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Activin-like kinase 3 is important for kidney regeneration and reversal of fibrosis

Tue, 02/10/2015 - 9:11pm

Molecules associated with the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, such as bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and TGF-beta, are key regulators of inflammation, apoptosis and cellular transitions. Here we show that the BMP receptor activin-like kinase 3 (Alk3) is elevated early in diseased kidneys after injury. We also found that its deletion in the tubular epithelium leads to enhanced TGF-beta1-Smad family member 3 (Smad3) signaling, epithelial damage and fibrosis, suggesting a protective role for Alk3-mediated signaling in the kidney. A structure-function analysis of the BMP-Alk3-BMP receptor, type 2 (BMPR2) ligand-receptor complex, along with synthetic organic chemistry, led us to construct a library of small peptide agonists of BMP signaling that function through the Alk3 receptor. One such peptide agonist, THR-123, suppressed inflammation, apoptosis and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition program and reversed established fibrosis in five mouse models of acute and chronic renal injury. THR-123 acts specifically through Alk3 signaling, as mice with a targeted deletion for Alk3 in their tubular epithelium did not respond to therapy with THR-123. Combining THR-123 and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril had an additive therapeutic benefit in controlling renal fibrosis. Our studies show that BMP signaling agonists constitute a new line of therapeutic agents with potential utility in the clinic to induce regeneration, repair and reverse established fibrosis.

Radiolabeled Zn-DPA as a potential infection imaging agent

Tue, 02/10/2015 - 9:11pm

INTRODUCTION: A zinc-dipicolylamine analog (Zn-DPA) conjugated with a fluorophore (PSVue(R)794) has been shown to image bacterial infections in mice. However, radiolabeled Zn-DPA has not previously been considered for nuclear imaging of infection.

METHODS: Both 111In-labeled DOTA-biotin and Zn-DPA-biotin were combined using streptavidin (SA) as a noncovalent linker. Mice injected intramuscularly with Streptococcus pyogenes (infection model) or with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (inflammation model) were coinjected intravenously with 6 mug of DPA as PSVue794 and as 111In-DOTA-biotin/SA/biotin-Zn-DPA. Periodic fluorescent and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography)/CT (computed tomography) images were acquired, and biodistributions were obtained at 22 h.

RESULTS: Histological examination confirmed the validity of both the infection and inflammation animal models. Both the whole-body optical and nuclear images showed obvious accumulations in the target thigh in both models at all time points. At 22 h, the average target thigh accumulation of 111In was 1.66%ID/g (S.D. 0.15) in the infection mice compared to 0.58%ID/g (S.D. 0.07) in the inflammation mice (P < .01), and the 111In target/normal thigh ratio was 2.8 fold higher in the infection animals compared to the inflammation animals.

CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results show that Zn-DPA within streptavidin targets S. pyogenes-infected mice similarly to its free fluorescent analogue. The significantly higher accumulation in the live bacterial infection thigh compared to that of the LPS-induced inflammation thigh suggests that Zn-DPA may be a promising imaging agent to distinguish between bacterial infections and sterile inflammations.

Assessing antibody pharmacokinetics in mice with in vivo imaging

Tue, 02/10/2015 - 9:11pm

Recent advances in small-animal molecular imaging instrumentation combined with well characterized antibody-labeling chemistry have enabled detailed in vivo measurements of antibody distribution in mouse models. This article reviews the strengths and limitations of in vivo antibody imaging methods with a focus on positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography and a brief discussion of the role of optical imaging in this application. A description of the basic principles behind the imaging techniques is provided along with a discussion of radiolabeling methods relevant to antibodies. Practical considerations of study design and execution are presented through a discussion of sensitivity and resolution tradeoffs for these techniques as defined by modality, signaling probe (isotope or fluorophore) selection, labeling method, and radiation dosimetry. Images and analysis results from a case study are presented with a discussion of output data content and relevant informatics gained with this approach to studying antibody pharmacokinetics.

Comparison of 18F PET and 99mTc SPECT imaging in phantoms and in tumored mice

Tue, 02/10/2015 - 9:11pm

Our objective was to compare the performance of a micro-single photon emission computed tomography (micro-SPECT) with that of a micro-positron emission tomography (microPET) in a Her2+ tumored mice using an anti-Her2 nanoparticle radiolabeled with (99m)Tc and (18)F. Camera performance was first compared using phantoms; then a tumored mouse administered the (99m)Tc-nanoparticle was imaged on a Bioscan NanoSPECT/CT, while another tumored mouse received the identical nanoparticle, labeled now with (18)F, and was imaged on a Philips Mosaic HP PET camera. The nanoparticle was radiolabeled with (99m)Tc via MAG(3) chelation and with (18)F via SFB as an intermediate. Phantom imaging showed that the resolution of the SPECT camera was clearly superior, but even with 4 heads and multipinhole collimators, detection sensitivity was 15-fold lower. Radiolabeling of the nanoparticle by chelation with (99m)Tc was considerably easier and safer than manual covalent attachment of (18)F. Both cameras provided accurate quantitation of radioactivity over a broad range. In conclusion, when deciding between (99m)Tc vs (18)F, an advantage rests with the chelation of (99m)Tc over covalent attachment of (18)F, achieved manually or otherwise, but with these small animal cameras, this choice also results in trading lower sensitivity for higher resolution.

Auger-mediated cytotoxicity of cancer cells in culture by an 125I-antisense oligomer delivered as a three-component streptavidin nanoparticle

Tue, 02/10/2015 - 9:11pm

We reported recently that a three-component nanoparticle, consisting of a targeting antibody, a transfecting peptide and an 111In-antiRIalpha MORF antisense oligomer, provided Auger electron-mediated, antisense-mediated, cytotoxicity of cells in culture. We have now measured the cytotoxicity of the nanoparticle in culture with the 111In replaced by 125I, another attractive Auger electron emitter. The nanoparticle consisted of streptavidin linking the 125I labeled antiRIalpha mRNA antisense MORF oligomer, the tat transfecting peptide and the anti-Her2 Trastuzumab antibody. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by a clonogenic survival assay in BT-474 (Her2+) human breast cancer cells. In a dose escalation study, as measured by the surviving fraction, the cytotoxicity of tumor cells to the 125I-labeled antisense nanoparticle was significantly higher than that for the identical sense control. When compared with our previous study with 111In as label, a similar level of cytotoxicity was achieved but the observed minimal therapeutic dose for the 125I-labeled nanoparticle in BT-474 cells was lower than that for 111In-labeled nanoparticle in SK-BR-3 cells. Thus, a radiolabeled antisense MORF oligomer delivered into cells by a three-component nanoparticle is an effective vehicle for Auger radiotherapy when radiolabeled with 111In or 125I.

In vivo delivery of antisense MORF oligomer by MORF/carrier streptavidin nanoparticles

Tue, 02/10/2015 - 9:11pm

Tumor targeting by oligomers is largely limited by the pharmacokinetics and cell-membrane transport obstacles. In this article, we describe the use of a delivery nanoparticle, in which streptavidin served as a convenient bridge between a biotinylated oligomer and a biotinylated cell-membrane-penetrating peptide, to improve the delivery of an antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino (MORF) oligomer in vivo. A biotinylated (99m)Tc-radiolabeled MORF oligomer with a base sequence antisense to the RIalpha mRNA and its sense control were incorporated separately into nanoparticles, along with biotinylated tat or polyarginine carrier. The streptavidin nanoparticles were administrated intravenously to both normal and nude mice bearing SUM149 breast tumor xenografts. The biodistributions showed much higher normal tissue levels for the radiolabeled MORFs, independent of antisense or sense or tat or polyarginine, when administered as the nanoparticles, compared to naked. A statistically significant higher accumulation of both antisense nanoparticles, compared to the respective sense control nanoparticles, was observed, along with much higher tumor accumulations, compared to historical naked controls. This study has provided evidence that the in vivo function of an antisense oligomer within the streptavidin nanoparticle is not impeded, and, as such, the MORF/streptavidin/carrier nanoparticles may be suitable for in vivo tumor delivery of antisense MORF and other oligomers.

Tumor delivery of antisense oligomer using trastuzumab within a streptavidin nanoparticle

Tue, 02/10/2015 - 9:11pm

PURPOSE: Trastuzumab (Herceptin) is often internalized following binding to Her2+ tumor cells. The objective of this study was to investigate whether trastuzumab can be used as a specific carrier to deliver antisense oligomers into Her2+ tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo.

METHODS: A biotinylated MORF oligomer antisense to RhoC mRNA and its biotinylated sense control were labeled with either lissamine for fluorescence detection or 99mTc for radioactivity detection and were linked to biotinylated trastuzumab via streptavidin. The nanoparticles were studied in SUM190 (RhoC+, Her2+) study and SUM149 (RhoC+, Her2-) control cells in culture and as xenografts in mice.

RESULTS: As evidence of unimpaired Her2+ binding of trastuzumab within the nanoparticle, accumulations were clearly higher in SUM190 compared to SUM149 cells and, by whole-body imaging, targeting of SUM190 tumor was similar to that expected for a radiolabeled trastuzumab. As evidence of internalization, fluorescence microscopy images of cells grown in culture and obtained from xenografts showed uniform cytoplasm distribution of the lissamine-MORF. An invasion assay showed decreased RhoC expression in SUM190 cells when incubated with the antisense MORF nanoparticles at only 100 nM.

CONCLUSION: Both in cell culture and in animals, the nanoparticle with trastuzumab as specific carrier greatly improved tumor delivery of the antisense oligomer against RhoC mRNA into tumor cells overexpressing Her2 and may be of general utility.

Auger radiation-induced, antisense-mediated cytotoxicity of tumor cells using a 3-component streptavidin-delivery nanoparticle with 111In

Tue, 02/10/2015 - 9:11pm

When antisense oligomers are intracellular, they migrate to and are retained in the nucleus of tumor cells and therefore may be used to carry Auger electron-emitting radionuclides such as (111)In for effective tumor radiotherapy.

METHODS: Our nanoparticle consists of streptavidin that links 3 biotinylated components: the antiHer2 antibody trastuzumab (to improve pharmacokinetics), the tat peptide (to improve cell membrane transport), and the (111)In-labeled antiRIalpha messenger RNA antisense morpholino (MORF) oligomer.

RESULTS: As evidence of unimpaired function, tumor cell and nuclear accumulations were orders of magnitude higher after incubation with (99m)Tc-MORF/tat/trastuzumab than after incubation with free (99m)Tc-MORF and significantly higher with the antisense than with the sense MORF. In mice, tumor and normal-tissue accumulations of the (99m)Tc-MORF/tat/trastuzumab nanoparticle were comparable to those of free (99m)Tc-trastuzumab, confirming the improved pharmacokinetics due to the trastuzumab component. Although kidneys, liver, and other normal tissues also accumulated the nanoparticle, immunohistochemical evaluation of tissue sections in mice receiving the Cy3-MORF/tat/trastuzumab nanoparticle showed evidence of nuclear accumulation only in tumor tissue. In a dose escalation study, as measured by the surviving fraction, the nanoparticle significantly increased the kill of SK-BR-3 breast cancer Her2+/RIalpha+ cells, compared with all controls.

CONCLUSION: Significant radiation-induced antisense-mediated cytotoxicity of tumor cells in vitro was achieved using an Auger electron-emitting antisense MORF oligomer administered as a member of a 3-component streptavidin-delivery nanoparticle.

Community health worker interventions for Latinos with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

Tue, 02/10/2015 - 4:28pm

This systematic review aimed to synthesize glucose (HbA1c) outcomes of community health worker (CHW)-delivered interventions for Latinos with type 2 diabetes that were tested in randomized controlled trials and to summarize characteristics of the targeted populations and interventions, including the background, training, and supervision of the CHWs. Searches of PubMed and Google Scholar databases and references from selected articles identified 12 studies that met the inclusion criteria. Of these, seven reported statistically significant improvements in HbA1c. Study participants were largely low-income, female, and Spanish-speaking and had uncontrolled diabetes. The CHWs led the interventions alone, in pairs, or as part of a team. Interventions varied considerably in session time, duration, and number. Most met standards for tailored, high-intensity interventions and half were theory-based. Overall, methodological quality was good but there were inconsistencies in the reporting of key information. Future research should report in greater detail CHW background, training, and supervision; examine factors associated with intervention effectiveness; and provide data on cost and cost-effectiveness.

Medical school curriculum characteristics associated with intentions and frequency of tobacco dependence treatment among 3rd year U.S. medical students

Tue, 02/10/2015 - 3:30pm

OBJECTIVE: Physicians play a critical role in addressing tobacco dependence, yet report limited training. Tobacco dependence treatment curricula for medical students could improve performance in this area. This study identified student and medical school tobacco treatment curricula characteristics associated with intentions and use of the 5As for tobacco treatment among 3rd year U.S. medical students.

METHODS: Third year medical students (N = 1065, 49.3% male) from 10 U.S. medical schools completed a survey in 2009-2010 assessing student characteristics, including demographics, tobacco treatment knowledge, and self-efficacy. Tobacco curricula characteristics assessed included amount and type of classroom instruction, frequency of tobacco treatment observation, instruction, and perception of preceptors as role models.

RESULTS: Greater tobacco treatment knowledge, self-efficacy, and curriculum-specific variables were associated with 5A intentions, while younger age, tobacco treatment self-efficacy, intentions, and each curriculum-specific variable were associated with greater 5A behaviors. When controlling for important student variables, greater frequency of receiving 5A instruction (OR = 1.07; 95%CI 1.01-1.12) and perception of preceptors as excellent role models in tobacco treatment (OR = 1.35; 95%CI 1.04-1.75) were significant curriculum predictors of 5A intentions. Greater 5A instruction (B = .06 (.03); p< .05) and observation of tobacco treatment (B = .35 (.02); p< .001) were significant curriculum predictors of greater 5A behaviors.

CONCLUSIONS: Greater exposure to tobacco treatment teaching during medical school is associated with both greater intentions to use and practice tobacco 5As. Clerkship preceptors, or those physicians who provide training to medical students, may be particularly influential when they personally model and instruct students in tobacco dependence treatment.

Evaluating and selecting mobile health apps: strategies for healthcare providers and healthcare organizations

Tue, 02/10/2015 - 3:30pm

Mobile applications (apps) to improve health are proliferating, but before healthcare providers or organizations can recommend an app to the patients they serve, they need to be confident the app will be user-friendly and helpful for the target disease or behavior. This paper summarizes seven strategies for evaluating and selecting health-related apps: (1) Review the scientific literature, (2) Search app clearinghouse websites, (3) Search app stores, (4) Review app descriptions, user ratings, and reviews, (5) Conduct a social media query within professional and, if available, patient networks, (6) Pilot the apps, and (7) Elicit feedback from patients. The paper concludes with an illustrative case example. Because of the enormous range of quality among apps, strategies for evaluating them will be necessary for adoption to occur in a way that aligns with core values in healthcare, such as the Hippocratic principles of nonmaleficence and beneficence.

Tobacco Use, Quitting Behavior, and Health Characteristics Among Current Electronic Cigarette Users in a National Tri-Ethnic Adult Stable Smoker Sample

Tue, 02/10/2015 - 3:30pm

INTRODUCTION: The present study characterizes the tobacco use, quitting behaviors, and health characteristics of cigarette smokers who did not change their smoking pattern over the past 6 months and have used electronic cigarettes (ECs) in the past 30 days. This is an important subpopulation to characterize if EC dual use with cigarettes continues to grow.

METHODS: Participants (N = 2,376) from a research survey panel completed an online cross-sectional survey between June and August 2012. Sampling was stratified to recruit equal numbers of cigarette smoking participants by race/ethnicity (Black, Hispanic, and Caucasian) and smoking frequency (nondaily and daily). All displayed a stable rate of smoking for the past 6 months and were not currently in treatment. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine correlates of current EC use (any use within the past 30 days).

RESULTS: Current EC use was reported by 9.2% (n = 219) of the total sample. Of current EC users, 44% reported having used ECs as a quit method. Bivariate and multivariate analyses showed that current EC use was significantly associated with greater nicotine dependence, concurrent poly-tobacco use, more past-year quit attempts, past use of multiple cessation methods, and more depressive symptoms. No demographic variables were significantly associated with current EC use.

CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that stable smokers who currently use ECs possess characteristics that are associated with difficulty in achieving smoking cessation. These characteristics should be considered when examining the effectiveness of ECs on cessation and in designing future cessation trials using ECs. Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved.

Real-Time Mobile Detection of Drug Use with Wearable Biosensors: A Pilot Study

Tue, 02/10/2015 - 3:30pm

While reliable detection of illicit drug use is paramount to the field of addiction, current methods involving self-report and urine drug screens have substantial limitations that hinder their utility. Wearable biosensors may fill a void by providing valuable objective data regarding the timing and contexts of drug use. This is a preliminary observational study of four emergency department patients receiving parenteral opioids and one individual using cocaine in a natural environment. A portable biosensor was placed on the inner wrist of each subject, to continuously measure electrodermal activity (EDA), skin temperature, and acceleration. Data were continuously recorded for at least 5 min prior to drug administration, during administration, and for at least 30 min afterward. Overall trends in biophysiometric parameters were assessed. Injection of opioids and cocaine use were associated with rises in EDA. Cocaine injection was also associated with a decrease in skin temperature. Opioid tolerance appeared to be associated with a blunted physiologic response as measured by the biosensor. Laterality may be an important factor, as magnitude of response varied between dominant and nondominant wrists in a single patient with bilateral wrist measurements. Changes in EDA and skin temperature are temporally associated with intravenous administration of opioids and cocaine; the intensity of response, however, may vary depending on history and extent of prior use.

A research agenda for gender and substance use disorders in the emergency department

Tue, 02/10/2015 - 3:30pm

For many years, gender differences have been recognized as important factors in the etiology, pathophysiology, comorbidities, and treatment needs and outcomes associated with the use of alcohol, drugs, and tobacco. However, little is known about how these gender-specific differences affect ED utilization; responses to ED-based interventions; needs for substance use treatment and barriers to accessing care among patients in the ED; or outcomes after an alcohol-, drug-, or tobacco-related visit. As part of the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference on "Gender-Specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," a breakout group convened to generate a research agenda on priority questions related to substance use disorders.

Profiles of acute cytokine and antibody responses in patients infected with avian influenza A H7N9

Mon, 02/09/2015 - 9:00pm

The influenza A H7N9 virus outbreak in Eastern China in the spring of 2013 represented a novel, emerging avian influenza transmission to humans. While clinical and microbiological features of H7N9 infection have been reported in the literature, the current study investigated acute cytokine and antibody responses in acute H7N9 infection. Between March 27, 2013 and April 23, 2013, six patients with confirmed H7N9 influenza infection were admitted to Drum Tower Hospital, Nanjing, China. Acute phase serum cytokine profiles were determined using a high-throughput multiplex assay. Daily H7 hemagglutinin (HA)-specific IgG, IgM, and IgA responses were monitored by ELISA. Neutralizing antibodies specific for H7N9 viruses were determined against a pseudotyped virus expressing the novel H7 subtype HA antigen. Five cytokines (IL-6, IP-10, IL-10, IFNgamma, and TNFalpha) were significantly elevated in H7N9-infected patients when compared to healthy volunteers. Serum H7 HA-specific IgG, as well as IgM and IgA responses, were detected within 8 days of disease onset and increased in a similar pattern during acute infection. Neutralizing antibodies developed shortly after the appearance of binding antibody responses and showed similar kinetics as a fraction of the total H7 HA-specific IgG responses. H7N9 infection resulted in hallmark serum cytokine increases, which correlated with fever and disease persistence. The novel finding of simultaneous development of IgG, IgM, and IgA responses in acute H7N9 infection points to the potential for live influenza viruses to elicit fast and potent protective antibodies to limit the infection.

Evaluation of the contribution of multiple DAMPs and DAMP receptors in cell death-induced sterile inflammatory responses

Mon, 02/09/2015 - 9:00pm

When cells die by necrosis in vivo they stimulate an inflammatory response. It is thought that this response is triggered when the injured cells expose proinflammatory molecules, collectively referred to as damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which are recognized by cells or soluble molecules of the innate or adaptive immune system. Several putative DAMPs and/or their receptors have been identified, but whether and how much they participate in responses in vivo is incompletely understood, and they have not previously been compared side-by-side in the same models. This study focuses on evaluating the contribution of multiple mechanisms that have been proposed to or potentially could participate in cell death-induced inflammation: The third component of complement (C3), ATP (and its receptor P2X7), antibodies, the C-type lectin receptor Mincle (Clec4e), and protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). We investigate the role of these factors in cell death-induced inflammation to dead cells in the peritoneum and acetaminophen-induced liver damage. We find that mice deficient in antibody, C3 or PAR2 have impaired inflammatory responses to dying cells. In contrast there was no reduction in inflammation to cell death in the peritoneum or liver of mice that genetically lack Mincle, the P2X7 receptor or that were treated with apyrase to deplete ATP. These results indicate that antibody, complement and PAR2 contribute to cell death-induced inflammation but that Mincle and ATP- P2X7 receptor are not required for this response in at least 2 different in vivo models.

Evaluation of naturally acquired IgG antibodies to a chimeric and non-chimeric recombinant species of Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding protein-1: lack of association with HLA-DRB1*/DQB1* in malaria exposed individuals from the Brazilian Amazon

Mon, 02/09/2015 - 9:00pm

The development of modular constructs that include antigenic regions targeted by protective immune responses is an attractive approach for subunit vaccine development. However, a main concern of using these vaccine platforms is how to preserve the antigenic identity of conformational B cell epitopes. In the present study we evaluated naturally acquired antibody responses to a chimeric protein engineered to contain a previously defined immunodominant domain of the Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding protein-1 located between amino acid positions K435-I777. The construct also includes three regions of the cognate protein (F571-D587, I1745-S1786 and L2235-E2263) predicted to contain MHC class II promiscuous T cell epitopes. Plasma samples from 253 naturally exposed individuals were tested against this chimeric protein named PvRMC-RBP1 and a control protein that includes the native sequence PvRBP123-751 in comparative experiments to study the frequency of total IgG and IgG subclass reactivity. HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 allelic groups were typed by PCR-SSO to evaluate the association between major HLA class II alleles and antibody responses. We found IgG antibodies that recognized the chimeric PvRMC-RBP1 and the PvRBP123-751 in 47.1% and 60% of the studied population, respectively. Moreover, the reactivity index against both proteins were comparable and associated with time of exposure (p < 0.0001) and number of previous malaria episodes (p < 0.005). IgG subclass profile showed a predominance of cytophilic IgG1 over other subclasses against both proteins tested. Collectively these studies suggest that the chimeric PvRMC-RBP1 protein retained antigenic determinants in the PvRBP1435-777 native sequence. Although 52.9% of the population did not present detectable titers of antibodies to PvRMC-RBP1, genetic restriction to this chimeric protein does not seem to occur, since no association was observed between the HLA-DRB1* or HLA-DQB1* alleles and the antibody responses. This experimental evidence strongly suggests that the identity of the conformational B cell epitopes is preserved in the chimeric protein.

CX3CL1 (fractalkine) protein expression in normal and degenerating mouse retina: in vivo studies

Mon, 02/09/2015 - 9:00pm

We aimed to investigate fractalkine (CX3CL1) protein expression in wild type (wt) retina and its alterations during retinal degeneration in mouse model (rd10) of retinitis pigmentosa. Forms of retinal protein CX3CL1, total protein and mRNA levels of CX3CL1 were analyzed at postnatal days (P) 5, 10, 14, 22, 30, 45, and 60 by Western blotting and real-time PCR. Cellular sources of CX3CL1 were investigated by in situ hybridization histochemistry (ISH) and using transgenic (CX3CL1cherry) mice. The immunoblots revealed that in both, wt and rd10 retinas, a membrane integrated approximately 100 kDa CX3CL1 form and a cleaved approximately 85 kDa CX3CL1 form were present at P5. At P10, accumulation of another presumably intra-neuronal approximately 95 kDa form and a decrease in the approximately 85-kDa form were observed. From P14, a approximately 95 kDa form became principal in wt retina, while in rd10 retinas a soluble approximately 85 kDa form increased at P45 and P60. In comparison, retinas of rd10 mice had significantly lower levels of total CX3CL1 protein (from P10 onwards) and lower CX3CL1 mRNA levels (from P14), even before the onset of primary rod degeneration. ISH and mCherry reporter fluorescence showed neurons in the inner retina layers as principal sites of CX3CL1 synthesis both in wt and rd10 retinas. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that CX3CL1 has a distinctive course of expression and functional regulation in rd10 retina starting at P10. The biological activity of CX3CL1 is regulated by conversion of a membrane integrated to a soluble form during neurogenesis and in response to pathologic changes in the adult retinal milieu. Viable mature neurons in the inner retina likely exhibit a dynamic intracellular storage depot of CX3CL1.

IL-1 signaling in obesity-induced hepatic lipogenesis and steatosis

Mon, 02/09/2015 - 9:00pm

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is prevalent in human obesity and type 2 diabetes, and is characterized by increases in both hepatic triglyceride accumulation (denoted as steatosis) and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta. We report here that the development of hepatic steatosis requires IL-1 signaling, which upregulates Fatty acid synthase to promote hepatic lipogenesis. Using clodronate liposomes to selectively deplete liver Kupffer cells in ob/ob mice, we observed remarkable amelioration of obesity-induced hepatic steatosis and reductions in liver weight, triglyceride content and lipogenic enzyme expressions. Similar results were obtained with diet-induced obese mice, although visceral adipose tissue macrophage depletion also occurred in response to clodronate liposomes in this model. There were no differences in the food intake, whole body metabolic parameters, serum beta-hydroxybutyrate levels or lipid profiles due to clodronate-treatment, but hepatic cytokine gene expressions including IL-1beta were decreased. Conversely, treatment of primary mouse hepatocytes with IL-1beta significantly increased triglyceride accumulation and Fatty acid synthase expression. Furthermore, the administration of IL-1 receptor antagonist to obese mice markedly reduced obesity-induced steatosis and hepatic lipogenic gene expression. Collectively, our findings suggest that IL-1beta signaling upregulates hepatic lipogenesis in obesity, and is essential for the induction of pathogenic hepatic steatosis in obese mice.

Prevalence of comorbidities and their impact on hospital management and short-term outcomes in Vietnamese patients hospitalized with a first acute myocardial infarction

Mon, 02/09/2015 - 9:00pm

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Vietnam. We conducted a pilot study of Hanoi residents hospitalized with a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI) at the Vietnam National Heart Institute in Hanoi for purposes of describing the prevalence of cardiovascular (CVD) and non-CVD comorbidities and their impact on hospital management, in-hospital clinical complications, and short-term mortality in these patients.

METHODS: The study population consisted of 302 Hanoi residents hospitalized with a first AMI at the largest tertiary care medical center in Hanoi in 2010.

RESULTS: The average age of study patients was 66 years and one third were women. The proportions of patients with none, any 1, and 2 or more CVD comorbidities were 34%, 42%, and 24%, respectively. Among the CVD comorbidities, hypertension was the most commonly reported (59%). There were decreasing trends in the proportion of patients who were treated with effective cardiac medications and coronary interventions as the number of CVD comorbidities increased. Patients with multiple CVD comorbidities tended to develop acute clinical complications and die at higher rates during hospitalization compared with patients with no CVD comorbidities (Odds Ratio: 1.40; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.40-4.84).

CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that patients with multiple cardiac comorbidities tended to experience high in-hospital death rates in the setting of AMI. Full-scale surveillance of Hanoi residents hospitalized with AMI at all Hanoi hospitals is needed to confirm these findings. Effective strategies to manage Vietnamese patients hospitalized with AMI who have multiple comorbidities are warranted to improve their short-term prognosis.