclear structure for piRNA production and transposon silencing. At nuage, reciprocal cycles of piRNA-directed RNA cleavage—catalyzed by the PIWI proteins Aubergine (Aub) and Argonaute3 (Ago3) in Drosophila—destroy the sense transposon mRNA and expand the population of antisense piRNAs in response to transposon expression, a process called the Ping-Pong cycle. Heterotypic Ping-Pong between Aub and Ago3 ensures that antisense piRNAs predominate.

My thesis research mainly focuses on two fundamental questions about the piRNA production: How does the germ cell differentiate piRNA precursor from mRNAs for piRNA biogenesis? And what is the mechanism to impose Aub Ping-Pong with Ago3? For the first question, we show that the HP1 homolog protein Rhino marks the piRNA cluster regions in the genome for piRNA biogenesis. Rhino seems to anchor a nuclear complex that suppresses cluster transcript splicing, which may differentiate piRNA precursors from mature mRNAs. Moreover, LacI::Rhino fusion protein binding suppresses splicing of a reporter transgene and is sufficient to trigger de novo piRNA production from a trans combination of sense and antisense transgenes. For the second question, we show that Qin, a new piRNA pathway factor contains both E3 ligase and Tudor domains, colocalizes with Aub and Ago3 in nuage, enforces heterotypic Ping- Pong between Aub and Ago3. Loss of qinleads to less Ago3 binding to Aub, futile Aub:Aub homotypic Ping-Pong prevails, antisense piRNAs decrease, many families of mobile genetic elements are reactivated, DNA damage accumulates in the germ cells and flies are sterile.

Itk is a Dual Action Regulator of Immunoreceptor Signaling in the Innate and Adaptive Immune System: A Dissertation

Fri, 01/24/2014 - 6:46pm

The cells and molecules that comprise the immune system are essential for mounting an effective response against microbes. A successful immune response limits pathology within the host while simultaneously eliminating the pathogen. The key to this delicate balance is the correct recognition of the pathogen and the appropriate response of immune cells. Cellular activation originates through receptors that relay information about the state of the microenvironment to different compartments within the cell. The rapid relay of information is called signal transduction and employs a network of signaling mediators such as kinases, phosphatases, adaptor molecules, and transcription factors. IL-2 inducible T cell kinase (Itk) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that is an integral component of signal transduction downstream of many immunoreceptors. This dissertation describes two distinct pathways that utilize Itk in both phases of the immune response.

T cells use the TCR to sense a multitude of peptide-based ligands and to transmit signals inside the cell to activate cellular function. In this regard, the diversity of ligands the T cells encounter can be portrayed as analog inputs. Once a critical threshold is met, signaling events transpire in close proximity to the plasma membrane to activate major downstream pathways in the cell. The majority of these pathways are digital in nature resulting in the on or off activation of T cells. We find, however, that altering the TCR signal strength that a T cell receives can result in an analog-based response. Here, the graded expression of a transcription factor, IRF4, is modulated through the activity of Itk. We link this graded response to an NFAT-mediated pathway in which the digital vs. analog nature has been previously uncharacterized. Finally, we demonstrate that the repercussions of an analog signaling pathway is the altered expression of a second transcription factor, Eomes, which is important in the differentiation and function of T cells. These results suggest that Itk is crucial in the modulation of TCR signal strength.

Mast cells primarily rely on the IgE-bound FcεR1 for pathogen recognition. Crosslinking this receptor activates mast cells and results in degranulation and cytokine production via an expansive signaling cascade. Upon stimulation, Itk is recruited to the plasma membrane and phosphorylated. Little else is known about how Itk operates inside of mast cells. We find that mast cells lacking Itk are hyperresponsive to FcεR1-mediated activation. This is most apparent in the amount of IL-4 and IL-13 produced in comparison to wild-type mast cells. Increased cytokine production was accompanied by elevated and sustained signaling downstream of the FcεR1. Finally, biochemical evidence demonstrates that Itk is part of an inhibitory complex containing the phosphatase SHIP-1. These results indicate a novel function for Itk as a negative regulator in FcεR1- mediated mast cell activation.

Navigating the Complexity of Using Research in Policy and Practice Decisions

Thu, 01/23/2014 - 1:13pm

Preliminary findings from this study call for heightened attention to the shifting and multi-dimensional complexity of decision-making that occurs in public service systems. Attention to this complexity will allow for the use of research evidence in coherent, relevant and effective ways.

Ahead of the curve: next generation estimators of drug resistance in malaria infections

Thu, 01/23/2014 - 11:30am

Drug resistance is a major obstacle to controlling infectious diseases. A key challenge is detecting the early signs of drug resistance when little is known about its genetic basis. Focusing on malaria parasites, we propose a way to do this. Newly developing or low level resistance at low frequency in patients can be detected through a phenotypic signature: individual parasite variants clearing more slowly following drug treatment. Harnessing the abundance and resolution of deep sequencing data, our 'selection differential' approach addresses some limitations of extant methods of resistance detection, should allow for the earliest detection of resistance in malaria or other multi-clone infections, and has the power to uncover the true scale of the drug resistance problem.

Atrial fibrillation patterns and risks of subsequent stroke, heart failure, or death in the community

Thu, 01/23/2014 - 11:30am

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) patterns and their relations with long-term prognosis are uncertain, partly because pattern definitions are challenging to implement in longitudinal data sets. We developed a novel AF classification algorithm and examined AF patterns and outcomes in the community.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We characterized AF patterns between 1980 and 2005 among Framingham Heart Study participants who survived >/= 1 year after diagnosis. We classified participants based on their pattern within the first 2 years after detection as having AF without recurrence, recurrent AF, or sustained AF. We examined associations between AF patterns and 10-year survival using proportional hazards regression. Among 612 individuals with AF, mean age was 72.5 +/- 10.8 years, and 53% were men. Of these, 478 participants had >/= 2 electrocardiograms (median, 3; limits 2 to 23) within 2 years after initial AF and were classified as having AF without 2-year recurrence (n = 63, 10%), recurrent AF (n = 162, 26%) or sustained AF (n = 207, 34%), although some (n = 46, 8%) were indeterminate. Of 432 classified participants, 363 died, 75 had strokes, and 110 were diagnosed with heart failure during the next 10 years. Relative to individuals without AF recurrence, the multivariable-adjusted mortality was higher among people with recurrent AF (hazard ratio [HR], 2.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26 to 3.29) and sustained AF (HR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.49 to 3.75).

CONCLUSIONS: In our community-based AF sample, only 10% had AF without early-term (2-year) recurrence. Compared with individuals without 2-year AF recurrences, the 10-year prognosis was worse for individuals with either sustained or recurrent AF. Our proposed AF classification algorithm may be applicable in longitudinal data sets.

Adverse drug events after hospital discharge in older adults: types, severity, and involvement of Beers Criteria Medications

Thu, 01/23/2014 - 11:30am

OBJECTIVES: To characterize adverse drug events (ADEs) occurring within the high-risk 45-day period after hospitalization in older adults.

DESIGN: Clinical pharmacists reviewed the ambulatory records of 1,000 consecutive discharges.

SETTING: A large multispecialty group practice closely aligned with a Massachusetts-based health plan.

PARTICIPANTS: Hospitalized individuals aged 65 and older discharged home.

MEASUREMENTS: Possible drug-related incidents occurring during the 45-day period after hospitalization were identified and presented to a pair of physician-reviewers who classified incidents as to whether an ADE was present, whether the event was preventable, and the severity of the event. Medications implicated in ADEs were further characterized according to their inclusion in the 2012 Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults.

RESULTS: At least one ADE was identified during the 45-day period in 18.7% (n = 187) of the 1,000 discharges. Of the 242 ADEs identified, 35% (n = 84) were deemed preventable, of which 32% (n = 27) were characterized as serious, and 5% (n = 4) as life threatening. More than half of all ADEs occurred within the first 14 days after hospitalization. The percentage of ADEs in which Beers Criteria medications were implicated was 16.5% (n = 40). Beers criteria medications with both a high quality of evidence and strong strength of recommendation were implicated in 6.6% (n = 16) of the ADEs.

CONCLUSION: ADEs are common and often preventable in older adults after hospital discharge, underscoring the need to address medication safety during this high-risk period in this vulnerable population. Beers criteria medications played a small role in these events, suggesting that efforts to improve the quality and safety of medication use during this critical transition period must extend beyond a singular focus on Beers criteria medications.

Utilization of morning report by acute care surgery teams: results from a qualitative study

Thu, 01/23/2014 - 11:30am

BACKGROUND: The rigor of handoffs is increasingly scrutinized in the era of shift-based patient care. Acute care surgery (ACS) embraced such a model of care; however, little is known about handoffs in ACS programs.

METHODS: Eighteen open-ended interviews were conducted with ACS leaders representing diverse geographic and practice settings. Two independent reviewers analyzed interviews using an inductive approach to elucidate themes regarding use of morning report (using NVivo qualitative analysis software).

RESULTS: Twelve of 18 respondents reported using morning report, but only 6 of 12 included attending surgeon-to-attending surgeon handoffs. One of 12 incentivized attending surgeons to participate, 2 of 12 included nursing staff members, and 2 of 12 included physician extenders. Cited benefits of morning report were safe and effective information exchange (2 of 12), quality improvement (2 of 12), multidisciplinary discussion (1 of 12), and resident education (2 of 12). Three of 12 respondents cited time commitment as the main limitation of morning report.

CONCLUSIONS: Morning report is underused among ACS programs; however, if implemented strategically, it may improve patient care and resident education.

Beverage-consumption patterns and associations with metabolic risk factors among low-income Latinos with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes

Thu, 01/23/2014 - 11:30am

In the United States, Latinos experience disproportionately higher rates of type 2 diabetes and diabetes-related complications than non-Latino whites. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is strongly associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Reducing caloric intake, particularly from energy-dense, low-nutrient foods or beverages, can be an effective and key strategy for metabolic and weight control. However, little is known about the contribution of various types of beverages, including but not limited to SSBs, to total caloric intake among Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Low-income Latinos (87.7% Puerto Rican) participating in a diabetes self-management intervention trial (N=238) provided cross-sectional, descriptive data on beverage-consumption patterns, anthropometric outcomes, and metabolic characteristics. Beverages accounted for one fifth of the total daily caloric intake. SSBs and milk beverages, respectively, contributed 9.6% of calories to overall daily caloric intake. Interventions directed at diabetes risk factors among low-income Latinos with diabetes can benefit from consideration of beverage-consumption behaviors as an important strategy to reduce caloric and sugar intake. All rights reserved.

Recent Increases in Efficiency in Cigarette Nicotine Delivery: Implications for Tobacco Control

Thu, 01/23/2014 - 11:30am

INTRODUCTION: Recent increases in nicotine yield of cigarettes sold in United States have been attributed by tobacco manufacturers to natural variation in agricultural products. We tested this assertion using the data reported by the manufacturers.

METHODS: Data were collected from the annual report filed with Massachusetts Department of Public Health by 4 major manufacturers of cigarettes from 1997 to 2012. Reportable measures included nicotine yield (mg/cig) in smoke generated by a smoking machine based on the Massachusetts smoking regimen and nicotine content in the unburned tobacco per cigarette (mg/cig). We used multilevel linear mixed-effect models to examine temporal trends in and predictors of these measures, overall and by brand style and brand family.

RESULTS: While nicotine content remained relatively stable in the range of 12-14mg/cig between 1998 and 2012, average nicotine yield increased significantly (p < .01) over time and ranged from the lowest level of 1.65mg/cigarette in 1999 and the highest level of 1.89mg/cigarette in 2011. Nicotine yield and yield-to-content ratio varied significantly among manufacturers and brand families. When controlling for market category and all available design features, the yield-to-content ratio of all manufacturers except Lorillard increased significantly over time.

CONCLUSIONS: The data provided by tobacco manufacturers suggest that the increasing trend in yield is not related to variations in nicotine content but to the yield-to-content ratio, contradicting their assertions of agricultural variations. Nicotine yield and yield-to-content ratio are controllable features of cigarettes, and should be monitored and regulated by government agencies.

Disparate Activation of the Inflammasome by Chitin and Chitosan: A Dissertation

Wed, 01/22/2014 - 12:37pm

Chitin is an abundant polysaccharide found in fungal cell walls, crustacean shells, and insect exoskeletons. The immunological properties of both chitin and its deacetylated derivative chitosan are of relevance due to frequent natural exposure and their increasing use in translational applications. Depending on the preparation studied and the endpoint measured, these compounds have been reported to induce allergic responses, inflammatory responses, or no response at all. Highly purified chitosan and chitin were prepared and the capacity of these glycans to stimulate the release of the inflammasomeassociated cytokine IL-1β was examined. Chitosan was shown to be a potent inflammasome activator in mouse bone marrow macrophages, macrophages polarized towards a M1 or M2 phenotype, dendritic cells, peritoneal cells, and human PBMCs. Acetylation of the chitosan to chitin resulted in a near total loss of IL-1β activity in all cell types tested. The size of the chitosan particles played an important role, with small particles eliciting the greatest activity. An inverse relationship between size and stimulatory activity was demonstrated using chitosan passed through size exclusion filters as well as with chitosan-coated beads of defined size. Partial digestion of chitosan with pepsin resulted in a larger fraction of small phagocytosable particles and more potent inflammasome activity. Inhibition of phagocytosis with cytochalasin D abolished the IL- 1β stimulatory activity of chitosan, offering an explanation for why the largest particles were nearly devoid of activity. Thus, the deacetylated polysaccharide chitosan potently activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in a phagocytosis-dependent manner. The reason for chitin’s inability to elicit IL-1β is unknown, but it does not appear to be due to active inhibition of the inflammasome and while chitin appears to be more readily digested by macrophage cell lysates, it does not occur at a rate which would likely impact inflammasome activation. There are three proposed mechanisms for NLRP3 inflammasome activation: K+ efflux, ROS, and lysosomal destabilization. The contributions of these mechanisms were tested and it was revealed that each of these pathways participated in optimal NLRP3 inflammasome activation by chitosan. Finally, the laminin receptor was evaluated as a potential chitin receptor. These studies provide insight into the activating properties of chitin and chitosan and highlight the importance of matching particle size and degree of acetylation to the level of activity desired for translational applications.

A Novel Autophagy Regulatory Mechanism that Functions During Programmed Cell Death: A Dissertation

Wed, 01/22/2014 - 12:37pm

Autophagy is a cellular process that delivers cytoplasmic materials for degradation by the lysosomes. Autophagy-related (Atg) genes were identified in yeast genetic screens for vehicle formation under stress conditions, and Atg genes are conserved from yeast to human. When cells or animals are under stress, autophagy is induced and Atg8 (LC3 in mammal) is activated by E1 activating enzyme Atg7. Atg8-containing membranes form and surround cargos, close and mature to become the autophagosomes. Autophagosomes fuse with lysosomes, and cargos are degraded by lysosomal enzymes to sustain cell viability. Therefore, autophagy is most frequently considered to function in cell survival. Whether the Atg gene regulatory pathway that was defined in yeast is utilized for all autophagy in animals, as well as if autophagy could function in a cell death scenario, are less understood.

The Drosophila larval digestive tissues, such as the midgut of the intestine and the salivary gland, are no longer required for the adult animal and are degraded during the pupal stage of development. Cells stop growing at the end of larval development, and proper cell growth arrest is required for midgut degradation. Ectopic activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling induces cell growth and inhibits autophagy and midgut degradation. Down regulating PI3K/Akt pathway by Pten mis-expression activates autophagy. In addition, mis-expression of autophagy initiator Atg1 inhibits cell growth and knocking down autophagy restore PI3K/Akt activity. Together, these results indicate that autophagy and growth signaling mutually inhibit each other.

Midgut destruction relies on the autophagy gene Atg18, but not caspase activation. The intestine length shortens and the cells undergo programmed cell size reduction, a phenomenon that also requires Atg18, before cell death occurs during midgut destruction. To further investigate whether cell size reduction is cell autonomous and requires other Atg genes, we reduced the function of Atg genes in cell clones using either gene mutations or RNAi knockdowns. Indeed, many Atg genes, including Atg8, are required for autophagy and cell size reduction in a cell autonomous manner. Surprisingly, Atg7 is not required for midgut cell size reduction and autophagy even though this gene is essential for stress-induced autophagy. Therefore, we screened for known E1 enzymes that may function in the midgut, and discovered that Uba1 is required for autophagy, size reduction and clearance of mitochondria. Uba1 does not enzymatically substitute for Atg7, and Ubiquitin phenocopies Uba1, suggesting Uba1 functions through ubiquitination of unidentified molecule(s) to regulate autophagy.

In conclusion, this thesis describes: First, autophagy participates in midgut degradation and cell death. Second it reveals a previously un-defined role of Uba1 in autophagy regulation. Third it shows that the Atg genes are not functionally conserved and the requirement of some Atg genes can be context dependent.

A Novel Role of UAP56 in piRNA Mediated Transposon Silencing: A Dissertation

Wed, 01/22/2014 - 12:37pm

Transposon silencing is required to maintain genome stability. The non-coding piRNAs effectively suppress of transposon activity during germline development. In the Drosophila female germline, long precursors of piRNAs are transcribed from discrete heterochromatic clusters and then processed into primary piRNAs in the perinuclear nuage. However, the detailed mechanism of piRNA biogenesis, specifically how the nuclear and cytoplasmic processes are connected, is not well understood. The nuclear DEAD box protein UAP56 has been previously implicated in protein-coding gene transcript splicing and export. I have identified a novel function of UAP56 in piRNA biogenesis. In Drosophila egg chambers, UAP56 co-localizes with the cluster-associated HP1 variant Rhino. Nuage is a germline-specific perinuclear structure rich in piRNA biogenesis proteins, including Vasa, a DEAD box with an established role in piRNA production. Vasa-containing nuage granules localize directly across the nuclear envelope from cluster foci containing UAP56 and Rhino, and cluster transcripts immunoprecipitate with both Vasa and UAP56. Significantly, a charge-substitution mutation that alters a conserved surface residue in UAP56 disrupts co-localization with Rhino, germline piRNA production, transposon silencing, and perinuclear localization of Vasa. I therefore propose that UAP56 and Vasa function in a piRNA-processing compartment that spans the nuclear envelope.

Expanding the Known DNA-binding Specificity of Homeodomains for Utility in Customizable Sequence-specific Nucleases: A Dissertation

Wed, 01/22/2014 - 12:37pm

Homeodomains (HDs) are a large family of DNA-binding domains contained in transcription factors that are most notable for regulating body development and patterning in metazoans. HDs consist of three alpha helices preceded by an N- terminal arm, where the third helix (the recognition helix) and the N-terminal arm are responsible for defining DNA-binding specificity. Here we attempted to engineer the HDs by fully randomizing positions in the recognition helix to specify each of the 64 possible 3’ triplet sites (i.e. TAANNN). We recovered HD variants that preferentially recognize or are compatible with 44 of the possible sites, a dramatic increase from the previously observed range of specificities. Many of these HD variants contain combinations of novel specificity determinants that are uncommon or absent in extant HDs, where these determinants can be grafted into alternate HD backbones with an accompanying alteration in their specificity. The identified determinates expand our understanding of HD recognition, allowing for the creation of more explicit recognition models for this family. Additionally, we demonstrate that HDs can recognize a broader range of DNA sequences than anticipated, thus raising questions about the fitness barrier that restricts the evolution HD-DNA recognition in nature. Finally, these new HD variants have utility as DNA-binding domains to direct targeting of customizable sequence-specific nuclease as demonstrated by site-specific lesions created in zebrafish. Thus HDs can guide sequence-specific enzymatic function precisely and predictably within a complex genome when used in engineered artificial enzymes.

Sub-millisecond time-resolved SAXS using a continuous-flow mixer and X-ray micro-beam

Mon, 01/13/2014 - 11:16pm

Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a well established technique to probe the nanoscale structure and interactions in soft matter. It allows one to study the structure of native particles in near physiological environments and to analyze structural changes in response to variations in external conditions. The combination of microfluidics and SAXS provides a powerful tool to investigate dynamic processes on a molecular level with sub-millisecond time resolution. Reaction kinetics in the sub-millisecond time range has been achieved using continuous-flow mixers manufactured using micromachining techniques. The time resolution of these devices has previously been limited, in part, by the X-ray beam sizes delivered by typical SAXS beamlines. These limitations can be overcome using optics to focus X-rays to the micrometer size range providing that beam divergence and photon flux suitable for performing SAXS experiments can be maintained. Such micro-SAXS in combination with microfluidic devices would be an attractive probe for time-resolved studies. Here, the development of a high-duty-cycle scanning microsecond-timeresolution SAXS capability, built around the Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror-based microbeam system at the Biophysics Collaborative Access Team (BioCAT) beamline 18ID at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, is reported. A detailed description of the microbeam small-angle-scattering instrument, the turbulent flow mixer, as well as the data acquisition and control and analysis software is provided. Results are presented where this apparatus was used to study the folding of cytochrome c. Future prospects for this technique are discussed.

MA PCMH Eval Week: Christine Johnson on Self-Assessment Medical Home Transformation Tools

Fri, 01/10/2014 - 2:49pm

Blog post to AEA365, a blog sponsored by the American Evaluation Association (AEA) dedicated to highlighting Hot Tips, Cool Tricks, Rad Resources, and Lessons Learned for evaluators. The American Evaluation Association is an international professional association of evaluators devoted to the application and exploration of program evaluation, personnel evaluation, technology, and many other forms of evaluation. Evaluation involves assessing the strengths and weaknesses of programs, policies, personnel, products, and organizations to improve their effectiveness.

This blog post was posted to AEA365 during a week of posts featuring the team at the University of Massachusetts Medical School that helped to evaluate the Massachusetts Patient-Centered Medical Home Initiative.

MA PCMH Eval Week: Linda Cabral and Laura Sefton on Participant Observation as a Data Collection Method

Fri, 01/10/2014 - 2:48pm

Blog post to AEA365, a blog sponsored by the American Evaluation Association (AEA) dedicated to highlighting Hot Tips, Cool Tricks, Rad Resources, and Lessons Learned for evaluators. The American Evaluation Association is an international professional association of evaluators devoted to the application and exploration of program evaluation, personnel evaluation, technology, and many other forms of evaluation. Evaluation involves assessing the strengths and weaknesses of programs, policies, personnel, products, and organizations to improve their effectiveness.

This blog post was posted to AEA365 during a week of posts featuring the team at the University of Massachusetts Medical School that helped to evaluate the Massachusetts Patient-Centered Medical Home Initiative.

MA PCMH Eval Week: Valerie Konar, Carla Hillerns, and Michelle Landry on Comparison Groups in Evaluation Research – Never Trivial

Fri, 01/10/2014 - 2:48pm

Blog post to AEA365, a blog sponsored by the American Evaluation Association (AEA) dedicated to highlighting Hot Tips, Cool Tricks, Rad Resources, and Lessons Learned for evaluators. The American Evaluation Association is an international professional association of evaluators devoted to the application and exploration of program evaluation, personnel evaluation, technology, and many other forms of evaluation. Evaluation involves assessing the strengths and weaknesses of programs, policies, personnel, products, and organizations to improve their effectiveness.

This blog post was posted to AEA365 during a week of posts featuring the team at the University of Massachusetts Medical School that helped to evaluate the Massachusetts Patient-Centered Medical Home Initiative.

MA PCMH Eval Week: Valerie Konar on Getting Evaluation Results through Project Management

Fri, 01/10/2014 - 2:48pm

Blog post to AEA365, a blog sponsored by the American Evaluation Association (AEA) dedicated to highlighting Hot Tips, Cool Tricks, Rad Resources, and Lessons Learned for evaluators. The American Evaluation Association is an international professional association of evaluators devoted to the application and exploration of program evaluation, personnel evaluation, technology, and many other forms of evaluation. Evaluation involves assessing the strengths and weaknesses of programs, policies, personnel, products, and organizations to improve their effectiveness.

This blog post was posted to AEA365 during a week of posts featuring the team at the University of Massachusetts Medical School that helped to evaluate the Massachusetts Patient-Centered Medical Home Initiative.

MA PCMH Eval Week: Ann Lawthers, Sai Cherala, and Judy Steinberg on How You Define Success Influences Your Findings

Fri, 01/10/2014 - 2:43pm

Blog post to AEA365, a blog sponsored by the American Evaluation Association (AEA) dedicated to highlighting Hot Tips, Cool Tricks, Rad Resources, and Lessons Learned for evaluators. The American Evaluation Association is an international professional association of evaluators devoted to the application and exploration of program evaluation, personnel evaluation, technology, and many other forms of evaluation. Evaluation involves assessing the strengths and weaknesses of programs, policies, personnel, products, and organizations to improve their effectiveness.

This blog post was posted to AEA365 during a week of posts featuring the team at the University of Massachusetts Medical School that helped to evaluate the Massachusetts Patient-Centered Medical Home Initiative.